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Uniform civil code (UCC) essay in english

Uniform civil code (UCC) essay in english 250 words :

Introduction : 

Uniform Civil Code is a proposal to have common set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion of people. It means that all the citizen of India will be govern by the same set of secular civil laws in matters of marriage, divorce, maintenance, adoption, inheritance etc. There shall be one law for all civil matters whether they are Hindu or Muslims. Article 44 of the constitution itself says that the state shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India.

  • There should be no discrimination on the basis of their civil laws and everyone has to follow the Uniform Civil Code. 
  • It is an irony that a Hindu woman enjoy the complete right of being the single soulmate of her husband, Muslim women on the other hand don’t have this privilege.
  • They can get divorce very easily by uttering the word “Talaq” thrice to their wife. In Shah Bano Case (1985) a very poor Muslim women claimed maintenance after she was divorced. 
  • The Parliament passed the Muslim Women’s (Protection of Rights in Divorce) Act,1986 which nullified the decision of SC passed in Shah Bano’s case.

Conclusion :

It will pave the way for national integration and secularism. It will also promote gender equality, welfare of women and justice. It will simplify the cumbersome legal matters governed by personal laws. One must understand that Uniform Civil Code is not a weapon directed against any particular community. It is simply a code that puts all the citizens of India irrespective of their caste, religion or gender under one umbrella.

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Long Essay on Uniform civil code essay in english

Introduction :

Uniform Civil Code is a proposal to have common set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion of people. It means that all the citizen of India will be govern by the same set of secular civil laws in matters of marriage, divorce, maintenance, adoption, inheritance etc. There shall be one law for all civil matters whether they are Hindu or Muslims. Article 44 of the constitution itself says that the state shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India. 

There should be no discrimination on the basis of their civil laws and everyone has to follow the Uniform Civil Code. 

It is an irony that a Hindu woman enjoy the complete right of being the single soulmate of her husband, Muslim women on the other hand don’t have this privilege.

They can get divorce very easily by uttering the word “Talaq” thrice to their wife. In Shah Bano Case (1985) a very poor Muslim women claimed maintenance after she was divorced. 

The Parliament passed the Muslim Women’s (Protection of Rights in Divorce) Act,1986 which nullified the decision of SC passed in Shah Bano’s case.

Conclusion :

It will pave the way for national integration and secularism. It will also promote gender equality, welfare of women and justice. It will simplify the cumbersome legal matters governed by personal laws. One must understand that Uniform Civil Code is not a weapon directed against any particular community. It is simply a code that puts all the citizens of India irrespective of their caste, religion or gender under one umbrella.

Important Facts about UCC 

  • The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India proposes to replace the personal laws  of each major religious community in the country with a common rules for every citizen.
  • The constitution has a provision for Uniform Civil Code in Article 44 as a Directive Principle of State Policy which tells that “The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.”
  • A secular democratic republic like India should have a common civil and personal laws for its citizens irrespective of their religion, class, caste, gender etc.
  • It is generally seen that personal laws of almost all religions are discriminatory towards women. Men are usually granted upper preferential status in matters of succession and inheritance. Uniform civil code will bring both men and women at par.
  • All Indian citizens are equal before the law as the criminal laws and other civil laws (except personal laws) are same for all. With the implementation of Uniform Civil Code, all citizen will share the same set of personal laws.

Cons of Uniform Civil Code (UCC)

  • It is pragmatically tough to come up with a uniform set of rules for personal issues like marriage due to tremendous cultural diversity India across the religions, sects, castes, states 
  • Many communities, particularly minority communities perceive Uniform Civil Code as an encroachment on their rights to religious freedom. 
  • The constitution provides for the right to freedom of religion of one’s choice. With codification of uniform rules and its compulsion, the scope of the freedom of religion will be reduced.
  • The government should be sensitive and unbiased at each step while dealing with the majority and minority communities. Otherwise, it might turn out to be more disastrous in a form of communal violence.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Issues & Challenges to India

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought” is a prominent statement of SC judge AM Kennedy. The constitution of India guarantees everyone the freedom of speech irrespective of caste, creed, gender or religion. Freedom of speech allows the people to express themselves, and share their views and opinions. As a result, the public and the media can comment on any political activity and also express their dissent towards anything that they think is not appropriate.

  • Different countries have different restrictions on their freedom of speech. Some countries do not allow this fundamental right at all for example North Korea.
  • There, the media or the public are not allowed to speak against the government. It is a punishable offence to criticize the government or the political parties there.
  • The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian democracy.
  • Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of democracy.
  • The freedom of speech of a country can apparently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country. A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democratic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent or criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This can be very dangerous for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking.
  • All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice. A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy.
  • But a bad one will blindside its critics and makes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens. At the same time, freedom of speech can’t be absolute.
  • No one can cause violence, hatred and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

The government should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people. That’s why the constitution mentions in Article 19 (2), the conditions under which the Freedom of speech can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the socially accepted norms and put the dignity of the state at stake.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Issues & Challenges

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought.” — SC judge Anthony M .Kennedy. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian constitution guarantees the citizens of the India , the right to freedom of speech and expression. There are some facets of Freedom of speech and expressions (FOSE). Some of these are freedom of press, commercial advertisements, government has no monopoly over Electronic media, Right to information and Publishing one’s opinions on digital society etc.

Why FOSE sometimes is considered as challenge to Public order?

Public order is defined as a state of prevailing of peace and tranquility in the society any act that affects the law and order or may lead to disturbance of harmony of society is considered as an issue in the interest of public order.

What did make the FOSE a buzz word recently?

– Supreme court of India upheld the petition that challenged the Internet shutdown in many places like Uttarpradesh, Assam specifically in Jammu and Kashmir in 2019 and 2020 after the promulgation of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.
– High court of Tripura also supported the freedom of expression of public officers on social media platforms.
– Power of the day again and again used sedition charges those who criticized the policies of government publically.

Challenges to India because of FOSE?

 In the scope of Security of the state any act that aggravate or encourage commission of violent crimes is considered as a violation of Indian penal code(IPC).
 Under Foreign Relation Act (FRA), 1932 any malicious propaganda that has intention to vitiate friendly relation with other nation is punishable , this does not include the country namely Pakistan.
 Though it is not clearly elaborated in IPC any speech that jeopardize the decency and morality is regarded as punishable offence.

Conclusion :

Unrestricted allegations against government of the day is spreading like a wild fire which needs continuous scrutiny and at the same time maintaining constitutional rights of the issues in public interest. The same constitution mentions, namely Article 19 (2), conditions under which the FOSE can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the barriers of socially well accepted norms and that put the dignity and reputation of the state at a stake. It would augur well if we use the rights within the perimeter put by Indian constitution with well sate of mind and discretion.

Long essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

India constitution guarantees every Indian the freedom of speech  irrespective of gender (sex), caste, creed or religion. This is a fundamental freedom which is guaranteed and that defines the values of democracy in any nation. The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions & thoughts and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian democracy. Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of our democracy.

  • The kind of freedom of speech we find in many democratic countries like UK, USA, France or Germany is not seen in authoritarian governments like Malayasia, China or Syria and is failed democracies Pakisthan or Rwanda.
  • These governance systems are failed due to lack of freedom of speech in their countries. The freedom of speech of a country can apparently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country.
  • A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democratic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly some governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent of criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This is a dangerous precedent for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can rest assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking and the same way of opinion on a given topic.
  • The difference of opinions and respect we have for each other in a policy-making body is what makes us a true democracy. All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice.
  • A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy but a bad one will blindside its critics and takes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens.
  • The sedition law, under section 124A of Indian Penal Code, says that if a person by words either by written or spoken brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or a person can be fined or jailed or both.
  • This law is never used in its spirit. British used to use this law to silence the freedom fighters of India and now the ruling parties of India use this to stifle the dissenters and is harming the democratic values of the country.
  • Inspite of various laws that protect the people of India in rightly fully exercising their freedom of expression in India. But while the laws stay, its implementation that are proving to be a big challenge for the authorities in India.
  • At the same time, freedom of speech and expression can’t be absolute. No one can cause violence, hatred, bigotry and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech.
  • This will harm the very reason why freedom of speech is allowed in the first place. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

When article 370 was abrogated in Kashmir, freedom of speech was stifled, not because the government wanted to stifle democratic values but to prevent the spread of fake news, put a curb on terrorism and any sorts of preventing communal tensions in the area. Governments around the world should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people.

Abrogation of Article 370 and 35a

Introduction :

The article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After passing a statutory resolution on scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 was abrogated by Indian Government on 5th August 2019 and Rajya Sabha had passed a Reorganization Bill 2019 which had effectively bifurcated the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

  • As per the Article 370, the provisions of the constitution which apply to other states do not apply to Jammu and Kashmir until and unless the state legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmir separately passes such provision except provisions related to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications.
  • The residents of the state of Jammu & Kashmir had a separate law and provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties & these were not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • After abrogation of article 370, Jammu and Kashmir is no longer enjoy special status and the laws of Indian Constitution are applicable to all residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh including provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. 
  • Article 35A has been abrogated and now Indian tricolour is National Flag for J&K and Ladhak also. Right to Information and Right to Education are now applicable to J&K & Ladhak union territories.
  • The Panchayats are now enjoying the same powers as in other states. With abrogation of Article 370, tenure of J&K state Assembly is now be of five years as in other parts of state which till now had a special status with a 6-year tenure.
  • The Union Territories (UTs) now have a Chief Minister and a Lt Governor and all financial bills will need to cleared by Lt Governor.
  • Indian Penal Code (IPC) had replaced Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) to deal with criminal matters. With addition of two new UTs, total number of union territories are now 8 i.e. J&K, Ladakh, Delhi, Puducherry, Diu and Daman & Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Conclusion :

Post the repeal of the Article 370, doors to private investment in J&K are opened, which helps in increasing the potential for development there. Increased investments also leads to increased job creation and further betterment of socio-economic infrastructure in the state. The Government is now able to provide better medical, education facilities to citizens of J&K and have better position to curb terrorism. The Opening of buying of lands bring in investments from private individuals and multinational companies and also give a boost to the local economy.

National Register of Citizens (NRC) Issues in India

Introduction :

The National Register of Citizens (NRC), is the list of Indian citizens in Assam. National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses in a serial order and indicating names of persons staying therein. It is being updated to weed out illegal immigration from Bangladesh and neighbouring regions.

  • Recently Assam released the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which included 1.9 crore names out of a total applicant pool of 3.29 crore.
  • The political leaders have assured that everyone will be given a fair and patient hearing to prove their citizenship.
  • The Supreme Court recently issued a notice to the centre and the Election Commission of India on a plea seeking that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) be updated to include Tripura.
  • The final draft of the NRC in Assam was released, excluding four million residents of the state.
  • An updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
  • It will provide a verified dataset to carry out meaningful debates and implement calibrated policy measures.
  • Though the draft provides a window for re-verification, due to large number of people being excluded from the list, it will be very difficult to physically verify all of them.
  • This draft of the NRC is however not final and people can still appeal against the non-inclusion of their names in the NRC.

Conclusion :

Several religious and linguistic minority groups are also opposing the NRC as discriminatory and undemocratic. The main purpose of NRC is to separate illegal immigrants from legitimate residents of Assam.  The immediate consequence of it is that several lakh individuals will lose their right to vote. The claims of those left out in the NRC must be heard carefully. There is a need for a robust mechanism of legal support for the four million who have to prove their citizenship to India with their limited means.

Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Cultural Diversity In India in english 

Introduction :

Indian culture is diverse and consist of various customs, ideas and social beliefs. India has different cultures and communities that differ in their food habits, cloths, languages, and traditions. It is the oldest and famous among the other cultures of the world. Indian literature is also a combination of various communities, traditions, customs, and religions. The diversity of Indian culture is well known worldwide. Cultural diversity is also seen in Indian Philosophy, art, music, and even Literature.

  • India is a global hub of multi-cultural and multi-traditional festivals like Dussehra, Holi, Diwali, Christmas, Ramazan, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ganesh Chaturthi etc.
  • Each Indian festival tells its own cultural and national tale and is celebrated with different customs & traditions.
  • In India three National festivals are also celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm, these are the Republic Day, Independence Day, and Gandhi Jayanti.
  • In India, God lives in the heart of every person. Indians hold different prayers, beliefs, and values. In the Hindu tradition, everyone worships and respects Cows, Neem tree, Banyan tree, and Peepal tree.
  • In India rivers are also worshiped and have great religious significance and sentiments. Rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna Godavari, Bramhaputra, Narmada, and Tapti occasionally worshiped in India.
  • The Joint family system is the prevailing system in India. In most cases, the family members consist of parents, children, children’s spouses, and offspring.
  • All of these family members live together under a single roof and the eldest male member is the head of the family.
  • Arranged marriages are also a part of Indian culture. Most Indians have their marriages planned by their parents. In almost all marriages in India, the bride’s family gives dowry to bridegroom.
  • Weddings are certainly festive occasions in Indian culture. There is involvement of decorations, clothing, music, dance, rituals in Indian weddings.
  • India is a home of many sacred and religious places like the Amarnath temple, Badrinath, Haridwar, Vaishno Devi and Varanasi, which are located in the northern part of the country.
  • However, in the southern region, Rameshwaram temple and Sabrimala temple have great significance. India celebrates a huge number of festivals.

Conclusion :

These festivals are very diverse because of multi-religious and multi-cultural societies in India. Indians greatly value festive occasions and the whole country joins in the celebrations irrespective of the differences. Thus, we can say that India is filled with traditions and modern culture. People have the freedom to practice any religion they want. This is why Indian culture is widespread across the world.

Responsibilities of a good citizen 

Introduction :

We are the citizen of India and have acquired citizenship by virtue of our birth. Being a good citizen requires a lot of training and efforts as every citizen has some duties and certain rights. We also have a right to take part in judicial, legal, political, religious and social affairs of the country. “Citizenship consists in the service of the country.” said by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, this line explains that citizenship consists not merely in enjoying certain rights but also in discharging our duties towards the nation.   

  • A good citizen is always broad minded and ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of his country. He must love his country and also have firm and deep faith in laws of the land.
  • He must consider himself as an Indian first and anything else afterwards. He is ready even to shed his blood for the honour of his country.
  • A good citizen also respects the cultural heritage, the heroes, the sages and saints of his country. He must respect the race to which he belongs. He also raises the standard of living of his country by working hard honestly.
  • But he must also keep in mind the welfare of the state, the benefit of society and interests of the nation.
  • At the time of foreign attacks, he must be ready to shed his blood and hence, defense of the country is the supreme duty of a good citizen.
  • A good citizen must live in peace and harmony with his fellow citizens. He must respect the institutions of his country. A good citizen respects the laws of the state and should have no patience with criminals and anti-social elements.
  • Unity of the nation should be his topmost priority and should work for the unity of the country. A good citizen should have a spirit of co-operation, friendliness and devotion towards his family and society.

Conclusion : 

He must respect other faiths. He must not do anything that brings disgrace to his society or to his country. He always makes an effort to bring about desirable improvements in the existing educational and other institutions of his country. In this way, a good citizen always thinks about the welfare of the society and his country first.

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Responsibility of a good citizen in points – 

  • Be active in your community.
  • Be honest and trustworthy.
  • Follow rules and laws of the country.
  • Respect the rights of other citizens.
  • Be informed about the world around you.
  • Respect the property of other people.
  • Be compassionate and eagar to learn.
  • Take responsibility for your actions.
  • Be a good neighbor and fellow citizen.
  • Protect the environment & wildlife

Life in Covid-19 Pandemic

Introduction :

COVID-19 has affected our day to day life. This pandemic has affected thousands of peoples, who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems. This, being a new viral disease affecting people for the first time, vaccines are being available now but still, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as extensive hygiene, regularly washing of hands, avoidance of face to face interaction, social distancing, and wearing of masks etc.

  • Identification of the disease at an early stage is vital to control the spread of the virus because it very rapidly spreads from person to person.
  • Most of the countries have slowed down their manufacturing of the products. The pandemic has been affecting the entire food system.
  • Trade restrictions and confinement measures have been preventing farmers from accessing markets, including for buying inputs and selling their produce, and agricultural workers from harvesting crops, thus disrupting domestic and international food supply chains and reducing access to healthy, safe and diverse diets.
  • The pandemic has impacted jobs and placed millions of livelihoods at risk. As common man lose jobs, fall ill and die, the food security and nutrition of millions of women and men are under threat, with those in low-income countries, particularly the most marginalized populations, which include small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples, being hardest hit.
  • The various industries and sectors are affected by the cause of this disease including the pharmaceuticals industry, power sector and tourism.
  • Millions of agricultural workers waged and self-employed, regularly face high levels of working poverty, malnutrition and poor health, and suffer from a lack of safety and labour protection.
  • With low and irregular incomes and lack of social support, many of them are forced to continue working, often in unsafe conditions, thus exposing themselves and their families to additional risks.
  • Further, when experiencing income losses, they may resort to negative coping strategies, such as distress sale of assets, taking loans or child labour.
  • Migrant agricultural workers are particularly vulnerable, because they face risks in their transport, working and living conditions and struggle to access support measures put in place by governments.
  • This virus creates drastic effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as on the global economy.
  • There are restrictions of travelling from one country to another country. During travelling, numbers of cases are identified positive when tested, especially when they are taking international visits.

Conclusion :

The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers, several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back.  Since then, the government has announced relief measures for migrants, and made arrangements to return to their native places. All governments, health organizations and other authorities are continuously focusing on identifying the cases affected by the COVID-19. Healthcare professional face lot of difficulties in maintaining the quality of healthcare in these days.

Importance of Youth in Society

Introduction :

Youth is considered as the greatest asset for a country as their intelligence and hard work will take the country on the path of success and prosperity. As every citizen has some responsibilities towards the nation, so the youth too. They are the building blocks of any nation. A youth is a person whose age is between 15 to 30 years without considering their gender. As the youth are the backbone of a society and hence they determine the future of any given society.

  • It is so, because of all other age groups like the kids, teenagers, middle aged and the senior citizens rely on the youth and they have a lot of expectations from them.
  • This makes the youth to be an important age group in today’s society and the future of society highly depends on them.
  • Due to high dependency on youth in society, we all have a very important role to play as the future of our families, communities and the country lies in our hands.
  • Youth can renew the current status of the society by their leadership, innovation and development skills.
  • Youth are expected to transform the current technology, education system and politics of the country.
  • They also have to maintain our rich cultural heritage and ethical values in the societies. This is why the development of a country requires active participation of the youth.  
  • It does not matter in which field we want to progress, either technical or sports, youth is required everywhere. Our youth must aware of their inner powers and the role they have to play in the society.
  • There are many ways in which we can help the youth of our country to achieve their true potential.
  • For that, the government must introduce programs that will help in fighting off issues like unemployment, poor education institutes and more to help them prosper without any hindrance.
  • Similarly, citizens must make sure to encourage our youth to do better in every field they want to excel.
  • When we constantly discourage our youth and don’t believe in them, they will lose their spark and start feeling dejected.

Conclusion :

We all must make sure that they should be given the wind beneath their wings to fly high instead of bringing them. We must make sure that everyone must be given equal chance to prove themselves worthy. The youth have a different outlook which the older generations don’t have. It is the responsibility of the youth to make our country rich and prosper.

Migrant Workers 

Introduction :

A migrant worker is a person who migrates within their home country or outside it for work. Migrant workers do not have the intention to stay permanently in the place where they work. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 24, has caused immense distress to migrant workers around the country. Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. Indian migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced multiple hardships.

  • With the closure of factories and workplaces due to the lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty. 
  • Thousands of them, began walking back home, with no means of transport due to the lockdown. In response, the Government took various measures to help them, and later arranged transport for them.
  • The major states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi and Kerala are trying to minimise the loss of labour and are prime states for ‘unlocking’ of economic activity.
  • According to the 2011 Census, there are 41 million interstate migrants in India who migrate to other states due to the lack of work opportunities in their home state.
  • Poorer, less educated, and from socially disadvantaged communities, survival draws these migrants to the cities. Meagre pay, extended working hours, and unsafe work conditions characterise their exploited labour.
  • Covid-19 renders most of them jobless in cities with crushing rents and no access to food or water. Without employment, city life is so burdensome that many risk returning to the safety of their villages, in some cases even at the cost of their lives. 
  • The disproportionate impact of state policy also breaches the right to equality under Article 14 of the Constitution and imposes a corresponding duty on the government to mitigate negative effects.
  • The government has also launched an employment scheme named ‘Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan’ implementing on a mission mode in 125 days in 116 districts of six states – Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • The scheme was launched after lakhs of migrant workers returned to their home states following loss of employment in urban areas due to the nationwide lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19.
  • In the long term, India should work towards reducing migrant workers’ vulnerability by amending labour laws.
  • Such amendments should align migrant workers’ conditions with other unorganised sector workers, while also developing norms for food security, repatriation and wage safety in times of emergency. 

Conclusion :

While emergency solutions are urgent, they must pave the way to address more fundamental issues in migrant worker-dominated sectors. The government has already announced schemes like ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ to enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country. But they also need cash for their day-to-day needs.

Reservation in India

Introduction :

Reservation in India is the process of setting aside a certain percentage of seats in government institutions for the members of backward and under-represented communities. Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Other Backward Classes (OBCs) are the primary beneficiaries of the reservation policies under the constitution. The Modi government has tabled in Lok Sabha the bill seeking 10 per cent reservation for poor among the upper castes.

  • The concept was enshrined in the Constitution to allow the so-called deprived classes to come at par with the so-called privileged ones.
  • Initially, the reservation policy was only for 10 years after the independence to uplift the socially and under-privileged to stabilize them economically.
  • It has killed the spirit of brotherhood and healthy competition. Unfortunately, today, we stand divided widely into Hindu, Muslim, SC, ST, OBC with newer reservations coming up from different sections of society like Christians, Jats, Pandits, Tribal etc.
  • Reservations with the view of helping the deprived classes to gain a better footing and avail equal benefits of an independent and free nation was introduced in the system.  
  • Yet, the various governments till now have failed to truly uplift the backward sections of the society. The need of the hour is to remove evil.
  • Making education mandatory and free for all till the age of 15 is one good resolution that has been adopted. Other could be proposing reservation based on economic status and providing opportunities to students to earn while they study.
  • Reservation should be restricted only to the first generation bene­ficiaries. The candidates whose parents have already availed reservation fa­cilities in securing a job should not be given the facility again.
  • Concession of scholarship may be provided to SC, ST and OBC stu­dents securing more than the specified percentage of marks in high school and graduate courses for getting quality education in good in­stitutions.

Conclusion :

All these measures will benefit those who really deserve help. The policy of reservation has to be scientific and rational. In the given economic and political structure, caste or birth or family should not determine one’s life chances. Reservation should not be forsaken because, everyone wants that society should develop as a whole and everyone should reap the benefits of development.

Traffic Rules & Safety Reforms 

Introduction :

Traffic rules and regulations are formulated to regulate traffic, for the safety and convenience. They are very essential to ensure safety on road as well as their users. Some rules are formulated for specific types of users for example it is mandatory to slow down while approaching a zebra crossing is meant for the safety of pedestrians & wearing helmet while riding a bike is meant for safety of the rider. While following the traffic signals, there are a few things that one should keep in mind.

  • While stopping on a red light, one should make sure to stop well before the zebra crossing, even though the signal turned green, don’t accelerate instantly. 
  • A flashing red signal is a strict indication to stop, while a flashing orange light directs to proceed with caution. People’s reluctance to follow traffic rules could be attributed to various factors.
  • There is no organized road safety education in the Indian system. People disobeying traffic rules are seldom confronted, thus making them more reluctant. 
  • Road accidents are responsible for most fatalities in India. Numerous commendable steps have been taken by governments to improve road safety such as implementation of strict laws and huge penalties for not following these laws, launching of several new projects for expansion and proper maintenance of roads and sidewalks.
  • It also includes strict parameters to issue license, installation of traffic lights aided with cameras for absolute monitoring of especially cross-roads, launch of road safety awareness campaigns in schools, public gatherings or through social media, etc.
  • First aid awareness in case of emergence can be vital in some cases.  However, these efforts are not enough as neither laws nor technology can help that much, unless root level education and awareness is spread.
  • In conclusion, Road safety is not just for our own sake, but also for the sake of others. But now Post imposition of the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act, 2019 has increased the penalties for traffic rule violations.

Conclusion :

Under the amended Act, violations such as drunken driving at driving attract a fine of Rs 10,000. Penalty for driving without a license was increased from fine up to Rs 500 to fine of Rs 5,000. Not wearing a helmet while riding a two-wheeler can now lead to a fine Rs 1,000. Such reforms in our vehicle act must be welcomed by the citizens who really want the progress of the country. This will also reduce road accidents and ensure the safety of the road users.

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Essays

Uniform Civil Code essay in english 250 words

Uniform civil code (UCC) essay in english 250 words :

Introduction : 

Uniform Civil Code is a proposal to have common set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion of people. It means that all the citizen of India will be govern by the same set of secular civil laws in matters of marriage, divorce, maintenance, adoption, inheritance etc. There shall be one law for all civil matters whether they are Hindu or Muslims. Article 44 of the constitution itself says that the state shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India.

  • There should be no discrimination on the basis of their civil laws and everyone has to follow the Uniform Civil Code. 
  • It is an irony that a Hindu woman enjoy the complete right of being the single soulmate of her husband, Muslim women on the other hand don’t have this privilege.
  • They can get divorce very easily by uttering the word “Talaq” thrice to their wife. In Shah Bano Case (1985) a very poor Muslim women claimed maintenance after she was divorced. 
  • The Parliament passed the Muslim Women’s (Protection of Rights in Divorce) Act,1986 which nullified the decision of SC passed in Shah Bano’s case.

Conclusion :

It will pave the way for national integration and secularism. It will also promote gender equality, welfare of women and justice. It will simplify the cumbersome legal matters governed by personal laws. One must understand that Uniform Civil Code is not a weapon directed against any particular community. It is simply a code that puts all the citizens of India irrespective of their caste, religion or gender under one umbrella.

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Long Essay on Uniform civil code essay in english

Introduction :

Uniform Civil Code is a proposal to have common set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion of people. It means that all the citizen of India will be govern by the same set of secular civil laws in matters of marriage, divorce, maintenance, adoption, inheritance etc. There shall be one law for all civil matters whether they are Hindu or Muslims. Article 44 of the constitution itself says that the state shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India. 

There should be no discrimination on the basis of their civil laws and everyone has to follow the Uniform Civil Code. 

It is an irony that a Hindu woman enjoy the complete right of being the single soulmate of her husband, Muslim women on the other hand don’t have this privilege.

They can get divorce very easily by uttering the word “Talaq” thrice to their wife. In Shah Bano Case (1985) a very poor Muslim women claimed maintenance after she was divorced. 

The Parliament passed the Muslim Women’s (Protection of Rights in Divorce) Act,1986 which nullified the decision of SC passed in Shah Bano’s case.

Conclusion :

It will pave the way for national integration and secularism. It will also promote gender equality, welfare of women and justice. It will simplify the cumbersome legal matters governed by personal laws. One must understand that Uniform Civil Code is not a weapon directed against any particular community. It is simply a code that puts all the citizens of India irrespective of their caste, religion or gender under one umbrella.

Important Facts about UCC 

  • The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India proposes to replace the personal laws  of each major religious community in the country with a common rules for every citizen.
  • The constitution has a provision for Uniform Civil Code in Article 44 as a Directive Principle of State Policy which tells that “The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.”
  • A secular democratic republic like India should have a common civil and personal laws for its citizens irrespective of their religion, class, caste, gender etc.
  • It is generally seen that personal laws of almost all religions are discriminatory towards women. Men are usually granted upper preferential status in matters of succession and inheritance. Uniform civil code will bring both men and women at par.
  • All Indian citizens are equal before the law as the criminal laws and other civil laws (except personal laws) are same for all. With the implementation of Uniform Civil Code, all citizen will share the same set of personal laws.

Cons of Uniform Civil Code (UCC)

  • It is pragmatically tough to come up with a uniform set of rules for personal issues like marriage due to tremendous cultural diversity India across the religions, sects, castes, states 
  • Many communities, particularly minority communities perceive Uniform Civil Code as an encroachment on their rights to religious freedom. 
  • The constitution provides for the right to freedom of religion of one’s choice. With codification of uniform rules and its compulsion, the scope of the freedom of religion will be reduced.
  • The government should be sensitive and unbiased at each step while dealing with the majority and minority communities. Otherwise, it might turn out to be more disastrous in a form of communal violence.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Issues & Challenges to India

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought” is a prominent statement of SC judge AM Kennedy. The constitution of India guarantees everyone the freedom of speech irrespective of caste, creed, gender or religion. Freedom of speech allows the people to express themselves, and share their views and opinions. As a result, the public and the media can comment on any political activity and also express their dissent towards anything that they think is not appropriate.

  • Different countries have different restrictions on their freedom of speech. Some countries do not allow this fundamental right at all for example North Korea.
  • There, the media or the public are not allowed to speak against the government. It is a punishable offence to criticize the government or the political parties there.
  • The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian democracy.
  • Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of democracy.
  • The freedom of speech of a country can apparently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country. A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democratic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent or criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This can be very dangerous for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking.
  • All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice. A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy.
  • But a bad one will blindside its critics and makes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens. At the same time, freedom of speech can’t be absolute.
  • No one can cause violence, hatred and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

The government should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people. That’s why the constitution mentions in Article 19 (2), the conditions under which the Freedom of speech can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the socially accepted norms and put the dignity of the state at stake.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Issues & Challenges

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought.” — SC judge Anthony M .Kennedy. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian constitution guarantees the citizens of the India , the right to freedom of speech and expression. There are some facets of Freedom of speech and expressions (FOSE). Some of these are freedom of press, commercial advertisements, government has no monopoly over Electronic media, Right to information and Publishing one’s opinions on digital society etc.

Why FOSE sometimes is considered as challenge to Public order?

Public order is defined as a state of prevailing of peace and tranquility in the society any act that affects the law and order or may lead to disturbance of harmony of society is considered as an issue in the interest of public order.

What did make the FOSE a buzz word recently?

– Supreme court of India upheld the petition that challenged the Internet shutdown in many places like Uttarpradesh, Assam specifically in Jammu and Kashmir in 2019 and 2020 after the promulgation of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.
– High court of Tripura also supported the freedom of expression of public officers on social media platforms.
– Power of the day again and again used sedition charges those who criticized the policies of government publically.

Challenges to India because of FOSE?

 In the scope of Security of the state any act that aggravate or encourage commission of violent crimes is considered as a violation of Indian penal code(IPC).
 Under Foreign Relation Act (FRA), 1932 any malicious propaganda that has intention to vitiate friendly relation with other nation is punishable , this does not include the country namely Pakistan.
 Though it is not clearly elaborated in IPC any speech that jeopardize the decency and morality is regarded as punishable offence.

Conclusion :

Unrestricted allegations against government of the day is spreading like a wild fire which needs continuous scrutiny and at the same time maintaining constitutional rights of the issues in public interest. The same constitution mentions, namely Article 19 (2), conditions under which the FOSE can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the barriers of socially well accepted norms and that put the dignity and reputation of the state at a stake. It would augur well if we use the rights within the perimeter put by Indian constitution with well sate of mind and discretion.

Long essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

India constitution guarantees every Indian the freedom of speech  irrespective of gender (sex), caste, creed or religion. This is a fundamental freedom which is guaranteed and that defines the values of democracy in any nation. The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions & thoughts and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian democracy. Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of our democracy.

  • The kind of freedom of speech we find in many democratic countries like UK, USA, France or Germany is not seen in authoritarian governments like Malayasia, China or Syria and is failed democracies Pakisthan or Rwanda.
  • These governance systems are failed due to lack of freedom of speech in their countries. The freedom of speech of a country can apparently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country.
  • A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democratic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly some governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent of criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This is a dangerous precedent for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can rest assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking and the same way of opinion on a given topic.
  • The difference of opinions and respect we have for each other in a policy-making body is what makes us a true democracy. All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice.
  • A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy but a bad one will blindside its critics and takes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens.
  • The sedition law, under section 124A of Indian Penal Code, says that if a person by words either by written or spoken brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or a person can be fined or jailed or both.
  • This law is never used in its spirit. British used to use this law to silence the freedom fighters of India and now the ruling parties of India use this to stifle the dissenters and is harming the democratic values of the country.
  • Inspite of various laws that protect the people of India in rightly fully exercising their freedom of expression in India. But while the laws stay, its implementation that are proving to be a big challenge for the authorities in India.
  • At the same time, freedom of speech and expression can’t be absolute. No one can cause violence, hatred, bigotry and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech.
  • This will harm the very reason why freedom of speech is allowed in the first place. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

When article 370 was abrogated in Kashmir, freedom of speech was stifled, not because the government wanted to stifle democratic values but to prevent the spread of fake news, put a curb on terrorism and any sorts of preventing communal tensions in the area. Governments around the world should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people.

Abrogation of Article 370 and 35a

Introduction :

The article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After passing a statutory resolution on scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 was abrogated by Indian Government on 5th August 2019 and Rajya Sabha had passed a Reorganization Bill 2019 which had effectively bifurcated the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

  • As per the Article 370, the provisions of the constitution which apply to other states do not apply to Jammu and Kashmir until and unless the state legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmir separately passes such provision except provisions related to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications.
  • The residents of the state of Jammu & Kashmir had a separate law and provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties & these were not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • After abrogation of article 370, Jammu and Kashmir is no longer enjoy special status and the laws of Indian Constitution are applicable to all residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh including provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. 
  • Article 35A has been abrogated and now Indian tricolour is National Flag for J&K and Ladhak also. Right to Information and Right to Education are now applicable to J&K & Ladhak union territories.
  • The Panchayats are now enjoying the same powers as in other states. With abrogation of Article 370, tenure of J&K state Assembly is now be of five years as in other parts of state which till now had a special status with a 6-year tenure.
  • The Union Territories (UTs) now have a Chief Minister and a Lt Governor and all financial bills will need to cleared by Lt Governor.
  • Indian Penal Code (IPC) had replaced Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) to deal with criminal matters. With addition of two new UTs, total number of union territories are now 8 i.e. J&K, Ladakh, Delhi, Puducherry, Diu and Daman & Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Conclusion :

Post the repeal of the Article 370, doors to private investment in J&K are opened, which helps in increasing the potential for development there. Increased investments also leads to increased job creation and further betterment of socio-economic infrastructure in the state. The Government is now able to provide better medical, education facilities to citizens of J&K and have better position to curb terrorism. The Opening of buying of lands bring in investments from private individuals and multinational companies and also give a boost to the local economy.

National Register of Citizens (NRC) Issues in India

Introduction :

The National Register of Citizens (NRC), is the list of Indian citizens in Assam. National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses in a serial order and indicating names of persons staying therein. It is being updated to weed out illegal immigration from Bangladesh and neighbouring regions.

  • Recently Assam released the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which included 1.9 crore names out of a total applicant pool of 3.29 crore.
  • The political leaders have assured that everyone will be given a fair and patient hearing to prove their citizenship.
  • The Supreme Court recently issued a notice to the centre and the Election Commission of India on a plea seeking that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) be updated to include Tripura.
  • The final draft of the NRC in Assam was released, excluding four million residents of the state.
  • An updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
  • It will provide a verified dataset to carry out meaningful debates and implement calibrated policy measures.
  • Though the draft provides a window for re-verification, due to large number of people being excluded from the list, it will be very difficult to physically verify all of them.
  • This draft of the NRC is however not final and people can still appeal against the non-inclusion of their names in the NRC.

Conclusion :

Several religious and linguistic minority groups are also opposing the NRC as discriminatory and undemocratic. The main purpose of NRC is to separate illegal immigrants from legitimate residents of Assam.  The immediate consequence of it is that several lakh individuals will lose their right to vote. The claims of those left out in the NRC must be heard carefully. There is a need for a robust mechanism of legal support for the four million who have to prove their citizenship to India with their limited means.

Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Cultural Diversity In India in english 

Introduction :

Indian culture is diverse and consist of various customs, ideas and social beliefs. India has different cultures and communities that differ in their food habits, cloths, languages, and traditions. It is the oldest and famous among the other cultures of the world. Indian literature is also a combination of various communities, traditions, customs, and religions. The diversity of Indian culture is well known worldwide. Cultural diversity is also seen in Indian Philosophy, art, music, and even Literature.

  • India is a global hub of multi-cultural and multi-traditional festivals like Dussehra, Holi, Diwali, Christmas, Ramazan, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ganesh Chaturthi etc.
  • Each Indian festival tells its own cultural and national tale and is celebrated with different customs & traditions.
  • In India three National festivals are also celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm, these are the Republic Day, Independence Day, and Gandhi Jayanti.
  • In India, God lives in the heart of every person. Indians hold different prayers, beliefs, and values. In the Hindu tradition, everyone worships and respects Cows, Neem tree, Banyan tree, and Peepal tree.
  • In India rivers are also worshiped and have great religious significance and sentiments. Rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna Godavari, Bramhaputra, Narmada, and Tapti occasionally worshiped in India.
  • The Joint family system is the prevailing system in India. In most cases, the family members consist of parents, children, children’s spouses, and offspring.
  • All of these family members live together under a single roof and the eldest male member is the head of the family.
  • Arranged marriages are also a part of Indian culture. Most Indians have their marriages planned by their parents. In almost all marriages in India, the bride’s family gives dowry to bridegroom.
  • Weddings are certainly festive occasions in Indian culture. There is involvement of decorations, clothing, music, dance, rituals in Indian weddings.
  • India is a home of many sacred and religious places like the Amarnath temple, Badrinath, Haridwar, Vaishno Devi and Varanasi, which are located in the northern part of the country.
  • However, in the southern region, Rameshwaram temple and Sabrimala temple have great significance. India celebrates a huge number of festivals.

Conclusion :

These festivals are very diverse because of multi-religious and multi-cultural societies in India. Indians greatly value festive occasions and the whole country joins in the celebrations irrespective of the differences. Thus, we can say that India is filled with traditions and modern culture. People have the freedom to practice any religion they want. This is why Indian culture is widespread across the world.

Responsibilities of a good citizen 

Introduction :

We are the citizen of India and have acquired citizenship by virtue of our birth. Being a good citizen requires a lot of training and efforts as every citizen has some duties and certain rights. We also have a right to take part in judicial, legal, political, religious and social affairs of the country. “Citizenship consists in the service of the country.” said by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, this line explains that citizenship consists not merely in enjoying certain rights but also in discharging our duties towards the nation.   

  • A good citizen is always broad minded and ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of his country. He must love his country and also have firm and deep faith in laws of the land.
  • He must consider himself as an Indian first and anything else afterwards. He is ready even to shed his blood for the honour of his country.
  • A good citizen also respects the cultural heritage, the heroes, the sages and saints of his country. He must respect the race to which he belongs. He also raises the standard of living of his country by working hard honestly.
  • But he must also keep in mind the welfare of the state, the benefit of society and interests of the nation.
  • At the time of foreign attacks, he must be ready to shed his blood and hence, defense of the country is the supreme duty of a good citizen.
  • A good citizen must live in peace and harmony with his fellow citizens. He must respect the institutions of his country. A good citizen respects the laws of the state and should have no patience with criminals and anti-social elements.
  • Unity of the nation should be his topmost priority and should work for the unity of the country. A good citizen should have a spirit of co-operation, friendliness and devotion towards his family and society.

Conclusion : 

He must respect other faiths. He must not do anything that brings disgrace to his society or to his country. He always makes an effort to bring about desirable improvements in the existing educational and other institutions of his country. In this way, a good citizen always thinks about the welfare of the society and his country first.

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Responsibility of a good citizen in points – 

  • Be active in your community.
  • Be honest and trustworthy.
  • Follow rules and laws of the country.
  • Respect the rights of other citizens.
  • Be informed about the world around you.
  • Respect the property of other people.
  • Be compassionate and eagar to learn.
  • Take responsibility for your actions.
  • Be a good neighbor and fellow citizen.
  • Protect the environment & wildlife

Life in Covid-19 Pandemic

Introduction :

COVID-19 has affected our day to day life. This pandemic has affected thousands of peoples, who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems. This, being a new viral disease affecting people for the first time, vaccines are being available now but still, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as extensive hygiene, regularly washing of hands, avoidance of face to face interaction, social distancing, and wearing of masks etc.

  • Identification of the disease at an early stage is vital to control the spread of the virus because it very rapidly spreads from person to person.
  • Most of the countries have slowed down their manufacturing of the products. The pandemic has been affecting the entire food system.
  • Trade restrictions and confinement measures have been preventing farmers from accessing markets, including for buying inputs and selling their produce, and agricultural workers from harvesting crops, thus disrupting domestic and international food supply chains and reducing access to healthy, safe and diverse diets.
  • The pandemic has impacted jobs and placed millions of livelihoods at risk. As common man lose jobs, fall ill and die, the food security and nutrition of millions of women and men are under threat, with those in low-income countries, particularly the most marginalized populations, which include small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples, being hardest hit.
  • The various industries and sectors are affected by the cause of this disease including the pharmaceuticals industry, power sector and tourism.
  • Millions of agricultural workers waged and self-employed, regularly face high levels of working poverty, malnutrition and poor health, and suffer from a lack of safety and labour protection.
  • With low and irregular incomes and lack of social support, many of them are forced to continue working, often in unsafe conditions, thus exposing themselves and their families to additional risks.
  • Further, when experiencing income losses, they may resort to negative coping strategies, such as distress sale of assets, taking loans or child labour.
  • Migrant agricultural workers are particularly vulnerable, because they face risks in their transport, working and living conditions and struggle to access support measures put in place by governments.
  • This virus creates drastic effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as on the global economy.
  • There are restrictions of travelling from one country to another country. During travelling, numbers of cases are identified positive when tested, especially when they are taking international visits.

Conclusion :

The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers, several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back.  Since then, the government has announced relief measures for migrants, and made arrangements to return to their native places. All governments, health organizations and other authorities are continuously focusing on identifying the cases affected by the COVID-19. Healthcare professional face lot of difficulties in maintaining the quality of healthcare in these days.

Importance of Youth in Society

Introduction :

Youth is considered as the greatest asset for a country as their intelligence and hard work will take the country on the path of success and prosperity. As every citizen has some responsibilities towards the nation, so the youth too. They are the building blocks of any nation. A youth is a person whose age is between 15 to 30 years without considering their gender. As the youth are the backbone of a society and hence they determine the future of any given society.

  • It is so, because of all other age groups like the kids, teenagers, middle aged and the senior citizens rely on the youth and they have a lot of expectations from them.
  • This makes the youth to be an important age group in today’s society and the future of society highly depends on them.
  • Due to high dependency on youth in society, we all have a very important role to play as the future of our families, communities and the country lies in our hands.
  • Youth can renew the current status of the society by their leadership, innovation and development skills.
  • Youth are expected to transform the current technology, education system and politics of the country.
  • They also have to maintain our rich cultural heritage and ethical values in the societies. This is why the development of a country requires active participation of the youth.  
  • It does not matter in which field we want to progress, either technical or sports, youth is required everywhere. Our youth must aware of their inner powers and the role they have to play in the society.
  • There are many ways in which we can help the youth of our country to achieve their true potential.
  • For that, the government must introduce programs that will help in fighting off issues like unemployment, poor education institutes and more to help them prosper without any hindrance.
  • Similarly, citizens must make sure to encourage our youth to do better in every field they want to excel.
  • When we constantly discourage our youth and don’t believe in them, they will lose their spark and start feeling dejected.

Conclusion :

We all must make sure that they should be given the wind beneath their wings to fly high instead of bringing them. We must make sure that everyone must be given equal chance to prove themselves worthy. The youth have a different outlook which the older generations don’t have. It is the responsibility of the youth to make our country rich and prosper.

Migrant Workers 

Introduction :

A migrant worker is a person who migrates within their home country or outside it for work. Migrant workers do not have the intention to stay permanently in the place where they work. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 24, has caused immense distress to migrant workers around the country. Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. Indian migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced multiple hardships.

  • With the closure of factories and workplaces due to the lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty. 
  • Thousands of them, began walking back home, with no means of transport due to the lockdown. In response, the Government took various measures to help them, and later arranged transport for them.
  • The major states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi and Kerala are trying to minimise the loss of labour and are prime states for ‘unlocking’ of economic activity.
  • According to the 2011 Census, there are 41 million interstate migrants in India who migrate to other states due to the lack of work opportunities in their home state.
  • Poorer, less educated, and from socially disadvantaged communities, survival draws these migrants to the cities. Meagre pay, extended working hours, and unsafe work conditions characterise their exploited labour.
  • Covid-19 renders most of them jobless in cities with crushing rents and no access to food or water. Without employment, city life is so burdensome that many risk returning to the safety of their villages, in some cases even at the cost of their lives. 
  • The disproportionate impact of state policy also breaches the right to equality under Article 14 of the Constitution and imposes a corresponding duty on the government to mitigate negative effects.
  • The government has also launched an employment scheme named ‘Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan’ implementing on a mission mode in 125 days in 116 districts of six states – Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • The scheme was launched after lakhs of migrant workers returned to their home states following loss of employment in urban areas due to the nationwide lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19.
  • In the long term, India should work towards reducing migrant workers’ vulnerability by amending labour laws.
  • Such amendments should align migrant workers’ conditions with other unorganised sector workers, while also developing norms for food security, repatriation and wage safety in times of emergency. 

Conclusion :

While emergency solutions are urgent, they must pave the way to address more fundamental issues in migrant worker-dominated sectors. The government has already announced schemes like ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ to enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country. But they also need cash for their day-to-day needs.

Reservation in India

Introduction :

Reservation in India is the process of setting aside a certain percentage of seats in government institutions for the members of backward and under-represented communities. Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Other Backward Classes (OBCs) are the primary beneficiaries of the reservation policies under the constitution. The Modi government has tabled in Lok Sabha the bill seeking 10 per cent reservation for poor among the upper castes.

  • The concept was enshrined in the Constitution to allow the so-called deprived classes to come at par with the so-called privileged ones.
  • Initially, the reservation policy was only for 10 years after the independence to uplift the socially and under-privileged to stabilize them economically.
  • It has killed the spirit of brotherhood and healthy competition. Unfortunately, today, we stand divided widely into Hindu, Muslim, SC, ST, OBC with newer reservations coming up from different sections of society like Christians, Jats, Pandits, Tribal etc.
  • Reservations with the view of helping the deprived classes to gain a better footing and avail equal benefits of an independent and free nation was introduced in the system.  
  • Yet, the various governments till now have failed to truly uplift the backward sections of the society. The need of the hour is to remove evil.
  • Making education mandatory and free for all till the age of 15 is one good resolution that has been adopted. Other could be proposing reservation based on economic status and providing opportunities to students to earn while they study.
  • Reservation should be restricted only to the first generation bene­ficiaries. The candidates whose parents have already availed reservation fa­cilities in securing a job should not be given the facility again.
  • Concession of scholarship may be provided to SC, ST and OBC stu­dents securing more than the specified percentage of marks in high school and graduate courses for getting quality education in good in­stitutions.

Conclusion :

All these measures will benefit those who really deserve help. The policy of reservation has to be scientific and rational. In the given economic and political structure, caste or birth or family should not determine one’s life chances. Reservation should not be forsaken because, everyone wants that society should develop as a whole and everyone should reap the benefits of development.

Traffic Rules & Safety Reforms 

Introduction :

Traffic rules and regulations are formulated to regulate traffic, for the safety and convenience. They are very essential to ensure safety on road as well as their users. Some rules are formulated for specific types of users for example it is mandatory to slow down while approaching a zebra crossing is meant for the safety of pedestrians & wearing helmet while riding a bike is meant for safety of the rider. While following the traffic signals, there are a few things that one should keep in mind.

  • While stopping on a red light, one should make sure to stop well before the zebra crossing, even though the signal turned green, don’t accelerate instantly. 
  • A flashing red signal is a strict indication to stop, while a flashing orange light directs to proceed with caution. People’s reluctance to follow traffic rules could be attributed to various factors.
  • There is no organized road safety education in the Indian system. People disobeying traffic rules are seldom confronted, thus making them more reluctant. 
  • Road accidents are responsible for most fatalities in India. Numerous commendable steps have been taken by governments to improve road safety such as implementation of strict laws and huge penalties for not following these laws, launching of several new projects for expansion and proper maintenance of roads and sidewalks.
  • It also includes strict parameters to issue license, installation of traffic lights aided with cameras for absolute monitoring of especially cross-roads, launch of road safety awareness campaigns in schools, public gatherings or through social media, etc.
  • First aid awareness in case of emergence can be vital in some cases.  However, these efforts are not enough as neither laws nor technology can help that much, unless root level education and awareness is spread.
  • In conclusion, Road safety is not just for our own sake, but also for the sake of others. But now Post imposition of the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act, 2019 has increased the penalties for traffic rule violations.

Conclusion :

Under the amended Act, violations such as drunken driving at driving attract a fine of Rs 10,000. Penalty for driving without a license was increased from fine up to Rs 500 to fine of Rs 5,000. Not wearing a helmet while riding a two-wheeler can now lead to a fine Rs 1,000. Such reforms in our vehicle act must be welcomed by the citizens who really want the progress of the country. This will also reduce road accidents and ensure the safety of the road users.

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