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Essay on Role of Small & Payment Banks in Financial Inclusion

Essay on Role of Small & Payment Banks in Financial Inclusion

Introduction :

“Great things come in Small Packages”. It is true with respect to the Small and Payments banks in India. They are the big steps in banking sector. Small banks can complete India’s dream of total financial inclusion. Small banks are smaller than the commercial banks. Small banks accept deposits as well as give loans to public. Unlike commercial banks, small banks deal only in basic banking services. These banks operate mainly in rural and interior parts of the country.

  • For widening the scope of the banking, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) focused on financial inclusion, digital banking, and better risk management. Various initiatives have been taken by the RBI for strengthening financial inclusion.
  • One such initiative is the issue of different Banking Licenses to financial institutions to convert themselves into either Payment Banks or Small Finance Banks.
  • Financial inclusion plays a major role in the inclusive growth of the country. The growth of our economy is dependent on the growth of rural India.
  • The availability of quality financial services in rural areas will enable a large number of rural households to fund the growth of their livelihoods.
  • Payments banks can issue ATM or debit cards however, cannot issue credit cards. The payments bank cannot undertake lending activities.
  • The minimum paid-up capital for payments banks is Rs. 100 crore. Payment  banks  will  complement banking services offered by commercial banks  and  are expected to play its role in promoting financial inclusion. 

These banks aim at bringing the unbanked masses such as migrant labourers low income households, small businesses, and other unorganised sector entities under the ambit of formal banking and expedites financial inclusion by making it easier for them to get a bank account.  Payment banks may make handling cash a lot easier through mobile phone  and point-of-sale (POS) terminals. Commercial banks collaborate with payment banks to use their technology. Commercial banks can also start joint ventures with payment banks, to launch innovative services and products. More people in India have a mobile phone than a bank account. Mobile phones are the new tools of banking which we can utilize to achieve the goals of financial inclusion.

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Essay on India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality

Introduction :

India adopted the policy of liberalization in 1991 to boost to the economy, under this various sectors were opened to the private sector and gradually the pace of India’s economy grew rapidly. India has become the sixth largest economy in the world but the current state of the economy cannot be appreciated. Keeping this fact in mind, the policy makers of India have set a target of making India a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2024-25. Paying special attention to infrastructure, the government has set a target of constructing 1.95 crore houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana.

  • Also, an additional deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh has also been allowed on interest payment of home loan.
  • Under the ‘Study in India’ initiative, several announcements were made to promote private higher education. Apart from this, sports universities are also being set up under the ‘Khelo India’.
  • Apart from this, in order to help private capital formation, the government has planned a fresh capital infusion of Rs 70,000 crore in public sector banks.
  • At present, the private sector is grappling with the problem of debt pressure and lack of capital. Therefore, the government is working towards promoting foreign direct investment in several sectors, especially in insurance, aviation and retail.
  • Along with giving special attention to MSMEs, the government has also taken several steps towards labor reforms. The government has stated the need for an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore for the modernization of the railways.
  • In this way, Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been proposed to increase the resources of the Railways.
  • The agriculture sector is already grappling with irrigation crisis due to high power usage. India lacks global level infrastructure in the field of transport, as well as rural and remote areas still far from connectivity.

Conclusion :

It is believed that to achieve the target of 5 trillion dollars, India will need a growth rate of about 8 percent of GDP. At present the pace of Indian economy is slow, as well as achieving high economic growth rate in this situation may prove to be a difficult task. There are many important issues like improving the quality of education, unemployment, economic inequality, status of women, malnutrition, caste discrimination, poverty which need to be resolved. Only by removing these problems India will be able to achieve its goal of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy.

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Long Essay on India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality

Introduction :

India adopted the policy of liberalization in 1991 to give impetus to the economy, under which various sectors were opened to the private sector and gradually the pace of India’s economy grew rapidly. India has recently become the sixth largest economy in the world. But given the size and capacity ratio of India, the current state of the economy cannot be appreciated. Keeping this fact in mind, the policy makers of India have set a target of making India a 5 trillion dollar economy by the year 2024. Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman also talked about making the country a ‘five trillion dollar economy’ by 2024 during her budget speech.

  • However, even before the budget, our Prime Minister Narendra Modi has talked about achieving this goal during many of his programs.
  • During the budget speech, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said that India did not make rapid growth in the economic sector after independence.
  • The result was that it took 55 years for the Indian economy to reach one trillion dollars, while China’s economy grew very rapidly during this period.
  • In such a situation, due to limited economic capacity, the necessary resources are often not available in all areas of the country such as railways, social sector, defense and infrastructure.

Main steps taken by the government –

  • Paying special attention to infrastructure, the government has set a target of constructing 1.95 crore houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana alone.
  • Also, an additional deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh has also been allowed on interest payment of home loan. Under the ‘Study in India’ initiative, several announcements were made to promote private higher education.
  • Apart from this, sports universities are also being set up under the ‘Khelo India’ scheme for creation of world class institutions. The government also announced the establishment of a sovereign debt market.
  • Under this, the government will provide funds for private investment in the country by taking loans from the international market. This will help in bringing down the interest rate.
  • Apart from this, in order to help private capital formation, the government has planned a fresh capital infusion of Rs 70,000 crore in public sector banks.
  • At present, the private sector is grappling with the problem of debt pressure and lack of capital. In such a situation, the government will have to make better use of foreign capital for capital formation.
  • Therefore, the government is working towards promoting foreign direct investment in several sectors, especially in insurance, aviation and single brand retail.
  • Along with giving special attention to MSMEs, the government has also taken several steps towards labor reforms. In order to give emphasis to the manufacturing sector, work is being done to merge 44 labor laws into four codes.
  • Corporate tax has been reduced to 25 per cent for small enterprises with a turnover of up to Rs 400 crore. The government has stated the need for an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore for the modernization of the railways.
  • In this way, Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been proposed to increase the resources of the Railways.

The main challenges in this regard are –

  • Climate change has disturbed the pace of monsoon, which is paying off on Indian agriculture. Also, the situation is not very good in the services sector which has the largest share in the Indian economy. India’s energy sector is passing through difficult times and this sector needs to be reformed at the structural level.
  • There is a need for the Center to improve the tariff policy in collaboration with the State Governments so that industries and large consumers can get its benefits, as well as increase the tariff rates for the agriculture sector and domestic consumers.
  • The agriculture sector is already grappling with irrigation crisis due to high power usage. India lacks global level infrastructure in the field of transport, as well as rural and remote areas still far from connectivity.
  • Indian Railways is included in some of the largest railway routes in the world, yet it needs improvement. It is estimated that an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore is required for the modernization of railways.
  • Similarly, it is also necessary to have high quality roads, increase the capacity of ports and connect them with various economic establishments of the country through rail and road. In this way, India’s transport capacity will be increased, due to which the economy will be able to grow at a faster pace.
  • Telecom sector in India is also facing many problems. Other countries where the use of 5G has started, in India, the necessary efforts have not been made for this.
  • The telecom sector is already struggling due to the spectrum and base price policy of TRAI and the government. The Bharat Net project, which was started to bring internet service to the local level in India, is still not completed.

Conclusion :

It is believed that to achieve the target of 5 trillion dollars, India will need a growth rate of about 8 percent of GDP. At present the pace of Indian economy is slow, as well as achieving high economic growth rate in this situation may prove to be a difficult goal. But looking at the current situation, it would not be wrong to say that the challenges for the economy are increasing continuously. But still the dream of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy is not an impossible thing. There are many important issues like improving the quality of education, unemployment, economic inequality, status of women, malnutrition, caste discrimination, poverty which need to be resolved. Only by removing these problems will India be able to achieve its goal of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality And Domestic Tourism Opportunities in India

Introduction :

“Live life with no excuses, travel with no regrets.” This statement shows that travelling is an integral part of our life. Tourism is a vital socio-economic activity and is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism in India has good potential for developing as a high profit making industry. India is a well known tourist destination and has been successful in attracting domestic and international tourists. In India, temple towns, monuments and sea beaches are traditionally sought as tourist attractions.

  • The hill stations, historical sites, architecture and monuments and places of religious interests make India a preferred destination for the tourists from all over the world.
  • The root of tourism in India can be traced to pilgrimage. In the early stages, pilgrimage-based tourism
  • was only of domestic nature but during recent years, a large number of foreign tourists have also started visiting places of pilgrimage.
  • Domestic tourism is estimated to be much higher than international tourism and has also been rising rapidly. Better connectivity of transport and
  • communication, improved standard of living has led to the increase in the domestic as well as international tourists in India.
  • The Government of India is taking keen interest in promoting different forms of tourism such as rural tourism, eco tourism, spiritual tourism and ‘adventure tourism’ etc.
  • Medical tourism has formed an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. Most of the foreigners from the Western countries such as US, UK, Canada, and neighbouring countries are turning towards India for the affordable world class health care services.

Conclusion :

The tourism industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. It has the potential to generate mass employment and raise the income levels thereby contribute significantly to the economic development of the country. The government has made the facility of e-Tourist Visa and ‘Incredible India’ campaign is a good initiative in this regard. More and more efficient facilities for tourist in terms of accommodation, recreation, transport, shopping and development of new tourist spots is the need of the hour to develop India as a global tourist hub.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality And Strategy For New India at 75

Introduction :

New India @ 75 is a path breaking initiative which envisions how India should be in her 75th year of Independence and seeks to bring together all stakeholders including the industry, government, institutions, community groups and individuals to translate the vision into a reality. ‘Strategy for New India’ by NITI Aayog replaced five year plans with an aim to accelerate economic growth to 9 to 10% and to achieve UN sustainable development goals. The 41 Chapters under the documents have been merged under four sessions – Drivers, infrastructure, inclusion and governance.

  • India is on its way to celebrate its 75th independence day on 15th August 2022. The past 75 years took India from a poverty stricken, uneducated country to become one of the greatest pioneers in space technology & pharmaceuticals.
  • However, even after 75 years some issues are left out of fixing or are being handled in a careless manner. India is set to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2025 but its per capita income is among world’s lowest.
  • Half of the population is working in agriculture and allied activities but the income of farmers is extremely low to a point that they are forced to commit suicides.
  • India is 3rd largest economy in the world but its tax to GDP ratio is just half of the OECD countries. In addition to that, Infrastructure will play a huge role.
  • We are in dire need of private railways, Buses with IT enabled services to make our country a truly digital India. Also, India needs to include all its citizens into healthcare services via Ayushman Bharat Scheme, educating them via Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, and provide them shelter via PM Awas Yojna.
  • Moreover, to make the above targets, we need strong and effective governance. The focus is to improve the policy environment so that the contribution of private investors and stakeholders can be diverted to mainstream to achieve the goals set out for new India 2022.
  • Alarming features such as Mining, River valley projects, infrastructure projects, tourism and agriculture are included in this strategy.
  • With all this we have to limit environmental damage, there is an urgent need to conserve non-forest ecosystems such as grassland, wetlands, mountains and deserts.
  • We need to learn from the many alternatives initiatives for food, water, energy etc, which shows the ways to more just and sustainable livelihoods and ways of living.

Conclusion :

Being one of the most populous country of the world, it is a little bit tough but not impossible to change. We need proper utilization of human capital in the direction of all round development of our country. Jan Bhagidari, balanced development, public private partnership lies at the core of the strategy for New India initiative. If the above problems are addressed and vision of ‘strategy for new India @ 75’ is fulfilled, India can truly evolve as a superpower.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs development at the cost of environment degradetion

Introduction :

“Environment is no one’s property to destroy, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect.” These words of Mohith Agadi reflects the irrational utilization of resources for development  activities without considering the environment. Development is a process that leads to positive change in physical, environmental, economic and social aspects of our life. Day by day the issue of environment is increasing as we are degrading our environment in the name of economic growth.

  • As a result we are facing serious repercussions like climate change, global warming, flood, cyclones and ozone layer depletion etc.
  • According to the world bank report higher level of economic growth imposed Rs 3.75 trillion worth of environment damage cost.
  • Rapid industrialization and urbanization are inevitable to bring economic development, to increase the per capita income and ease of living.
  • But these activities have caused negative environmental consequences such as pollution, disasters, forced migration, imbalanced weather phenomena etc.
  • More urbanization and higher industrial setups are being encroached on the forest land. Now-a-days micro plastics are contaminating the water resources very badly.
  • Subsequent use of private vehicle by each family member had supplemented their contribution to pollution.
  • According to environment performance index released by world economic forum, India ranks 168th out of 180 countries, which was the worst in the south Asian countries.
  • Water scarcity and extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of floods and droughts could further strain the economy which is already reeling under pressure due to Covid-19.
  • Government has taken many initiatives to conserve the environment such as Biological diversity Act, 2002, Project Tiger 1972, World summit on sustainable development, Rio de janerio summit 1992, Project elephant 1992 etc.
  • At ground level, efforts made by people can further succeed these programmes. Moreover there should be the maximum recycling and reuse of water, improvement in energy efficient machines is the most effective measure in industries.

Conclusion :

Balancing economic development and environmental sustainable is the need of the hour, to bring this sustainable development in mainstream, united nations launched the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Countries must switch their development plans to the sustainable plans. Thus balancing economic development and environment protection requires a refocusing of economic activity not towards producing less but producing differently.

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India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Positive Effects of Coronavirus on Environment

Introduction :

Covid-19 virus has become worldwide disease and almost all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus. As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.

  • Today, when the production of almost everything is slowed down and factories are not as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke is also reduced which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • This indicates that air has become more pure and we can breathe in pure air. With the increase in number of flights, not only the air traffic increases but the quality of air also getting worse, but now the scenario is changed.
  • To reduce the risk of coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home. This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses.

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. The coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind however, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty again.

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India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so.
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.
  • Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.

Conclusion :

If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation. India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Clean India Movement – A step towards cleanliness

Introduction :

The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi had said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence” during his time before the independence of India. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people of India a lot about the cleanliness and sanitation as well as its implementation in the daily lives. After many years of independence of India, a most effective campaign of cleanliness is launched to call people for their active participation and complete the mission of cleanliness. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a Swachh Bharat Mission is launched.

  • In order to fulfill the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and make India an ideal country all over the world, the Prime Minister of India has initiated a campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2nd of October 2014).
  • People can make India clean in a number of ways. First of all, carrying a small poly-bag is a must. Most noteworthy, a recycled paper bag is the best.
  • Indians must certainly use it to throw trash in dustbins. Indians probably throw trash on the street because they dislike carrying it.
  • However, a recycled paper bag makes it easier to carry waste. Hence, Indians can carry this bag to the dustbin for waste disposal.
  • Segregating wastes is also very important. It is something which many Indians ignore. Most noteworthy, the segregation of waste at home should be in 3 separate bins.
  • These 3 bins are Biodegradable, Recyclable and Others. The waste management department should help in implementing this system.
  • Another notable way to clean India is the compost pit. Compost pit helps in the preparation of compost. To create compost pit at home, some items are required.
  • These items are kitchen wastes, leaves, grass, etc. Consequently, the microorganisms convert this organic matter into compost. Through this campaign the government of India would solve the sanitation problems by enhancing the waste management techniques.
  • Clean India movement is completely associated with the economic strength of the country. Community cleanliness drive is yet another brilliant way of making India clean.
  • It has a psychological benefit. This is because it is easier to do a thing when others are doing it. The birth date of the Mahatma Gandhi is targeted in both, the launch and completion of the mission.

Conclusion :

The basic goals behind launching the Swachh Bharat Mission are to make the country full of sanitation facilities as well as eliminate all the unhealthy practices of people in daily routines. Clean India would bring more tourists and enhance its economic condition. The Prime Minister of India has requested to every Indian to devote their 100 hours per year for the cleanliness in India which is very sufficient to make this country a clean country by 2019.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Making India Clean & Healthy

Introduction :

Mahatma Gandhi had said before the independence of India that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people a lot about the cleanliness. To fulfil his dream Swachh Bharat Abhiyan initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd of October in 2014 on the 145th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. Its primary goal is to make India open defecation-free by October 2, 2019, through the construction of at least 12 crore toilets across rural and urban households.

  • As of February 1, 2019, the government claims 9.2 crore toilets built in rural areas. Based on toilet construction, the govt has declared 28 states and UTs as Open Defecation Free.
  • But independent surveys show open defecation continues even in areas that the government has declared Open Defecation Free.
  • It is also found that 23% of people who own a toilet continue to defecate in the open, including people in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, which have been declared open defecation- free states. 
  • The Mission’s objectives also include creating sustainable solid and liquid waste management systems, promoting social inclusion by improving sanitation for women and marginalized communities, and eradicating manual scavenging.
  • Side by side of the main Swachh Bharat Mission, the Indian government also launched the Clean India: Clean Schools campaign.
  • The aim of the campaign was to ensure separate toilets for boys and girls in schools, appropriate sanitary facilities for menstruating students, hand washing station that can cater to at least 10 students at the same time, availability of soaps etc.
  • Our school has all the sanitation equipment necessary to facilitate Clean India, Clean Schools campaign. We have hygienically secure toilets with handwashing facilities.
  • Our female classmates feel comfortable coming to school because of the measures taken to make the girls’ toilet modern and friendly. Our teachers make it a point to emphasise the benefits of personal hygiene.

Conclusion :

In its National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2017-18 (NARSS), the government claimed 77% rural households had access to toilets, of which 93.4% used them regularly. It also claimed 95.6% of the surveyed villages that had been declared ODF were indeed free of open defecation. In urban areas, the government’s target was to build 67 lakh urban toilets by October 2019. It claims it has already built 60 lakh household toilets by October 2018.

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