Essay on Unemployment a threat to internal security
“Of all the aspects of social misery, nothing is so heartbreaking as unemployment.” This statement by Jane Addams shows the vicious cycle of poverty and hunger that leads to crime and unethical activities in the society just because of unemployment. Unemployment is a very big social problem faced by each and every country of the world. Covid-19 has added the fuel to the existing situation due to which lots of people get unemployed and lost their jobs. It is a situation when a skilled person wants to do a job but cannot find it.
- India is one of the developing countries which is suffering from huge unemployment problem. Unemployment does not only mean that the person does not have any work or a job.
- In the same way, unemployment also includes people working in areas out of their expertise or skills. There are various types of unemployment
- such as disguised unemployment, seasonal unemployment, open unemployment, technological unemployment, structural unemployment.
- Besides, some other types of unemployment are cyclic unemployment, underemployment, urban unemployment, chronic and casual unemployment.
- Some major causes of unemployment are 1) high population and illiteracy 2) Defective education system of India leads to inadequate skill development that don’t provide better job opportunities in the market.
- 3) Insufficient industrial development and most of the population is indulge in unorganized sector that did not provide any job security.
- 4) Women are bound by social barriers and thus have less participation in the market workforce. Low rates of saving and investment also causes less job opportunities.
- Unemployment can pose many challenges to internal security of India such as 1) the vulnerable unemployed youth can move on wrong track and get addicted to drugs, gambling, theft and other immoral acts that leads to fatal consequences in their life.
- 2) Unemployed youth may be enticed by anti social elements and they may become part of insurgent groups, naxalites or any terrorist organization. In this way they can become a threat to their own nation and overall harming the economy.
- The government has taken this problem very seriously and have taken various measures to reduce unemployment.
Some of these schemes includes Aatma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, Integrated Rural Development Programme, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Nehru Rozgar Yojana, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) etc. There is a need of revamping education through New Education Policy (NEP). It will help in skill development and rural development is also necessary. Women’s education can change the society, speedy process of job recruitment can decrease the burden on the youth and can solve the problem to a great extent.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs Aatma nirbhar Bharat Swatantra Bharat
Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently announced the ‘Swatantra Bharat campaign’. The aim of this campaign is to make our country free from the dependence of imports form other countries. It also help to develop scientific and technical knowledge to overcome barriers to development. Due to COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent lockdown in India our country is facing economic slowdown.
- Seeing this PM Modi has also announced to provide an economic stimulus package of 20 lakh crores which is 10% of India’s GDP.
- This package aims towards achieving the objectives of self-reliant India Mission by injecting more money into the economy.
- It will also strengthen the efforts to bridge all forms of social and economic inequalities and enable each and every individual to enjoy the fruits of progress.
- Swatantra Bharat campaign also ensuring health and wellbeing for all and achieving sustainable development with concerns of environment rooted in all initiatives.
- This mission will enable our country to cut down import dependence. It will also focus on substitution and quality goods to gain global market share. The mission focuses on the importance of promoting local products to global markets.
- This mission will include all essential sectors like medical, textiles, electronics, plastics and toys where local manufacturing and exports will be promoted world wide.
It will consider products like gems and jewellery, pharma and steel sectors etc. There are labour intensive sectors thereby it will provide huge employment opportunities in the country and provide employment opportunities to all unemployed persons of the country. The progress and objectives of Swatantra Bharat campaign has definitely shown the right path and will save our country from this economic crisis in India.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs Self-Reliant India – Making India Aatmanirbhar
Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently announced the ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan’ which is also known as self-reliant India Mission. The aim of this mission is to self reliance or self-sufficiency. PM Modi has also announced to provide an economic stimulus package of 20 lakh crores which is 10% of India’s GDP. This package aims towards achieving the objectives of self-reliant India Mission by injecting more money into the economy. To address COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent lockdown in India which has led to economic slowdown, self-reliant India Mission is launched.
- The economic package which is 10% of India’s Gross Domestic Product in 2019-20 is announced which include packages already announced at the beginning of the lockdown incorporating measures from the RBI and the payouts under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojna.
- This mission will enable our country to cut down import dependence. It will also focus on substitution and quality goods to gain global market share.
- The mission focuses on the importance of promoting local products to global markets and involves creation of a helping hand to the whole world.
- India completely missed out on the ‘third industrial revolution’ comprising electronic goods, micro-processors, personal computers, mobile phones and decentralised manufacturing and global value chains during the so-called lost decads.
- Today, India is the world’s second largest smartphone market. However, it does not make any of these phones itself, and manufactures only a small fraction of solar photovoltaic cells and modules currently used.
- With entry of foreign corporations, most Indian private companies retreated into technology imports or collaborations. Even today, most R&D in India is conducted by PSUs, and much of the smaller but rising proportion of private sector R&D is by foreign corporations in information technology and biotechnology or pharma.
- The second idea is that inviting foreign direct investment and manufacturing by foreign majors would bring new technologies into India’s industrial ecosystem, obviating the need for indigenous efforts towards self-reliance. However, mere setting up of manufacturing facilities in India is no guarantee of absorption of technologies.
- Countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam have focused on off-shore manufacturing lower down the value chain and without the thrust on self-reliance. This is useful for job creation but is an unsuitable model for a country of India’s size and aspirations.
This mission will be implemented in two phases in the phase one it will consider all essential sectors like medical, textiles, electronics, plastics and toys where local manufacturing and exports will be promoted. These are labour intensive sectors thereby it will provide huge employment opportunities in the country. In phase two, it will consider products like gems and jewellery, pharma and steel etc. The progress and objectives of self-reliant India Mission has definitely shown the right path and will save our country from economic slowdown from this lockdown crisis in India.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs Urban Unemployment – Issues and Challenges
Unemployment is one of the major problems faced by each and every country of the world. It refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented person wanted to do a job but cannot find a proper job. India is one of developing countries which is suffering from a huge unemployment problem. But the unemployment problem in India is not the result of deficiency of demand but the high rate of growth of population. As COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy hard and with large scale job losses, unemployment is the second biggest worry for urban Indians, after the coronavirus infection.
- Around more than 85 percent of self-employed in urban areas claimed to have lost their employment due to this pandemic as per the a survey. This was highest among casual workers in rural parts of the country.
- In fact we can say that employment loss in urban areas was higher than that of in rural areas during the period.
- According to economists, slow functioning of industries, lack of demand in the market are impacting the overall employment in India. Industrial activities have not picked up due to factors like health and labor shortage.
- The government has announced a special economic package of worth Rs. 20 lakh crore which is 10% of India’s GDP in 2019-20 to provide employment benefits to the poor, labourer, migrants both from organized and unorganized sectors who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic.
- In India, there is much reason for a very large section of the population for being unemployed. Some of these factors are population growth, slow economic growth, slow growth of the economic sector, and fall in the cottage industry.
- Moreover, these are the major reason for unemployment in India. The situation has become so worse that highly educated persons are ready to do the job of a sweeper.
- A very significan reason of that a large portion of the population is engaged in the agricultural and allied sector and the sector only provides employment in harvest or plantation time.
- The govt is taking this problem very seriously and have taken measures to slowly reduce unemployment in India.
Some of these schemes includes Integrated Rural Development Programme, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Employment Assurance Scheme, Nehru Rozgar Yojana, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries, and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana etc. Moreover, the primary reason of unemployment in India is its huge population which demands a large number of jobs every year which the government and authorities are unable to provide. The problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage but, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce it.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs National recruitment agency (NRA)-Pros and Cons essay in english
The government of India has approved the creation of a recruitment agency named National Recruitment Agency (NRA). It is an independent body to conduct common preliminary exams for various government jobs. At initial stage, it will conduct a Common Eligibility Test (CET) to shortlist candidates for the Group B and C posts. These examinations are now being conducted by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC), Railways Recruitment Board (RRBs) and Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS).
- Gradually, it will brought all Central government recruitment agencies under NRA. Presently, candidates preparing for government jobs have to appear for separate exams conducted by multiple recruiting agencies for various posts.
- But after the advent of NRA, this complete process will be simplified and easy for students and the agencies. NRA initially will conduct a common eligibility test (CET) exam.
- Based on the CET score a candidate can apply for a vacancy with the respective agency. The CET test will be conducted in 3 levels and these are graduate, higher secondary and the matriculate level.
- Although, the present recruitment agencies namely IBPS, RRB and SSC will remain in place. Based on the testing done at the CET level, final selection of the candidates will be made by separate specialized exams that are Tier 2 and Tier 3 which will be conducted by the respective recruitment agencies.
The score of the CET exam, of the candidate will be valid for three years from the date of declaration of the result. There is no any restriction on the number of attempts to be taken by a candidate to appear in the CET exam. NRA is the need of the hour, as the candidates have to pay fees multiple times to these agencies and also have to travel long distances for appearing in it. Thus the NRA is a combination of convenience and cost-effectiveness for candidates.
National recruitment agency (NRA) benefits the Candidates :
- It is seen that each year, around 3 crore candidates appear for multiple examinations conducted by different agencies for the selection in different government jobs.
- The National recruitment agency (NRA) is framed in such a way that it will save application money of these candidates they need to pay for different examinations.
- National recruitment agency will reduce the mental pressure on candidates for appearing in different exams multiple times.
- Candidates also required to spend money to travel to reach the exam centre because most of the examinations conducted in far urban areas.
- The women candidates also need someone to take them to the examination centre. The NRA will definitely help a lot in saving their travelling expenses.
- Inspite of appearing for different examinations conducted by many exam agencies every year, under the NRA only one exam will be conducted which will save a lot of money and time of the candidates.
- Under the NRA the scores of CET test will be valid for 3 years during which the candidate can apply for jobs in different sectors depending upon their desire and choise.
- The NRA also minimizes clashing of dates of different exams. Many candidates need to prioritize which exam they want to appear as some dates of important exams clash.
- Now the numbers of examination will be limited and the score will be valid for many organizations, candidates will not have to worry about clash of the exam dates any more.
- Candidates from rural areas will also be benefitted from it as they don’t need to travel many times to appear in different entrance examinations which are conducted many times in a year.
NRA benefits Recruiting Agencies & Government :
- The NRA is designed in such a way that it reduces the cost of spending on setting up an exam centre for every exam conducted many times in a year.
- it will also help in saving the money on security. For the security of the examination centre, the recruitment agencies are spending on the movement of troops and officers, which can be reduced to minimum cost. There is no extra security arrangements required.
- Under NRA the curriculum is same, pattern of the exam and level of the exam are also be same. It helps in saving of transportation and lodging cost.
- NRA was first proposed by the government of India in its 2020 budget. This agency is an independent, professional, specialist organisational body and will conduct an exam, which would be known as the CET for the selection to different government jobs in India.
- Candidates have to pay fees to multiple recruiting agencies many times in a year and also have to travel long distances for appearing in various government exams but now the senario has changed.
The Process of NRA :
- Under NRA the examinations have been conducted in 12 different languages and will be based on a common exam.
- Under it, there is a common registration, single fee. The candidates are not required to travel outside the district to appear for the exam many times in a year.
- Under it, There is a special focus on creating examination centres in 117 districts in India.
- A standardised question bank with multiple questions of similar difficulty levels are created in a central server.
- reducing the chances of cheating and paper leakage under it.
- Scores can be generated very easily, delivered online and be valid for a 3 year period.
- The CET test have to be conducted for three levels i.e, graduate, higher secondary and the matriculate level.
- Students can take the CET test multiple times until they are within the eligible age, with their best score being taken into account under it.
- An algorithm is also used to jumble and dole out different questions, so that each candidate receives a different question paper,
Challenges of NRA :
- As the need of growing on transferring services to the private sector, there will be fewer government jobs offer in the near future.
- Only 14% of public employment comes under the Central Government and the rest of the it comes within the purview of State Government. Similar reform are required for the State Government exams.
- We can say that the long-term relevance of such reforms is totally depend on the commitment of governments to raise the public employment opportunites and expand services for the general public.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs Urban unemployment
Unemployment is a serious problem faced by each and every country of the world. It refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented person wanted to do a job but cannot find a proper job. India is one of developing countries which is suffering from a huge unemployment problem. But the unemployment problem in India is not the result of deficiency of demand but the high rate of growth of population.
- As COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy hard and with large scale job losses, unemployment is the second biggest worry for urban Indians, after the coronavirus infection.
- In a survey conducted across India, approximately 87 percent of self-employed respondents in urban areas claimed to have lost their employment due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
- This was highest among casual workers in rural parts of the country. Generally it is seen that employment loss in urban India was higher than in rural areas during the survey period.
- According to economists, slow functioning of industries, lack of demand in the market are impacting the overall employment in India.
- As a matter of fact formal sector jobs will take months to come back. Industrial activities have not picked up due to factors like health and labor shortage.
The government has announced a special economic package of worth Rs 20 lakh crore which is 10% of India’s GDP in 2019-20 to provide employment benefits to the poor, labourers, migrants both from organized and unorganized sectors who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic. The problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage but, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce it.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs Work from Home – A Solution to Unemployment In India
Work From home is a modern work approach where the employees of a company or firm can do their job from home. Work from home gives flexibility to the employees as well as to the employers as the whole work can be done easily from home. It has opened a new range of possibilities for the business houses and companies for their work. With the outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic, work from home has given some employers the flexibility they need to continue their business operations while considering their staffs and customers health and wellbeing.
- Prior to covid-19 pandemic, work from home was on the increase as many employers were identifying its benefits that it can improve their business model and also the work life balance of their employees.
- It also helps to keep productivity of the employees same or even better as at the same time they can handle their personal work too.
- In case some of the employees are facing health related issues then work from home can be a great tool for them. That’s why nowadays, most of the IT & other related companies are offering this option to their employees.
- One advantage of working from home is the freedom. Home workers can organise their work around their home life as they can stop or start work as they wish.
- For example, if they have children, they can easily arrange to take them and pick them up from school. They can also undertake any other tasks that they need to do during the day, such as doing the shopping, and then finish work later.
- Overall then, employees have more control over their lives. But work from home may not be suitable for everyone’s ability. Some employees may prefer the structure of working in an office environment.
- Some staff may prefer personal interaction with colleagues and can find face to face guidance with their manager that help them in completing their tasks.
Working from home may have a negative impact on the support they need to do their job from their seniors. There could be difficulty in managing home workers and monitoring their performance. The companies can encourage the employees to work from home but can also provide certain rules so that the work can be done effectively from home. Like asking employees to work for the hours they work otherwise in office and maintain a proper work schedule. Working from home can be exciting, empowering and even profitable, provided the employees are realistic with pros and cons as responsibilities also come with freedom.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs
Vocal for Local – A boost Unemployment in India
Vocal for Local is an initiative to boost the employment opportunities in India. Our PM Narendra Modi coined the term ‘Vocal for Local’ to encourage the people to promote the local products worldwide. He said in his Independence day speech on 15th August 2020, “The mindset of free India should be ‘vocal for local’. We should appreciate our local products, if we don’t do this then our products will not get the opportunity to do better and will not get encouraged,”
- Vocal for Local initiative encourages the people to start producing their own products and hence, reducing the use of imported goods.
- The need of ‘Vocal for Local’ arose during the lockdown period when all the mediums of transport were on halt and the entire world realize the usefulness of local products.
- Movements such as the “Vocal For Local” campaign can be the best initiative to give a boost to national economy after covid-19 crisis.
- The positive effect of Vocal for Local is seen during the festive seasons like Diwali and Dashara. People of the country appreciated local products and purchased local made diya and many other things used in these festivals instead of Chinese products.
- With good response in Diwali season, we can anticipate that this new initiative will strengthen the local markets in other festive seasons too and take the Indian economy to the next level.
- As the leading brands of the world were once local brands and they became global brands only when local people started buying and using them.
- The local people branded them and then start promoting them. Thus, these were the catalysts to make these local products a global brands from local brands.
- The Vocal for local suggests not only buy local products but also be vocal about promoting local products proudly. The people making local products need support and it is the responsibility of each Indian to buy these products.
India cannot become self-reliant until it has control over its domestic and global supply chains Thus, there is a need to ensure greater control over certain parts of the global value chain to protect strategic interests, especially in healthcare, agriculture and defence sectors. If all Indians adopt the ‘Vocal for Local’ mantra then a lot of Indian products can easily become global. So, let’s do it by purchasing and promoting local products and make our India self-reliant and self-sufficient.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs Migrant Workers during Pandemic in India
A migrant worker is a person who migrates within their home country or outside it for work. Migrant workers do not have the intention to stay permanently in the place where they work. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 24, has caused immense distress to migrant workers around the country. Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. Indian migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced multiple hardships.
- With the closure of factories and workplaces due to the lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty.
- Thousands of them, began walking back home, with no means of transport due to the lockdown. In response, the Government took various measures to help them, and later arranged transport for them.
- The major states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi and Kerala are trying to minimise the loss of labour and are prime states for ‘unlocking’ of economic activity.
- According to the 2011 Census, there are 41 million interstate migrants in India who migrate to other states due to the lack of work opportunities in their home state.
- Poorer, less educated, and from socially disadvantaged communities, survival draws these migrants to the cities. Meagre pay, extended working hours, and unsafe work conditions characterise their exploited labour.
- Covid-19 renders most of them jobless in cities with crushing rents and no access to food or water. Without employment, city life is so burdensome that many risk returning to the safety of their villages, in some cases even at the cost of their lives.
- The disproportionate impact of state policy also breaches the right to equality under Article 14 of the Constitution and imposes a corresponding duty on the government to mitigate negative effects.
- The government has also launched an employment scheme named ‘Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan’ implementing on a mission mode in 125 days in 116 districts of six states – Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
- The scheme was launched after lakhs of migrant workers returned to their home states following loss of employment in urban areas due to the nationwide lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19.
In the long term, India should work towards reducing migrant workers’ vulnerability by amending labour laws. Such amendments should align migrant workers’ conditions with other unorganised sector workers, while also developing norms for food security, repatriation and wage safety in times of emergency. While emergency solutions are urgent, they must pave the way to address more fundamental issues in migrant worker-dominated sectors. The government has already announced schemes like ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ to enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country. But they also need cash for their day-to-day needs.
Unemployment a threat to internal security Vs Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan
Our Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan which is an employment scheme for migrant workers, who returned to villages from cities during lockdown. This Abhiyaan was launched via video conference on 20th, June 2020 from village Telihar in Bihar in the presence of Chief Ministers of five states Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and a minister of Odisha.
- Under the scheme, the aim will be to reduce the economic impact faced by the rural parts of the country due to nationwide lockdown by providing livelihood support to the rural citizens, especially for the migrant workers.
- The Central Government has set up a target of 125 days for achieving the targets under the scheme in 116 districts across the country by bringing together about 25 schemes under the Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyan.
- Industry groups will be formed near villages, towns, and small cities for making make different products from local produce, and packing things.
- Cold storage facilities to be developed at the cost of 1 lakh crore to store farm produce locally. The Abhiyan also provide modern facilities in rural areas. Laying of fibre cable and provision of internet are also made a part of the Abhiyan.
This abhiyaan will provide immediate relief to families of migrant workers while creating infrastructure in rural areas. The scheme like Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana is much needed one as per the current situation of the migrant workers. However, the success of the program depends upon whether its benefits reach the migrant workers in time. The government should also create a database of migrant workers that could be used in the future to create a social security system for them.