Essay on Non Conventional Security Threats in India
“Non conventional security threats are the challenges to the survival and well being of people and states that arises primarily out of non military sources” is a famous statement by Professor MC Anthony. As we are moving towards a better lifestyle and technological advancement, we are facing a lot of non conventional security threats. These threats range from climate change, environmental degradation, resource depletion, illegal migration, food security, cyber crime to health related issues. India’s development has posed many challenges as it has raised the aspiration of people and availability of digital connectivity & cheap data has become a related threat.
- There are around 62% youth in India, if their aspirations are not met, it has the potential to cause social conflict, demonstrations and violence in the society.
- People have realised the power of mass movements and that is something which is exploited from time to time. Crime against women is catching consciousness and there is a lot of resentment against the slow justice system in India.
- There has been a tendency to use violence for political influence. Mobs have been taking the law into their hands to punish individuals with they think not following their way of life.
- Due to the over population, there is a huge burden on limited food resources. India occupies 94th rank in global hunger index, which shows the gap of food supply.
- Cyber domain is also posing lots of challenges of cyber security, data threats, fake identities and frauds. Ransomware continues to remain a major threat.
- Climate change is another non conventional security threat. Heavy use of vehicles increasing the rate of pollution which leads to change in our climate cycle.
- It results in melting of glaciers before time and uncertainty of weather. Social insecurity is also considered as a non conventional security threat. Different people have different types of customs & traditions, cultures, religions and languages.
- When these aspects are in danger of any minority group then their identity is threatened. To tackle these issues government has taken many initiatives like creating National Cyber Security Agency (NCSA) for cyber crime, POSHAN Abhiyan for malnutrition, followed Kyoto Protocol to reduce CO2 to save environment, adopting Denmark model for water crisis and ‘Catch the Rain’ campaign for saving rain water etc.
More emphasis should be taken on sustainable development and resource management programs. Proper health institutions and research centers must be established so that epidemic like Covid-19 can be detected earlier and measures should be taken in advance. It is time to stand together for non conventional security threats as these are more dangerous than any other threats. So people also work together because “good people don’t need laws to tell them to act responsibly.” said by Dalai Lama
Internal Security Challenges In India essay in english :
Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.
- While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
- In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
- Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
- At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
- This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
- Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
- The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security.
- Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.
In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.
Essay on Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security
“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.
Evolution of Naxalism :
- The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
- Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
- The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
- This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
- Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
- According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
How are they spreading ?
They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.
The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.
Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.
Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India
In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.
- In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
- Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
- Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
- Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
- Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
- In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
- Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.
Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?
Social Media as Internal Security issue In India
Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.
- These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
- If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages. The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
- Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
- We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
- Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
- These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
- In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes.
- It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
- Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.
The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.
Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India
Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.
- In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd of his waking hours.
- The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
- Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
- Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
- They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
- They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
- Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
- Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.
We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.
Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India
Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.
- It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
- Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
- A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
- In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
- In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
- Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
- These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
- The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.
Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.
Fake News as a security Issue in India
Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.
- Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
- It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
- It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
- The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
- Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
- Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.
The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.
Essay on farm bill 2020 pros and cons
The Farmers Bills 2020 is consist of three agricultural bills passed by the central government in September 2020. It includes the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, Farmers Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities Bill. These Bills will develop a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. This bill will also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.
- This agriculture Bill provides a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
- It will be beneficial for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land.
- The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings but the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their crops directly to large buyers.
- It will also give the farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply should also made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce.
The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. The government should take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.
Farm Bill 2020 Demand of the Farmers :
- The main demand of the farmers are the revocation of all three bills. These Bills have not been revoked yet & the Lok Sabha passed the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020 & The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020 among the protests of these farmers.
- With the introduction of these bills the mandi system will remain intact. These bills had been claimed by the farmers to end the monopoly of the mandis.
- These new legislation has nothing to do with the Minimum Support Prices (MSPs), it is just providing freedom of choice to sell and buy the produces outside the mandis.
- Later in line with the 2006 Swaminathan report by ‘The National Commission on Farmers’ law should be promulgated for MSP to be at least 50% more than the weighted average cost of production and if the MSP is not paid, it must be a penalized.
- A law should be put in place that will provide guarantee payments from the buyers through middlemen. Middlemen also make money by selling the product for more than its purchase price.
Advantages (Pros) of the new Farm Bills :
- The farmers want a more flexible system.
- Selling produces or crops outside the mandis will generate an additional marketing channel for the farmers.
- The new bill has not brought any major changes, only a parallel system working with the existing system. Prior to these bills, farmers can sell their produce to anywhere in the world, through the e- NAM system.
- The amendment to the Essential Commodities Act which is one of the three bills under protest removes the fear of the farmers.
- The bills ensure that the farmer is given the same attention as production is and the farmer gets the stipulated price for crops, so that farming survives.
- In the existing APMC system, it is compulsory for farmers to go through a trader via Mandis so as to sell their crops to consumers and companies and they receive Minimum Selling Prices for their crops.
Disadvantages (Cons) of the Farm Bills :
- The Farm Bills hampers the monopoly of APMC (agricultural produce market committee) mandis, therefore allowing sale and purchase of crops outside the state government-regulated market mandis.
- The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill does not provide any statutory backing to MSP. The farmers have nothing to do with the legal system but everything to do with the MSP, the minimum price at which they can sell their produce.
- The new bills are placing farmers and traders at the mercy of civil servants.
- The government declares MSPs for crops, but there has been no law about their implementation yet.
- The only crop where MSP payment has some statutory implementation is sugarcane for which FRP is determined. This is due to its pricing being governed by the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966.
Long Essay on farm bill 2020 pros and cons in english
The Farm Bills 2020 is a combination of three agricultural bills passed by Parliament in September 2020. These three bills are the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill. The Bills will create a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. It also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.
- The Bill formulates a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
- It also provides benefits for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land. The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings.
- But the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their products directly to big buyers.
- Farmer unions in Punjab and Haryana say the recent laws enacted at the Centre will dismantle the minimum support price (MSP) system.
- Over time big corporate houses will dictate terms and farmers will end up getting less for their crops. The key demand is the withdrawal of the three laws which deregulate the sale of their crops.
- The farmer unions could also settle for a legal assurance that the MSP system will continue, ideally through an amendment to the laws.
- They are also pressing for the withdrawal of the proposed Electricity (Amendment) Bill 2020, fearing it will lead to an end to subsidised electricity. Farmers say rules against stubble burning should also not apply to them.
- MSP is the minimum price paid by the government when it procures any crop from the farmers. Food Corporation of India (FCI) which is the main state-run grain procurement agency largely buys only paddy and wheat at these prices.
- The FCI then sells these food grains at highly subsidised prices to the poor and is thereafter compensated by the government for its losses.
- The three farm laws have been projected by the government as major reforms in the agriculture sector that will remove middlemen and allow farmers to sell anywhere in the country.
Giving farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply is made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce. The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. It is the responsibility of the government to take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.
Essay on Emerging Threats To India’s Internal Security
Internal security is one of the core focus areas in India. In this technology driven society, the security challenges become more compound and complex. A lot of threats ranging from domestic challenges to external scenarios impact internal security in India. From independence, India has tackled home grown insurgencies, external rebellions, militancy and terrorism. By using a mix of economic, political, military and kinetic approaches, it has been able to deal with these emerging issues threatening the integrity and sovereignty of the country with great success.
- However, these challenges continue to evolve themselves in newer forms. In dealing with the new emerging internal security challenges which remain the most critical, agencies of the state including Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) and police machinery have to remain relevant and effective against the new evolving scenario.
- The rapidly changing internal dynamics of the country needs to be constantly monitored at all levels and aspects.
- Our country has to overcome the challenges of unemployment, poverty, socio-economic divides, communal and sectarian violence, organised crime, drug-trafficking, labour, students’ unrest and political violence.
- Internal security issues tend to grow out of the fissures of the society. The legitimate aspirations of our youth, along with global & local problems of environmental degradation and ill effects of climate change which shows the rising frequency of disasters are all critical in the evolving security scenario.
- Our PM has on numerous occasions highlighted that the core strength of the nation lies in diversity of our varied cultures, beliefs and practices.
- The most critical element is technology. It is altering the security landscape at present time.
- Lightning changes and advancement in hardware, software, miniaturisation in robotics paired with networked communications have fully changed our daily life. These changes have fuelled competition between state and non-state actors.
- A new dimension of risk to personal and national security is being seen in these days. The weaponization of social media, Disinforma-tion, attacks on critical infrastructure of the country all indicate towards a hybrid warfare scenario.
War is no more an effective instrument to achieve the goals. Wars are more transparent and now with other means like covert operations, proxy-war, sabotage and subversion with a mix of technology has become much more difficult to handle. The enemy is invisible in cyberspace and social media which remain borderless in operation. The new risks that present themselves as biological threats are shaping the next generation of warfare. With the changing nature of threats, our approach to deal with should also change as per the situation. The government and security agencies should also be prepared to tackle these issues with changing strategies.