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Essay on Modernization of Indian Armed Forces in english

Introduction :

We often say that freedom is never free and that’s true because Armed Forces are protecting us regularly from external aggression and internal disturbances. Our armed forces have proved their capabilities in this regard. Modernization of armed forces is a continuous process based on eliminating threats, security challenges and technical issues. The military forces of republic of India consists of Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air force. The supreme commander of the Indian armed forces is the President of India.

  • Defense ministry manages the three organizations with changing times and warfare strategies. In the recent introduced budget, around Rs 4.78 lakh crores allocated to ministry of defense.
  • This allocation helps our armed forces to be modernized with the time. As the country emerges as the global power, it must build its military power capability to fight new challenges coming its way.
  • Since we have the 3rd largest army in the world but somewhere we lack in our defense security. We need faster procurement of advanced weapons in view of emerging threats to its security.
  • Some threats like cyber warfare, space warfare, negative use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) etc are need to be tacked through proper modernization techniques.
  • Our Prime Minister addressed on the effective implementation of the provisions of the union budget 2021-22 in the defense sector, urges the private players to come forward and take the responsibility of both designing and manufacturing of equipments.
  • For Proper modernization of armed forces, various deals have occurred like 36 Rafel Jets deal from France, S-400 rifle system from Russia, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) technology adoption from Israel and United States under defense procurement procedure.
  • It is the time when we should boost up these deals and complete the targets. In our armed forces, Navy has very significant capabilities gaps as per maritime capability perspective plan by 2027, India has approved around 200 ships but still need more to cover the targets.
  • Because China is the biggest threat in marine territories for our country. There are various initiatives launched by the government like Capital Acquisition Budget (CAB), it can enhance approximately 64% of its modernization funds in 2021-22.

Conclusion :

MSMEs and starting various startups as defense India startup challenge is one of them. Atmanirbahar bharat and Make in India schemes are very useful to do modernization of armed forces which is the need of the hour. Various organizations are helpful to tackle these challenges such as Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Since government has taken the steps to modernize or to improve the security system, still there is a need to boost the defense Public Sector Units and we have to manufacture our own weapons and equipment so that our country can become the superpower in the world.

Essay on Modernization of Indian Armed Forces

Introduction :

We often say that freedom is never free and that’s true because Armed Forces are protecting us regularly from external aggression and internal disturbances. Our armed forces have proved their capabilities in this regard. Modernization of armed forces is a continuous process based on eliminating threats, security challenges and technical issues. In the recent introduced budget, around Rs 4.7 lakh crores allocated to ministry of defense. This allocation helps our armed forces to be modernized with the time.

  • India is the second largest importer of arms after Saudi Arabia. It affects our military capabilities during war situation.
  • Some threats like cyber warfare, space warfare, negative use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) etc. are need to be tacked through proper modernization techniques.
  • For Proper modernization of armed forces, various deals have occurred like 36 Rafel Jets deal from France, S-400 rifle system from Russia, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) technology adoption from Israel and United States under defense procurement procedure.
  • It is the time when we should boost up these deals and complete the targets. In our armed forces, Navy has very significant capabilities gaps as per maritime capability perspective plan by 2027, India has approved around 200 ships but still need more to cover the targets.
  • Because China is the biggest threat in marine territories for our country. There are various initiatives launched by the government like Capital Acquisition Budget (CAB), it can enhance approximately 64% of its modernization funds in 2021-22.
  • MSMEs and starting various startups as defense India startup challenge is one of them. Atmanirbahar bharat and Make in India schemes are very useful to do modernization of armed forces which is the need of the hour.

Conclusion :

Public Private Partnership (PPP) helps seven proposed projects which worths 2000 crores including major ports operations under Sagarmala Project. Apart from this various challenges hinder our path such as acquisition process of India is very tardy like red tapism, lack of proper industrial base, down grade capabilities of public manufacturing sector etc. Various organizations are helpful to tackle these challenges such as Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) etc. Proper roadmap should be required for upcoming 10 to 15 years regarding defense modernization proper implementation of policies can make India a superpower nation in the world.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces essay in english

Introduction :

The military forces of republic of India consists of Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Airforce. The supreme commander of the Indian armed forces is the President of India. Defense ministry manages the three organizations with changing times and warfare strategies. The defense forces are at utmost need of being modernized to effectively counter the rising challenges along the border and insurgencies beyond the borders. As the country emerges as the global power, it must build its military power capable to fight new challenges coming its way.

  • Since we have the 3rd largest army in the world but somewhere we lack in our defense security. We need faster procurement of advanced weapons in view of emerging threats to its security.

Modernization of the Indian armed forces is very complex process and it focuses on several points-

1) System of command and control.

2) System and equipment that would better protect and provide the safe assistance to the troops.

3) Information system that involves the framework for surveillance of air and marine space.

  • As our PM addressed on the effective implementation of the provisions of the union budget 2021-22 in the defense sector, he urges the private players to come forward and take the responsibility of both designing and manufacturing of equipments.
  • In the current scenario India is the second largest importer of the defense procurement in the world after Soudi Arabia. India has its own advanced weapon system and equipments.

Conclusion :

Total amount of 4.78 crores has been allocated for ministry of defense in the budget with nearly 19% increase in capital outlay. Also Rs 2000 crores worth 7 projects have been proposed in Public Private Partnership in financial year 2021-22. Defense India startup challenges started by the defense ministry shall be lauded. Since government has taken the steps to modernize or to improve the security system, still there is a need to boost the defense Public Sector Units (PSUs) and we have to manufacture our own weapons and equipments. 

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Space Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

India is developing itself into a big technology giant along with the latest technology. India is also proving itself in space technology. Outer space has become a new area of  competition and conflicts between different countries. It is important for us to focus on our space security. With the growth in technological and operational capabilities and the potential for space domain, it is continuously becoming more and more complex area.

  • From seeing space through telescope to sending human being in space, we have come to long way. Over the last few decades, space technology has played an important role in connecting the world.
  • It is used in various sectors like television broadcasting, mobiles phone networks, satellite communications, GPS and meteorology etc.
  • Rapid change in space technology also comes with the danger of attack on it as it is also used for security purposes which raises the concerns.
  • There are many security issues which increases the analysis of space security. 1) The possibility of collision of satellite into the space is rising which leads to conflicts.
  • 2) There is a rapid increase in cyber threats to space assets. 3) There is an increase of space debris. 4) Today weaponisation of space has becomes a big threat to space security.
  • India need not to weaponise the space but at the same time should also not remain behind. Therefore, apart from auxiliary and defensive system, India has established a weaponized system under Mission Shakti.
  • India has tested its first Anti satellite (ASAT) in 2019 during the operation named Mission Shakti. Creation of Defence Space Agency (DSA) and a  space warfare exercise called IndSpaceEx also shows space advancement of India.
  • For protecting Indian satellites  from debris and other hazards, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has launched an early warning system project named NETRA.
  • Under NETRA project, ISRO will put up many observational facilities like telescopes, connected radars, data processing units, and a control center.
  • The United Kingdom (UK) has made a recent proposal called “Reducing Space Threats through Norms, Rules and Principles of Responsible Behaviors”. It is aimed at looking at problems in space through a bottom-up approach. 
  • Countries must reach to a common understanding of basic building blocks of a governance regime such as effective measures to improve safety, security and sustainability of space activities and implementation of transparency etc.

Conclusion :

The government need to invest in developing mutual interest. National Security today is under great stress and the role of technology is very important in the future wars. Today, National Security is not the responsibility of the Armed Forces alone. Space has the potential to provide an edge to our Armed Forces, which would bring a historical change in the National Security policy of India. 

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Technological Development in India

Introduction :

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information. New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.

  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems.
  • The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains. In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable.
  • The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society. Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science.

Conclusion :

When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Essay on India US relationships

Introduction :

“When diplomacy ends, war begins” is a popular statement of Adolf Hitler. It is seen that most of the wars begin due to toxic relationship between two or more nations. That is why the diplomatic relationship is strategically very important for every country.  India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, edu-cation, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health.

  • There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India is a developing country and have a huge market which is a big opportunity for all developed countries like USA.
  • US is also important for India in terms of resolving the issues regarding internal security and terrorism from neighbouring countries.
  • US is a major export hub of India and imports crude oil and hydrocarbons. USA is also a home of around 4 million Indians and we get huge amount of remittance from them.
  • We can also see lots of Indians who took various constitutional post in US government. India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs.
  • Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-China war. US didn’t support India in Bangla-desh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test which is known as Smiling Buddha, at Pokhran.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), also participated in Malabar exercise. A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue between India & US started which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities.
  • However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle. Along with these friendly exchanges, India-US relationship also experiences some toxic movements.

Conclusion :

US regularly point out human rights violation in Kashmir. India’s tariffs on imports are also considered as a hindrance to smoother trade. In international politics, there is no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. As partnership between India and US would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity so both the governments must now try to complete the unfinished agreements regardless of the differences between them.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & India US relations essay in english

Introduction :

India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, education, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health. There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India and the US have thrown off the yoke of colonialism and have drafted the constitution that begins with the same three words : “ We the people”.
—– Barack Obama
Do you know when Christopher Columbus discovered America he actually thought it was India and called them Indians.

  • A partnership between the world’s oldest democracy and the world’s largest democracy is best for both worlds.
  • But India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs. Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-Sino war.
  • US didn’t support India in Bangladesh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test at Pokhran(Code-named: Smiling Buddha).

Convergence in Relations

  • Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement(COMCASA), is a military agreement that allows both the nations to share and completely rely on the encrypted communications and equipment.
  • A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
    Placed Pakistan on the grey-list of the Financial Action Task Force and played a vital role in countering China.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement(BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quad, participated in Malabar exercise.

Divergence in Relations

Trade Deal : Trade has been a major altercation between both countries and US referred India as “tariff king” that imposes “tremendously high” import duties.

US-Pakistan Equation : US has softened its position on Pakistan in the last few months, due to the role Pakistan can play in the Afghan deal (between the US and the Taliban). In return, Pakistan wants the US support.

Internal Issues in India : India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities. However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle.

Conclusion :

In international politics, there are no permanent friends and no permanent enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. India-US relation remains pivotal to reinforce the world order in the 21st century. As partnership would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity the two governments must now strive to complete the unfinished agreements, regardless of the differences and enhance the
US-India ties. 

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.

Conclusion :

Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents. There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

“The purpose of nuclear weapons is to deter. The mission of deterrence to make all parties in possession of nuclear weapons never ever use them” is a very significant statement of Rick Wilson. The nuclear doctrine of India is based on the principle that it will use a nuclear weapon only against retaliation purposes. Nuclear Doctrine based on three pillars which are “No First Use, “Credible Minimum Deterrent” and “Civilian Control”. India’s Nuclear doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent.

  • India became a nuclear power country without signing a non prolife-ration treaty. (1) No First Use : As per the Nuclear doctrine, India conforms to a No First Use Policy when it comes to nuclear weapons.
  • (2) Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nuclear forces, a vigorous command and control system and early warning capabilities.
  • The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivability will be central to India’s nuclear deterrent. The nuclear doctrine demands a highly effective military capability.
  • Nuclear policy in general, is how a country with a nuclear weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful military decision.
  • After independence, a group of Indian scientists led by Homi Bhabha convinced Pt Jawaharlal Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test code named “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II in 1998 for which India faced universal condemnation.
  • The USA said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike. Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons namely the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea.

Conclusion :

Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. The most important aspect of India’s nuclear doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nuclear disarmament. As India has the largest thorium reserves in the world and hence can exceed easily in this sphere. India only lacks in trained human resources and technology required to convert fuel to power and if achieved, then India will become one of the most prosperous nations of the world.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & India’s Nuclear policy essay in english

Introduction :

Our nuclear weapons are meant purely as a deterrent against nuclear adventure by an adversary. —Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons: the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea. India’s Journey from non-nuclear state to nuclear state was challenging. Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. However, India remained pro-nuclear disarmament.

Foreign Policy Experts saw a paradox in India’s Foreign Policy i.e., on one hand, India wanted to develop nuclear weapons and on another hand, India called for global disarmament.

India’s Nuclear-weapons journey

  • Shortly after independence, a group of Indian scientists led by physicist Homi Bhabha convinced Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test codenamed “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan under Indira Gandhi’s leadership. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II on May 11, 1998. India faced universal condemnation in the aftermath of the Pokhran II tests.
  • The United States said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision, the United Kingdom expressed its “displeasure,” and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • In 1999, India came out with an explicit nuclear doctrine emphasising “minimal deterrence, no first use and non-use against non-nuclear weapon states”.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike.
  • India must ensure that deterrence does not fail, and that there is a clear communication to the adversary of the certainty of harsh nuclear retaliation.
  • India’s nuclear doctrine should be periodically reviewed and updated, possibly every decade or so,taking into account technological developments and changes in the security environment.
  • Instead of focusing on adopting a first strike policy, India must work towards strengthening its counter strike and second strike capability.

Conclusion :

India’s third leg, its sea based nuclear deterrence, must be strengthened at the earliest. The Balakot strikes that followed the Pulwama attack demonstrate that the Narendra Modi government is not shy of taking cross-border military action. If another sub-conventional attack, say a terror attack, occurs on Indian soil anytime soon, these theories will likely be
tested. If Indian policymakers do indeed feel the need to review the nation’s nuclear doctrine,
they should be cognizant of the costs involved in so doing.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Long essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

The nucleur doctrine of India is based on the principle that India will only use a nucleur weapon in retaliation to a country’s attempt of attacking India, Its states or uses the weapon in peace and at the time of war. Nuclear Doctrine based on 3 pillars which are “No 1st Use, “Credible minimum deterrent” and “Civillian Control”. India’s Nucleur doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent. It is a consensus document and does not restrict the country from exercising its nucleur weapon option in any manner.

  • India became a nucleur power country without signing a non proliferation treaty which makes it the first country to have accomplished something like this.
  •  No 1st Use : As per the Nucleur doctrine, India conforms to a no 1st Use policy when it comes to nucleur weapons. The theories of no 1st use and deterrence go hand in hand.
    It is universally acknowledged that a nucleur war between 2 nucleur powers would only.
  • Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nucleur forces, a vigorous command and control system, effectual intelligence and early warning capabilities. The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivility will be central to India’s nucleur deterrent. The nucleur doctrine demands a highly effective millitary capability.
  • Nucleur Command Authority : On 4th June, 2003, India unveiled 3 tier NCA to manage Raj Sarkar India’s Nucleur Policy its army with a nucleur weapon.
  • Nucleur policy in general, is how a country with a nucleur weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful millitary decision.
  • NCA comprises political council headed by prime minister, executive council headed by national security advisor to PM and strategic forces command.
  • Strategic forces command (SFC) would be responsible for the administration of the nucleur force and will be tasked with the nucleur weapon.

Conclusion :

SFC is 2nd tri service command in India. The 1st one was set up in Andaman and nicobar islands in 2001.Establishment of NCA will add credibility to nucleur policies in India. The most important aspect of India’s nucleur doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nucleur disarmament. The 5 major nucleur nations are antipathic to relinquishing their monopoly over the production and deployment of Nucleur weapon while denying a similar priviledge to other countries.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & ISRO’s Space Mission

Introduction :

India is fast progressing in the field of space research. It is emerging as a big name in this field. The country is now capable of launching its own spacecraft. Now India has made landmark progress with the launch of Chandrayan for its moon mission. India started its space programme with the launch of first space satellite ‘Aryabhatta’ on April 19, 1975. This space satellite was named after the great Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century, Aryabhatta.

  • India’s space programme is primarily driven by the vision of great scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. He is considered as the Father of Indian Space Programme.
  • The launching of Chandrayan I in 2008 marked a milestone in the history of space technology of India.
  • The spacecraft was launched by PSLV C11 on 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Chandrayaan 2 was launched on July 22, 2019 & made use of the advanced Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III). The craft reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019.
  • Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments.
  • However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory and had lost communication. 

Conclusion :

As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram. India made successive progress in the field of space research. It has now become self-reliant in terms of launching vehicles and telecommunications. Now India offers telecommunication services to other countries as well. Now the country enjoys a respectful position in the countries of the world.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Chandrayaan 2 – ISRO’s Another Milestone

Introduction :

Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that will explore the Moon’s south polar region. It is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It consists of a lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. The main scientific objective is to study the variations in lunar surface composition, as well as the location and abundance of lunar water.

  • The mission was launched on 22 July 2019 by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III. The craft reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019.
  • Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks.
  • However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory and had lost communication. As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram.
  • Both ISRO and NASA are in the process of trying to restore communications through their respective Deep Space Networks.
  • The mission’s lander is called Vikram named after Vikram Sarabhai who is widely regarded as the founder of the Indian space programme.

Conclusion :

The mission’s rover is called Pragyan would have operated on solar power. The rover was to move on 6 wheels traversing 500 meters on the lunar surface, perform on-site analyses and send the data to the lander. Chandrayaan-2 orbiter has located the lander Vikram on the lunar surface and beamed its first picture back to the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Save Energy – Making the world Bright

Introduction :

Energy conservation refers to the efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy. The energy on Earth is not in unlimited supply. Energy can take plenty of time to regenerate. This certainly makes it essential to conserve energy. Energy conservation is achievable either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service usage. Energy conservation plays an important role in saving non-renewable energy resources. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources take many centuries to regenerate.

  • Moreover, humans consume energy at a faster rate than it can be produced. Therefore, energy conservation would lead to the preservation of these precious non-renewable sources of energy.
  • Energy conservation will reduce the expenses related to fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are very expensive. Therefore, consumers are required to pay higher prices for goods and services.
  • Energy conservation would certainly reduce the amount of fossil fuel being mined. This would reduce the costs of consumers.
  • Energy conservation would also strengthen the economy as consumers will have more disposable income to spend on goods and services.
  • Energy conservation is good for scientific research. This is because energy conservation gives researchers plenty of time to conduct researches.
  • These researchers will have more time to come up with various energy solutions and alternatives. Humans must ensure to have fossil fuels as long as possible.
  • This would give enough time to finding practical solutions. Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection.
  • Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection. This is because various energy sources are significantly harmful to the environment.
  • Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels considerably pollutes the atmosphere. Moreover, nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste. Hence, energy conservation will lead to environmental protection.
  • Energy conservation would also result in the good health of humans. The pollution released due to energy sources is harmful to the human body. The air pollution due to fossil fuels can cause various respiratory problems.
  • Another important way of energy conservation is by using energy-efficient products. Energy-efficient products are those that use lesser energy than their normal counterparts.

Conclusion :

One prominent example can be using an energy-efficient LED bulb rather than a normal light bulb. The sun and the winds are always part of our life. And they are abundantly available in many countries. Also, such energy is clean energy which does not emit carbon dioxide, the main culprit in global warming. Today there are many energy- efficient alternatives for all kinds of appliances. So we have the power to make better choices for reducing our consumption of energy. Mahatma Gandhi absolutely right said, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed”. Energy conservation is considered as a quick and economical way to solve the problem of power shortage.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Artificial Intelligence A Threat To Mankind

Introduction :

Artificial Intelligence (AI) indicates the intelligence of machines that is totally different from the natural intelligence of humans and animals. With the advancement in technology now with Artificial Intelligence, machines perform different types of functions such as learning, planning, reasoning, decision making and problem-solving. In short we can say that the ability of a computer or a machine to operate and process information just like a human being is called Artificial Intelligence.

  • It can learn, analyze and adapt to new information. We should also aware of threats that may be caused by Artificial Intelligence. Today we are living in the era of machines.
  • We depend on different types of machines for our daily activities. For example we use AC, microwaves, cameras, computer, traffic lights, fridge etc. that work on Artificial Intelligence. As we are highly depends on AI based machines it may be disastrous for us.
  • AI is making humans lazy as it usually automate the most of our task. Humans tend to get addicted to these machines which can cause a problem to future generations too.
  • Most of the companies are looking to replace the minimum qualified individuals with AI robots which can do similar task with more efficiency.
  • There is no doubt that machines are much better and  work efficiently but they cannot replace the human connection that makes a team. Machines cannot develop a bond with humans which is an essential attribute for team management.
  • Machines can perform only those tasks which they are designed to do, anything out of that they tend to give irrelevant outputs which could be a major drawback.
  • In the hands of the wrong person, autonomous weapons that are designed to kill could easily cause mass destruction. Artificial intelligence will change the way conflicts are fought from autonomous drones, robotic swarms and nanorobot attacks.
  • Moreover, an AI arms race may lead to an AI war that also results in mass casualties. In addition to being concerned with a nuclear arms race, we’ll need to monitor the global autonomous weapons race too.
  • AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren’t designed according to our benefits then its a big problem as there is no emotion in AI based machines.
  • AI’s face recognition capabilities give us conveniences such as being able to unlock phones and gain access to our house without keys.

Conclusion :

AI’s ability to monitor the global information systems from surveillance data, cameras, and network communication has great potential for good and for bad based on our usage. Every new invention has some positive and negative aspects but we should use the positive sides of the invention to create a better world. Some people also say that Artificial intelligence can destroy human civilization if it goes into the wrong hands. But still, none of the AI applications made that can destroy humanity from the earth.

.

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Abhilash Kumar

The author Abhilash Kumar

Abhilash Kumar is the founder of “Studyguru Pathshala” brand & its products, i.e. YouTube, Books, PDF eBooks etc. He is one of the most successful bloggers in India. He is the author of India’s the best seller “Descriptive Book”. As a social activist, he has distributed his books to millions of deprived and needy students.

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