Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir
“Security is a process, not a product.” is a very famous quote by Bruce Schneier. Almost everyday, we hear the news about the Jammu and Kashmir militancy. Militancy is a kind of aggressive activism or combativeness in support of a particular cause. The Kashmir Valley has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since independence. Over the period both the countries have tried to resolve the issues but of no effect. In 1947, at the time of independence the state was ruled by hindu king Hari Singh, whereas the state
- Comprised 77% muslims. The northern Kashmir part is dominated by Muslims, Jammu is dominated by Hindus and the region of ladakh is dominated by Buddhists and Shia Muslims.
- This situation makes this state culturally and linguistically diverse. During the partition, Hari Singh did not accede to either Pakistan or India. As a result, Pakistan sent troops to acquire the territory.
- However, Hari Singh then signed the Instrument of Accession to India to protect its state. Amidst the skirmish, Pakistan acquired large north western part of Jammu & Kashmir which is referred as
- Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) in India and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. This is the time of starting the hostility between India and Pakistan. After the defeat in war of 1947, 1965 and 1971, Pakistan has resorted to the tactics of low intensity war.
- Infiltration through the Pakistan border led to establishment of new terrorist organization like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaise-e-Mohammed and many more.
- The Kashmiri Pandits were forced to leave their land, their houses and livelihood and move to other parts of India. Also they displayed the power of militancy, they started to brainwash the youth in J&K.
- Pakistan did the terror funding and trained the youth against India. These organizations were responsible for many attacks in India and insurgency and disturbance in Jammu and Kashmir.
- Apart from this, Pakistan frequently raised human rights alarm in United Nation and other international organizations against India.
- One of the severe effect of militancy in J&K is youth radicalisation. As more than 65% population in India is less than 35 year age. So militancy groups have target on youth to misguide them.
One of the best step taken by government was demonetization to stop terror funding. Operation All-Out which is an anti militancy operation launched by government to flush out insurgents from Kashmir. The government has been working on various infrastructure projects like rail links, education and health facilities, tourism to lead the region on the path of development. More diplomatic channels as well as military strategies need to be opened up to end this issue and in this way Kashmir can become the Crown of India forever.
Essay on Abrogation of Article 370 and 35a
The article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After passing a statutory resolution on scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 was abrogated by Indian Government on 5th August 2019 and Rajya Sabha had passed a Reorganization Bill 2019 which had effectively bifurcated the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
- As per the Article 370, the provisions of the constitution which apply to other states do not apply to Jammu and Kashmir until and unless the state legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmir separately passes such provision except provisions related to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications.
- The residents of the state of Jammu & Kashmir had a separate law and provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties & these were not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
- After abrogation of article 370, Jammu and Kashmir is no longer enjoy special status and the laws of Indian Constitution are applicable to all residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh including provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties.
- Article 35A has been abrogated and now Indian tricolour is National Flag for J&K and Ladhak also. Right to Information and Right to Education are now applicable to J&K & Ladhak union territories.
- The Panchayats are now enjoying the same powers as in other states. With abrogation of Article 370, tenure of J&K state Assembly is now be of five years as in other parts of state which till now had a special status with a 6-year tenure.
- The Union Territories (UTs) now have a Chief Minister and a Lt Governor and all financial bills will need to cleared by Lt Governor.
- Indian Penal Code (IPC) had replaced Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) to deal with criminal matters. With addition of two new UTs, total number of union territories are now 8 i.e. J&K, Ladakh, Delhi, Puducherry, Diu and Daman & Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Post the repeal of the Article 370, doors to private investment in J&K are opened, which helps in increasing the potential for development there. Increased investments also leads to increased job creation and further betterment of socio-economic infrastructure in the state. The Government is now able to provide better medical, education facilities to citizens of J&K and have better position to curb terrorism. The Opening of buying of lands bring in investments from private individuals and multinational companies and also give a boost to the local economy.
Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir Vs National Register of Citizens (NRC) Issues in India
The National Register of Citizens (NRC), is the list of Indian citizens in Assam. National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses in a serial order and indicating names of persons staying therein. It is being updated to weed out illegal immigration from Bangladesh and neighbouring regions.
- Recently Assam released the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which included 1.9 crore names out of a total applicant pool of 3.29 crore.
- The political leaders have assured that everyone will be given a fair and patient hearing to prove their citizenship.
- The Supreme Court recently issued a notice to the centre and the Election Commission of India on a plea seeking that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) be updated to include Tripura.
- The final draft of the NRC in Assam was released, excluding four million residents of the state.
- An updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
- It will provide a verified dataset to carry out meaningful debates and implement calibrated policy measures.
- Though the draft provides a window for re-verification, due to large number of people being excluded from the list, it will be very difficult to physically verify all of them.
- This draft of the NRC is however not final and people can still appeal against the non-inclusion of their names in the NRC.
Several religious and linguistic minority groups are also opposing the NRC as discriminatory and undemocratic. The main purpose of NRC is to separate illegal immigrants from legitimate residents of Assam. The immediate consequence of it is that several lakh individuals will lose their right to vote. The claims of those left out in the NRC must be heard carefully. There is a need for a robust mechanism of legal support for the four million who have to prove their citizenship to India with their limited means.
Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir Vs Internal Security Challenges in India
Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.
- While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
- In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
- Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
- At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
- This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
- Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
- The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security.
- Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.
In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.
Fake News as a security Issue in India Vs Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir
Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.
- Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
- It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
- It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
- The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
- Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
- Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.
The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.
Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India (Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir)
In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.
- In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
- Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
- Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
- Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
- Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
- In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
- Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.
Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?
Social Media as Internal Security issue In India (Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir)
Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.
- These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
- If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages. The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
- Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
- We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
- Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
- These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
- In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes.
- It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
- Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.
The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.
Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India (Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir)
Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.
- It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
- Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
- A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
- In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
- In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
- Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
- These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
- The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.
Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.
Essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India
“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought.” — SC judge Anthony M .Kennedy. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian constitution guarantees the citizens of the India , the right to freedom of speech and expression. There are some facets of Freedom of speech and expressions (FOSE). Some of these are freedom of press, commercial advertisements, government has no monopoly over Electronic media, Right to information and Publishing one’s opinions on digital society etc.
Why FOSE sometimes is considered as challenge to Public order?
Public order is defined as a state of prevailing of peace and tranquility in the society any act that affects the law and order or may lead to disturbance of harmony of society is considered as an issue in the interest of public order.
What did make the FOSE a buzz word recently?
– Supreme court of India upheld the petition that challenged the Internet shutdown in many places like Uttarpradesh, Assam specifically in Jammu and Kashmir in 2019 and 2020 after the promulgation of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.
– High court of Tripura also supported the freedom of expression of public officers on social media platforms.
– Power of the day again and again used sedition charges those who criticized the policies of government publically.
Challenges to India because of FOSE?
In the scope of Security of the state any act that aggravate or encourage commission of violent crimes is considered as a violation of Indian penal code(IPC).
Under Foreign Relation Act (FRA), 1932 any malicious propaganda that has intention to vitiate friendly relation with other nation is punishable , this does not include the country namely Pakistan.
Though it is not clearly elaborated in IPC any speech that jeopardize the decency and morality is regarded as punishable offence.
Unrestricted allegations against government of the day is spreading like a wild fire which needs continuous scrutiny and at the same time maintaining constitutional rights of the issues in public interest. The same constitution mentions, namely Article 19 (2), conditions under which the FOSE can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the barriers of socially well accepted norms and that put the dignity and reputation of the state at a stake. It would augur well if we use the rights within the perimeter put by Indian constitution with well sate of mind and discretion.
Long essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India
India constitution guarantees every Indian the freedom of speech irrespective of gender (sex), caste, creed or religion. This is a fundamental freedom which is guaranteed and that defines the values of democracy in any nation. The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions & thoughts and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian democracy. Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of our democracy.
- The kind of freedom of speech we find in many democratic countries like UK, USA, France or Germany is not seen in authoritarian governments like Malayasia, China or Syria and is failed democracies Pakisthan or Rwanda.
- These governance systems are failed due to lack of freedom of speech in their countries. The freedom of speech of a country can apprently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country.
- A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democritic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
- Mostly some governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent of criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
- This is a dangerous precedent for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can rest assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking and the same way of opinion on a given topic.
- The difference of opinions and respect we have for each other in a policy-making body is what makes us a true democracy. All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice.
- A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy but a bad one will blindside its critics and takes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens.
- The sedition law, under section 124A of Indian Penal Code, says that if a person by words either by written or spoken brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or a person can be fined or jailed or both.
- This law is never used in its spirit. British used to use this law to silence the freedom fighters of India and now the ruling parties of India use this to stifle the dissenters and is harming the democratic values of the country.
- Inspite of various laws that protect the people of India in rightly fully exercising their freedom of expression in India. But while the laws stay, its implementation that are proving to be a big challenge for the authorities in India.
- At the same time, freedom of speech and expression can’t be absolute. No one can cause violence, hatred, bigotry and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech.
- This will harm the very reason why freedom of speech is allowed in the first place. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.
When article 370 was abrogated in Kashmir, freedom of speech was stifled, not because the government wanted to stifle democratic values but to prevent the spread of fake news, put a curb on terrorism and any sorts of preventing communal tensions in the area. Governments around the world should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people.