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Precis Writing

IB ACIOPrecis Writing

Reading Comprehension exercise for Ib Acio Tier 2

Reading Comprehension exercise for Ib Acio Tier 2

Passage -1

In 18th-century Germany, Baron Munchausen regales his friends, over drinks, with stories of his many adventures. These include his supposed travel to the moon. Long before Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin stepped out of Apollo 11 onto the surface of the moon 50 years ago, on July 20, 1969, the aspiration to travel to this shiny orb in the sky has fired human imagination. A Flight To The Moon by George Fowler, From The Earth To The Moon – and its sequel, Around The Moon – by Jules Verne, The First Men In The Moon by HG Wells, Prelude To Space by Arthur C Clarke are only a few of the many fictionalised accounts that have, for centuries, reflected this aspiration. In the 1954 Explorers On The Moon, iconic comic book character, Tintin, reaches the moon.

While some writers imagined the moon’s surface to be barren and uninhabited, others have written about it being populated with lunar beings. Even when Apollo 11 mission was being planned and worked on, in 1963, Apollo At Go by Jeff Sutton, presented a realistic fictionalised portrayal of the upcoming landing. The successful landing of Apollo 11 and Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin’s walk on the moon, opened up another exciting possibility – could the common man or non-space-scientist reach for the moon? Literally? What had hitherto been in the realm of speculation was now a reality and we weren’t satisfied with just second-hand information any more. Between 1969 and 1972, the US sent six successful manned missions to the moon, and with each victory, the lunar destination seemed a little closer within the reach of the common man.

1) When did the US send first successful manned trip to the moon?

2) Who was the first person to speak of travel to the moon?

3) How many fictional books written about travelling to the moon are referred to here?

4) What is the advantages of imagination ?

5) Give a suitable title for the passage.

1) When did the US send first successful manned trip to the moon?

Answer  : The US sent its first successful manned trip to the moon in 1969. Using Apollo
11 Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin traveled to the surface of the moon and landed on it. The US also sent five other successful manned missions to the moon between 1969 and 1972.

2) Who was the first person to speak of travel to the moon?

Answer  : ‘Baron Munchausen regales his friends….These include his supposed travel to the moon’ this line says that it was Baron Munchausen who first spoke of travel to the moon in the 18th century, well before the actual manned mission.

3) How many fictional books written about travelling to the moon are referred to here?

Answer  : Seven fictional books are referred to about travelling to the moon. They are as follows :- A Flight To The Moon by George Fowler, From The Earth To The Moon – and its sequel, Around The Moon – by Jules Verne, The First Men In The Moon by HG Wells, Prelude To Space by Arthur C Clarke, On The Moon, Apollo At Go by Jeff Sutton.

4) What is the advantages of imagination ?

Answer  : Imagination brings out creativity. It allows exploration beyond any restriction. In this context it is this urge that drove the man to aspire to travel to the shiny orb in the form of fictionalised accounts, which eventually took its shape.

5) Give a suitable title for the passage.

Answer  : According to the passage An Expedition to the moon : Fiction to reality is
the suitable title.

Passage -2 

Science and technology is dominating not only the psyche of humanity but also the whole biosphere on the earth. How does science influence civilization and how is it related to human happiness? The original, cosmic evolution of the biosphere was one that promoted, supported, nourished, sustained and enhanced life. Life went on adding to the evolution with newer species and ecosystems, even more beautiful and vibrant than the ones before.

Our biosphere accommodated a pleasant weather cycle and climate system to support these newer species, keeping everything in dynamic equilibrium. Now the biosphere is overburdened and ailing. Some of our ecosystems have already collapsed, while others are at death’s door. Ever increasing pollution coupled with over–exploitation of natural resources and greenhouse gas emissions is driving several species towards extinction.

This phenomenon that has occurred by itself, and neither has it been caused by, human beings alone. But it definitely has been spurred by so–called advances in technology. In this millennium, we no longer live in a, biosphere – we are inhabitants of a technosphere. A technosphere is an impaired biosphere that has no affinity with values of life nor with sustainability and evolution of life.

Although technology has empowered civilization, it has also reduced it to being a mere tool of science and technology. And when the whole civilization turns technocratic, science and technology are bound to dominate, causing life to shrink. The intensifying climate crisis is but a symptom of the biosphere’s illness and life’s gradual collapse. We’ve reached a point where we are intolerant of anything remotely “unscientific” in our contemporary world.

Scientists look for alternatives, but even these solutions are sought in the same domain that has caused these problems. In short, we are stewing in a soup of our own making. So, what would be meaningful for the welfare of humans? Naturally, something that would enhance life, serve to integrate ecosystems and cleanse our environment. Enhancement of lit includes betterment of human life and vice versa. If life shrinks, we cannot blossom.

Science and technology by themselves are neutral; it is the way we use them that has either a positive or negative impact on our lives and environment. And when we use science in a manner that increases unsustainability and unhappiness in our lives, how can we rely blindly on science for our happiness ?

Important Words : 

Psyche : The mind; your deepest feelings and attitudes ,मन, चित्त

Accommodated : To have enough space for somebody/something बैठने या ठहरने की पर्याप्त सुविधा होना

Ailing : Not in good health; weak बीमार; कमज़ोर

Spurred :  To encourage to work harder or faster अधिक मेहनत या तेज़ी से काम करने के लिए प्रेरित या बाध्य करना

Millennium : A period of 1000 years एक हजार वर्ष की अवधि; सहस्‍त्राब्‍दी

Stewing : Boiling slowly पकाना

Lit  : Provided with light or lighting ज्योतिर्मय

Questions :

1) What is the difference between biosphere and technosphere?

2) How did the biosphere evolve over a period of time?

3) How has this equilibrium got disturbed now?

4) Man needs to use ‘science and technology’ in a sensible manner. Elucidate

5) Suggest a suitable title for the Passage

Question & Answer : 

1)  What is the difference between biosphere and   technosphere?

Answer –

Biosphere is the natural habitat of plants, animals and other species. The human being and animals live in harmony with the climate around. A technosphere is a biosphere that has been destroyed by the advancement of technology, without sustainability and evolution of life.

2)  How did the biosphere evolve over a period of time ?

Answer –

When cosmic evolution happened, biosphere supported and promoted the growth of species. As life continued, more and more newer species and ecosystems evolved. Our biosphere also evolved and created the right weather and climate to support the new species.

3) How has this equilibrium got disturbed now ? 

Answer –

Today most of the ecosystems have collapsed, many species have disappeared from the earth. This has happened due to increasing pollution, deforestation and over exploitation of natural resources.

4) Man needs to use ‘science and technology’ in a sensible manner. Elucidate

Answer –

By itself science and technology is neither good nor bad. It is totally depend how we use them for our needs. If we use it to increase instability, then it will create unhappiness around us. We cannot blindly rely on science and technology only for our happiness.

5) Suggest a suitable title for the Passage

Answer –

Science and technology Vs Our Natural Biospheren India’s development.

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IB ACIOPrecis Writing

Precis writing exercises with answers for competitive exams

Precis writing exercises with answers for competitive exams

What is Precis Writing?

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important aspects and details of the passage given.

“Precis denotes a brief, concise, clear and well connected abstract, summary of a given passage”.  Ability to produce a satisfactory precis is very important for many purposes in practical life. Government Officials & Businessman have no time to go through long and unnecessary details; thus a precis is a good tool for saving their valuable time.

So it is necessary for the officials working as secretary or as private secretary to have expertise in the art of precis writing. The candidates are required to write a precis of a given composition. Thus, the art of writing precis helps one to secure good marks in the examinations.

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD PRECIS

One must keep the following points in mind while writing a precis

1. Conciseness

It is the soul of a good precis. The precis must not exceed onethird of the length of original passage.

2. Completeness :

Precis must give a complete idea of the passage. The main idea of the original passage should be presented in the same order in precis writing.

3. Clarity

A precis should be clear and lucid, free from any ambiguity or obscurity. In an attempt to shorten the passage, you must take care that the sentences constructed by you are free from any error, like improper use of words.

4. Grammatical Accuracy

A precis must be free from grammatical errors, spelling and punctuation errors etc.

  1. One-third of total paragraph
  2. Own words
  3. Clarity
  4. Complete
  5. Avoid mistakes
  6. Single Paragraph

Rules for Good Precis Writing

For avoiding errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as given below :

  • Read the passage carefully
  • Decide Theme of the Passage
  • Brevity and Clarity
  • Use Own Language
  • Accuracy of the Language
  • Avoid Direct Speech and
  •  Use Indirect Speech

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Start with basic idea
  • Include all the important keywords
  • Use easy vocabulary
  • Do not make assumptions
  • Avoid using abbreviations
  • Title can be underlined
  • Use Statistical data
  • Proper Tense usage

How to write Good Precis

There are many important components which make a good precis. For those who have just started their preparation for the upcoming exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely useful.

  • Should be a summary of the original paragraph
  • Covering all important keywords from the original paragraph
  • The details in the precis must match in that of paragraph
  • Use of linking words such as and, because, therefore, etc.
  • Should be precise and clear
  • Should be in your own words
  • Must be logically connected
  • Should have an appropriate title
  • Don’t use any idiom of your own

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Precis Writing (Example -1)

It is a fact that the caste has played a very important role in the success of Indian democracy by mobilising India’s mass electorate to participate in the election process effectively. Use of caste for political purposes had begun long before the introduction of adult franchise. Organisations based on caste for social, economic and political systems came into existence even before the Constitution came into force. Illiterate people, who didn’t understand politics were mobilised to organise themselves by appealing to their caste sentiments by self-interested politicians.

Casteism has penetrated in Indian politics so deeply as to shape and reshape not only the political parties but also their manifestos for the elections. The various caste groups, like Nair, the Christian, the Brahmin and non-Brahmin in Tamil Nadu, the Khamma and Reddy in Andhra, the Maratha and Mahar in Maharashtra, the Rajput in Gujarat, the Jat, Rajput, Meena, Brahmin and Viasya in Rajasthan, have been formed likewise in all states and determine the political scenario in the states to a great extent.

In Bihar, there is a castiest triangle formed by the Bhumihara, the Rajput and the Kayastha, besides others. Caste politics in UP varies from region to region. The Thakurs from the majority community nurture strong anti-Brahmin feelings. Not only this, a strong lobby of Dalits and non-Dalits further exists now-a-days with the so-called Dalit leaders making propaganda against so called Manuwadis or other castes. Caste has polarised national politics and caste politics breeds caste parties. Not a single party, however avowedly opposed to casteism, is free from the dominant influence of caste.

Even in the national parties, whether Congress or BJP, while allocating tickets to the candidates or portfolios to the Ministers, a proper analysis of caste factors is done. Caste tends to determine electoral nominations and voting behaviour now-a-days numerous castes have started making numerous demands, whether for reservation to categorise them as OBCs etc, vitiating the representative principles envisaged and emphasised under the democratic pattern of our country. (330 Words)

Title: Caste Deeply Rooted In Indian Politics

Precis Writing :

Caste has played a significant role in Indian democracy. Many organisations based on caste come out even before our Constitution came into existence. Several caste groups have been formed in the states that dominate the formation of parties and also their election manifestos. Castiest groups have also been formed in different regions, creating discord among castes. People have divided on the basis of their caste between Dalits and non-Dalits. Caste consideration has dominated every national and regional party. All political decisions are based on caste. Caste has polarised national politics and affected even voting behaviour. Various castes have now started making demands for reservations etc, that endangers the democratic system of the country. (112 Words)

Precis Writing (Example -2)

In today’s scenario, Mass media, specifically visual media, plays a pivotal role in creating an atmosphere of awareness in society. Media refers to different communication channels or ways through which knowledge and information is conveyed to the viewers or the readers. Visual media refers to the media that conveys knowledge and information to the viewers through their eyes; it includes television, cinema, posters etc. Whatever, is supplied through the visual media has instant and longer lasting effect on the minds of the viewers.

With rapid development of information and technology, the visual media, in the shape of cable TV, with multitudes of domestic and foreign channels has reached almost every house, playing a vital role in moulding public opinion in various ways. It plays a very crucial role in educating, and entertaining the masses. Cable TV has changed the means and modes of entertainment and education.

Sitting before a TV, one can pass and enjoy his free time listening to music, viewing movies, learning techniques of body building, hearing sermons of religious saints, learning about lives of wild animals, birds, water creatures, knowing about space and what not.

During the election period, one can know the electoral positions of political parties and their leaders, from all parts of the country and its impact on the election campaign and all facts of electioneering, just sitting before the TV.

Youngsters and teenage students are seen viewing the channels as per their likings; if some are viewing the music channels some are seen quenching their thirst for knowledge viewing channels like ‘Discovery’ or ‘National Geography’ or ‘History’ etc. The image on the small screen thus has a significant impression on all, more particularly on the gullible children and on the teens. The young mind takes the reel as real and thus is more often and more easily moulded and motivated by the visual media.

The present day fashion, hair dressing, sexual liberties, dating and awakening towards the right of youth, awareness among the women of their rights are because of the role visual media is playing in society. In a hysterical effort to excel others, some channels are showing such scenes and images which are of no importance or have an adverse effect on the minds of viewers.

Showing of sexual and rape cases, with minute details by the anchor and showing brutal scenes of murder, the channels have crossed the limit of ethics and morality. The TV coverage of massacre, creates feeling of hatred among communities and motivates others to wreak vengeance. Obsessed by the sole aim of making a fast buck the channels are competing with one another to stoop to any kind of absurdity, without considering even for a minute as to what effect such visuals have on society.  (460 Words)

Title:  Visual media Vs Indian Society

Precis :

Visual media plays an important role in creating awareness in society as it has a prolonged effect on the viewers. Advancement in technology has enabled visual media to penetrate in every house, so it can easily moulds public opinion. Cable TV has significantly affected the lifestyle of people. Methods of entertainment and passing leisure time have changed. During elections, one can know the latest status through TV. Youngsters and teenagers watch different channels as per their choices. They seem to be easily influenced by visual media. The present awareness towards fashion, sexual liberties, rights of youth and women are the result of the impact of visual media on society. Owing to unhealthy competition, TV channels are showing indecent and instigating scenes and programmes causing hatred and violence among the people, just for popularity and making money. They have no regard for ethics and morality and the effect of such visuals.

(150 words)

Precis Writing (Example-3)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

Precis Writing (Example-4)

Truly Imagination and untiring enthusiastic efforts of generations build a Nation. One generation transfers the fruits of its hard work and toil to another, which then takes forward the mission the next level. As the coming generation also has its dreams and aspirations for the nation’s future, it therefore adds something from its side to the national vision which the next generation strives hard to achieve. This process goes on and the nation climbs steps of glory and gains higher strength. Any organization, society, or even a nation without a vision is like a ship cruising on the high seas without any aim or direction.

It is the clarity of national vision which constantly drives the people towards the goal. Our last generation, the glorious generation of freedom fighters led by Mahatma Gandhi, Subhash Chandra Bose, Baba Sahab Ambedkar and many others, set for the nation a vision of free India. This was the first vision set by the people for the nation.

It therefore went deep into the minds and hearts of the masses and soon became the great inspiring and driving force for the people to collectively plunge into the struggle for freedom. The unified dedicated efforts of the people from every walk of life won freedom for the country. The next generation has put India strongly on the path of economic, agricultural and technological development. But India has stood too long in the line of developing nations. Let us, collectively, set the national vision of developed India.

It means the major transformation of our national economy to make it one of the largest economies in the world; where the countrymen live well above the poverty line, their education and health is of a high standard, national security is reasonably assured and the core competence in certain major areas gets enhanced significantly so that the production of quality goods, including exports, rises and brings all-round prosperity for the people. (320 words)

Title: Building a Truly Developed India

Precis :

Building a nation really takes a long time because successive generations add their own desires and dreams to the nation’s future. They also need to try to fulfil the previous generation’s aspirations. This cycle repeats with successive generations. A clear goal or vision is required to progress satisfactorily in this direction. The generation of our freedom fighters had a popular vision for a free India, thus inspiring the freedom struggle. The next generation has worked on developing India’s economy, agriculture and technology. We should aspire for a developed India with a prosperous economy in which people are educated, healthy, skilled, prosperous and fully secured. (104 Words)

Precis Writing (Example-5)

The real implication of equal distribution is that each man shall have the wherewithal to supply all his natural needs and no more. e.g. if one man has a weak digestion and requires only a quarter of a pound of flour for his bread and another needs a pound, both should be in a position to satisfy their wants. To bring this ideal into being the entire social order has got to be reconstructed. A society based on non-violence cannot nurture any other ideal. We may not perhaps be able to realise the goal, but we must bear it in mind and work unceasingly to near it. To the same extent as we progress towards our goal we shall find contentment and happiness and to that extent too shall we have contributed towards the bringing into being of a non-violent society.

It is perfectly possible for an individual to adopt this way of life without having to wait for others to do so. And if an individual can observe a certain rule of conduct, it follows that a group of individuals can do likewise. It is necessary for me to emphasise the fact that no one need wait for anyone else in order to adopt a right course. Men generally hesitate to make a beginning if they feel that the objective cannot be had in its entirety. Such an attitude of mind is in reality a bar to progress. Now, let us consider how equal distribution can be brought about through non-violence. The first step towards it is for him who has made this ideal part of his being to bring about the necessary changes in his personal life. He would reduce his wants to a minimum, bearing in mind the poverty of India. (294 words)

Title: The Ideal Society of Non-Violent

Precis

Equal distribution means that everyone should be just able to meet their essential needs and no more, even if their needs are different. This is a possible and ideal situation in a non-violent society. Although, such a society is difficult to achieve, it can result only by transforming our social structures, relations, values and practices. Waiting for others to start before us is not a pre-requisite. If one of us changes his behaviour, others will follow. The first step towards achieving equal distribution through a non-violent society is to reduce our own personal needs, remembering that India is poor. (99 words)

Important words :

Wherewithal : the money or other means needed for a particular purpose. साधन

Unceasingly : without stopping; continuously लगातार

Contentment : a feeling of happy satisfaction संतुष्टि, संतोष

Precis Writing (Example-6)

There is a imbalance between what man is and what he wishes to be. This discord is responsible for our unrest. We talk like wise men but act like lunatics. We cannot prepare for war and at the same time for a world community. We are tormented by inner uneasiness and pangs of conscience. The warring sides of our nature require to be reconciled. If we are to defeat fratricidal tendencies in us, we must break our self-will, the pride of egoism which is widespread in all sides of our life. In man, there is always an urge to self-transcendence, but until it becomes absolute unselfishness, narrow loyalties and destructive rivalries will prevail. The unrest in the world is a reflection of our inner disharmony. A people are saved not by their military leaders or industrial magnates, or by their priests and politicians, but by their saints of implacable integrity. Religion is the discipline by which we are helped to overcome the discord in our nature and integrate our personality.

If we reflect on the history of religious development, we will be surprised at the amount of intellectual ingenuity, passion and zeal spent on the task of defining the Supreme to which silence or poetry would seem to be the most appropriate response. Self-righteousness breeds fanaticism. None but fools and fanatics are quite certain of their views of God. With crusaders there is no arguing. Before God there is neither Greek nor barbarian, neither rich nor poor, neither master nor slave. They are all citizens of the commonwealth, members of one family. A truly religious person cannot hold back but should lead. He cannot remain silent when he should speak up. He should not compromise when he should stand fast. Ethical values have relevance to social facts. We must face up to the ugly facts of sin, pride and greed. Human nature is essentially good and it is opposed to tyranny, injustice and authoritarianism.

Religion appeals to the hearts of men to root out fear, guilt and faith in force. The tradition of tolerance, not merely in a negative, but in a positive sense, that is an appreciation of other faiths, has been with us for centuries. Tolerance is not apathy, but is conviction without condescension. Aggressiveness is not an essential part of human nature. Combativeness can be replaced by meekness and gentleness. The Cross indicates that the love which suffers is more powerful than the force which inflicts suffering. (410 Words)

Title:   Tolerance Helps in Reducing Discord

Precis

What a man wants to be and what he is, there is imbalance and difference between it, this causes feeling of unease and regret in human mind. Until we become unselfish, swallow our pride and overcome our desires, the conflict will remain. This cannot be removed by political, military or business leaders, but by saintly people, who must lead others to change their outlook. Man’s inherent nature is good and against any form of cruelty or oppression. Our religions developed over the ages and it reflects the great efforts made to define God, by excessively enthusiastic people. However, God is indefinable, treating all persons equally irrespective of wealth, position or class. Religion also helps us to remove our fear and guilt feelings. This has been proved by history. Feelings of conflict should be replaced by compassion and kindness. (138 Words)

Tormented : Something that causes extreme physical or mental pain       तीव्र मानसिक या शारीरिक पीड़ा

Reconcile : To find a way of dealing with two ideas, situations,    statements ताल-मेल बैठाना

Fratricidal :  Conflict within a single family or organization

Implacable : impossible to change, जिसे बदलना असंभव हो

Ingenuity : skill or cleverness चालाकी

Righteousness : the quality of being morally right or justifiable न्याय परायण

Crusaders : a long and determined attempt to achieve something you strongly believe in

Tyranny : an act or the pattern of harsh, cruel, and unfair control over other people उत्पीड़न

Authoritarianism : Principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action.

Condescension : showing superior attitude toward others

Meekness :  the quality of being quiet, gentle, and unwilling to argue

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IB ACIOPrecis Writing

Precis writing practice exercises with answers

IB acio precis writing practice exercises with answers & important Tips for better score :

What is Precis Writing?

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important aspects and details of the passage given.

“Precis denotes a brief, concise, clear and well connected abstract, summary of a given passage”.  Ability to produce a satisfactory precis is very important for many purposes in practical life. Government Officials & Businessman have no time to go through long and unnecessary details; thus a precis is a good tool for saving their valuable time.

So it is necessary for the officials working as secretary or as private secretary to have expertise in the art of precis writing. The candidates are required to write a precis of a given composition. Thus, the art of writing precis helps one to secure good marks in the examinations.

 

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD PRECIS

One must keep the following points in mind while writing a precis

1. Conciseness

It is the soul of a good precis. The precis must not exceed onethird of the length of original passage.

2. Completeness :

Precis must give a complete idea of the passage. The main idea of the original passage should be presented in the same order in precis writing.

3. Clarity

A precis should be clear and lucid, free from any ambiguity or obscurity. In an attempt to shorten the passage, you must take care that the sentences constructed by you are free from any error, like improper use of words.

4. Grammatical Accuracy

A precis must be free from grammatical errors, spelling and punctuation errors etc.

  1. One-third of total paragraph
  2. Own words
  3. Clarity
  4. Complete
  5. Avoid mistakes
  6. Single Paragraph

Rules for Good Precis Writing

For avoiding errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as given below :

  • Read the passage carefully
  • Decide Theme of the Passage
  • Brevity and Clarity
  • Use Own Language
  • Accuracy of the Language
  • Avoid Direct Speech and
  •  Use Indirect Speech

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Start with basic idea
  • Include all the important keywords
  • Use easy vocabulary
  • Do not make assumptions
  • Avoid using abbreviations
  • Title can be underlined
  • Use Statistical data
  • Proper Tense usage

How to write Good Precis

There are many important components which make a good precis. For those who have just started their preparation for the upcoming exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely useful.

  • Should be a summary of the original paragraph
  • Covering all important keywords from the original paragraph
  • The details in the precis must match in that of paragraph
  • Use of linking words such as and, because, therefore, etc.
  • Should be precise and clear
  • Should be in your own words
  • Must be logically connected
  • Should have an appropriate title
  • Don’t use any idiom of your own

 

Precis Writing (Example -1)

In today’s scenario, Mass media, specifically visual media, plays a pivotal role in creating an atmosphere of awareness in society. Media refers to different communication channels or ways through which knowledge and information is conveyed to the viewers or the readers. Visual media refers to the media that conveys knowledge and information to the viewers through their eyes; it includes television, cinema, posters etc. Whatever, is supplied through the visual media has instant and longer lasting effect on the minds of the viewers.

With rapid development of information and technology, the visual media, in the shape of cable TV, with multitudes of domestic and foreign channels has reached almost every house, playing a vital role in moulding public opinion in various ways. It plays a very crucial role in educating, and entertaining the masses. Cable TV has changed the means and modes of entertainment and education.

Sitting before a TV, one can pass and enjoy his free time listening to music, viewing movies, learning techniques of body building, hearing sermons of religious saints, learning about lives of wild animals, birds, water creatures, knowing about space and what not.

During the election period, one can know the electoral positions of political parties and their leaders, from all parts of the country and its impact on the election campaign and all facts of electioneering, just sitting before the TV.

Youngsters and teenage students are seen viewing the channels as per their likings; if some are viewing the music channels some are seen quenching their thirst for knowledge viewing channels like ‘Discovery’ or ‘National Geography’ or ‘History’ etc. The image on the small screen thus has a significant impression on all, more particularly on the gullible children and on the teens. The young mind takes the reel as real and thus is more often and more easily moulded and motivated by the visual media.

The present day fashion, hair dressing, sexual liberties, dating and awakening towards the right of youth, awareness among the women of their rights are because of the role visual media is playing in society. In a hysterical effort to excel others, some channels are showing such scenes and images which are of no importance or have an adverse effect on the minds of viewers.

Showing of sexual and rape cases, with minute details by the anchor and showing brutal scenes of murder, the channels have crossed the limit of ethics and morality. The TV coverage of massacre, creates feeling of hatred among communities and motivates others to wreak vengeance. Obsessed by the sole aim of making a fast buck the channels are competing with one another to stoop to any kind of absurdity, without considering even for a minute as to what effect such visuals have on society.  (460 Words)

Title:  Visual media Vs Indian Society

 

Precis :

Visual media plays an important role in creating awareness in society as it has a prolonged effect on the viewers. Advancement in technology has enabled visual media to penetrate in every house, so it can easily moulds public opinion. Cable TV has significantly affected the lifestyle of people. Methods of entertainment and passing leisure time have changed. During elections, one can know the latest status through TV. Youngsters and teenagers watch different channels as per their choices. They seem to be easily influenced by visual media. The present awareness towards fashion, sexual liberties, rights of youth and women are the result of the impact of visual media on society. Owing to unhealthy competition, TV channels are showing indecent and instigating scenes and programmes causing hatred and violence among the people, just for popularity and making money. They have no regard for ethics and morality and the effect of such visuals.

(150 words)

 

Precis Writing (Example-2)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

Precis Writing (Example-3)

India is suffering from many social problems. Corruption is one of them. The most disquieting aspect of the widespread corruption in India is the fact that it is not anymore confined to politicians or the government machinery alone. It is prevalent amongst almost every section of the society, at every level. As the practice of corruption is a dishonest act, one tends to think that most of the Indians are dishonest, the extent could be varying only in degree between the individuals. The reason for the dishonesty is greediness and the desire to get things done at any cost. One can think that most of the countrymen are greedy and do not anymore consider that the means should justify the ends. This is not a flattering statement and many readers would desire that it would not be so and that such a statement could have been avoided. But, the fact is, that most of the Indians are involved in corrupt practices in one way or the other, either due to greed or due to compulsion.

In any case, the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of not getting involved in corrupt dealings is conspicuous by its absence amongst the majority. The study of world phenomenon of corruption has repeatedly branded India as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Unfortunately, this view has not disturbed most of the Indians at all and they do not seem to care as to what others think of them; so long as the existing systems and practices would allow them to make money and get things done in one way or the other.

The irony is that India is still considered to be a very religious country and it is still widely believed that the religion is the basis of Indian life, thoughts and actions. This is obviously true, considering the fact that there are hundreds of temples, churches and mosques spread all over the country and they are all densely visited, day in and day out, by the feverishly praying Indians.

Is not religious ethos contrary to corruption and dishonest practices? The unfortunate situation in India is that those who call themselves most religious are often found to have indulged themselves in dishonest practices on many occasions. Several of the religious centres, of all religions, are suspected to be steeped in nepotism, as, such incidents have been repeatedly published in the press. (401 Words)

Title:   Corruption – Enrooted in Society

Precis :

Corruption, one of the social problems widespread in India is not anymore a politician thing it has spread its wings in all section of the society. As this unfair act is more prevalent in India , the outside world perceives Indians as corrupted
beings and they can go to any extent to fulfill their greediness. In Spite of India being branded as a corrupted nation by the world, its people are not giving any heed and are constantly involved in making money for getting unnecessary things
done. On the other hand India is also recognised as a religious nation, with all its temples, churches, mosques which are crowded by visitors everyday. Which religion preaches corruption and dishonest practices? Many instances of nepotism, religious believers involved in dishonest practices have been published
in the press. (134 Words)

Precis Writing (Example-4)

The real implication of equal distribution is that each man shall have the wherewithal to supply all his natural needs and no more. e.g. if one man has a weak digestion and requires only a quarter of a pound of flour for his bread and another needs a pound, both should be in a position to satisfy their wants. To bring this ideal into being the entire social order has got to be reconstructed. A society based on non-violence cannot nurture any other ideal. We may not perhaps be able to realise the goal, but we must bear it in mind and work unceasingly to near it. To the same extent as we progress towards our goal we shall find contentment and happiness and to that extent too shall we have contributed towards the bringing into being of a non-violent society.

It is perfectly possible for an individual to adopt this way of life without having to wait for others to do so. And if an individual can observe a certain rule of conduct, it follows that a group of individuals can do likewise. It is necessary for me to emphasise the fact that no one need wait for anyone else in order to adopt a right course. Men generally hesitate to make a beginning if they feel that the objective cannot be had in its entirety. Such an attitude of mind is in reality a bar to progress. Now, let us consider how equal distribution can be brought about through non-violence. The first step towards it is for him who has made this ideal part of his being to bring about the necessary changes in his personal life. He would reduce his wants to a minimum, bearing in mind the poverty of India. (294 words)

Title: The Ideal Society of Non-Violent

Precis

Equal distribution means that everyone should be just able to meet their essential needs and no more, even if their needs are different. This is a possible and ideal situation in a non-violent society. Although, such a society is difficult to achieve, it can result only by transforming our social structures, relations, values and practices. Waiting for others to start before us is not a pre-requisite. If one of us changes his behaviour, others will follow. The first step towards achieving equal distribution through a non-violent society is to reduce our own personal needs, remembering that India is poor. (99 words)

Important words :

Wherewithal : the money or other means needed for a particular purpose. साधन

Unceasingly : without stopping; continuously लगातार

Contentment : a feeling of happy satisfaction संतुष्टि, संतोष

Precis Writing (Example-5)

There is a imbalance between what man is and what he wishes to be. This discord is responsible for our unrest. We talk like wise men but act like lunatics. We cannot prepare for war and at the same time for a world community. We are tormented by inner uneasiness and pangs of conscience. The warring sides of our nature require to be reconciled. If we are to defeat fratricidal tendencies in us, we must break our self-will, the pride of egoism which is widespread in all sides of our life. In man, there is always an urge to self-transcendence, but until it becomes absolute unselfishness, narrow loyalties and destructive rivalries will prevail. The unrest in the world is a reflection of our inner disharmony. A people are saved not by their military leaders or industrial magnates, or by their priests and politicians, but by their saints of implacable integrity. Religion is the discipline by which we are helped to overcome the discord in our nature and integrate our personality.

If we reflect on the history of religious development, we will be surprised at the amount of intellectual ingenuity, passion and zeal spent on the task of defining the Supreme to which silence or poetry would seem to be the most appropriate response. Self-righteousness breeds fanaticism. None but fools and fanatics are quite certain of their views of God. With crusaders there is no arguing. Before God there is neither Greek nor barbarian, neither rich nor poor, neither master nor slave. They are all citizens of the commonwealth, members of one family. A truly religious person cannot hold back but should lead. He cannot remain silent when he should speak up. He should not compromise when he should stand fast. Ethical values have relevance to social facts. We must face up to the ugly facts of sin, pride and greed. Human nature is essentially good and it is opposed to tyranny, injustice and authoritarianism.

Religion appeals to the hearts of men to root out fear, guilt and faith in force. The tradition of tolerance, not merely in a negative, but in a positive sense, that is an appreciation of other faiths, has been with us for centuries. Tolerance is not apathy, but is conviction without condescension. Aggressiveness is not an essential part of human nature. Combativeness can be replaced by meekness and gentleness. The Cross indicates that the love which suffers is more powerful than the force which inflicts suffering. (410 Words)

Title:   Tolerance Helps in Reducing Discord

Precis

What a man wants to be and what he is, there is imbalance and difference between it, this causes feeling of unease and regret in human mind. Until we become unselfish, swallow our pride and overcome our desires, the conflict will remain. This cannot be removed by political, military or business leaders, but by saintly people, who must lead others to change their outlook. Man’s inherent nature is good and against any form of cruelty or oppression. Our religions developed over the ages and it reflects the great efforts made to define God, by excessively enthusiastic people. However, God is indefinable, treating all persons equally irrespective of wealth, position or class. Religion also helps us to remove our fear and guilt feelings. This has been proved by history. Feelings of conflict should be replaced by compassion and kindness. (138 Words)

Tormented : Something that causes extreme physical or mental pain       तीव्र मानसिक या शारीरिक पीड़ा

Reconcile : To find a way of dealing with two ideas, situations,    statements ताल-मेल बैठाना

Fratricidal :  Conflict within a single family or organization

Implacable : impossible to change, जिसे बदलना असंभव हो

Ingenuity : skill or cleverness चालाकी

Righteousness : the quality of being morally right or justifiable न्याय परायण

Crusaders : a long and determined attempt to achieve something you strongly believe in

Tyranny : an act or the pattern of harsh, cruel, and unfair control over other people उत्पीड़न

Authoritarianism : Principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action.

Condescension : showing superior attitude toward others

Meekness :  the quality of being quiet, gentle, and unwilling to argue

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BlogPrecis Writing

Precis Writing Tips and Tricks

What is Precis Writing?

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important aspects and details of the passage given.

“Precis denotes a brief, concise, clear and well connected abstract, summary of a given passage”.  Ability to produce a satisfactory precis is very important for many purposes in practical life. Government Officials & Businessman have no time to go through long and unnecessary details; thus a precis is a good tool for saving their valuable time.

So it is necessary for the officials working as secretary or as private secretary to have expertise in the art of precis writing. The candidates are required to write a precis of a given composition. Thus, the art of writing precis helps one to secure good marks in the examinations.

 

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD PRECIS

One must keep the following points in mind while writing a precis

1. Conciseness

It is the soul of a good precis. The precis must not exceed onethird of the length of original passage.

2. Completeness :

Precis must give a complete idea of the passage. The main idea of the original passage should be presented in the same order in precis writing.

3. Clarity

A precis should be clear and lucid, free from any ambiguity or obscurity. In an attempt to shorten the passage, you must take care that the sentences constructed by you are free from any error, like improper use of words.

4. Grammatical Accuracy

A precis must be free from grammatical errors, spelling and punctuation errors etc.

  1. One-third of total paragraph
  2. Own words
  3. Clarity
  4. Complete
  5. Avoid mistakes
  6. Single Paragraph

Rules for Good Precis Writing

For avoiding errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as given below :

  • Read the passage carefully
  • Decide Theme of the Passage
  • Brevity and Clarity
  • Use Own Language
  • Accuracy of the Language
  • Avoid Direct Speech and
  •  Use Indirect Speech

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Start with basic idea
  • Include all the important keywords
  • Use easy vocabulary
  • Do not make assumptions
  • Avoid using abbreviations
  • Title can be underlined
  • Use Statistical data
  • Proper Tense usage

How to write Good Precis

There are many important components which make a good precis. For those who have just started their preparation for the upcoming exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely useful.

  • Should be a summary of the original paragraph
  • Covering all important keywords from the original paragraph
  • The details in the precis must match in that of paragraph
  • Use of linking words such as and, because, therefore, etc.
  • Should be precise and clear
  • Should be in your own words
  • Must be logically connected
  • Should have an appropriate title
  • Don’t use any idiom of your own

 

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Precis Writing (Example 1)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

 

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

 

Precis Writing Hindi (Example -2)

सामान्यतः संस्कृति और सभ्यता को एक ही वस्तु मान लिया जाता है। दोनों में निःसंदेह घनिष्ट सम्बन्ध है। उनकी एक-दूसरे पर प्रतिक्रिया होती है। सभ्यता भौतिक उन्नति का घोतक है। दूसरी ओर सुसंस्कृत मनुष्य की सभ्यता दूसरे से भिन्न है। सभ्यता मनुष्य की भौतिक आवश्यकताएँ पूर्ण करने के यत्न का परिणाम है, जबकि संस्कृति बौद्धीक उन्नती के प्रयत्नों से विकसित होती है। संस्कृति मनुष्य के मन और आत्मा के सुसंस्कार या परिष्कार को कहते हैं। वह रूचि, दृष्टिकोण और आचार के द्वारा व्यक्त होती है। दूसरी ओर सभ्यता बहिर्मुखी और भौतिक है। वह उन भौतिक आयोजनों और साजसज्जा से सम्बन्ध रखती है, जिसको मनुष्य ने प्रकृति की शक्तियों पर विजय पाने के लिए और इस प्रकार मानव जीवन को सुविधापूर्ण तथा सुखमय बनाने के लिए विकसित किया है। उसमें आदिम मनुष्य के पत्थर के औजारों से लेकर आधुनिक स्पुतनिक तक शामिल है।  (142 Word)

शीर्षक –  सभ्यता और संस्कृति

संक्षेपण :

प्रायः सभ्यता और संस्कृति को एक ही समझ लिया जाता है, लेकिन इनमें काफी अन्तर है। सभ्यता बाहरी वस्तु है और संस्कृति भीतरी। सभ्यता भैतिक आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति के प्रयास का परिणाम है और संस्कृति बौद्धीक विकास के लिए किये प्रयत्नों का फल।  (44 words)

 

Precis Writing (Example -3)

In today’s scenario, Mass media, specifically visual media, plays a pivotal role in creating an atmosphere of awareness in society. Media refers to different communication channels or ways through which knowledge and information is conveyed to the viewers or the readers. Visual media refers to the media that conveys knowledge and information to the viewers through their eyes; it includes television, cinema, posters etc. Whatever, is supplied through the visual media has instant and longer lasting effect on the minds of the viewers.

With rapid development of information and technology, the visual media, in the shape of cable TV, with multitudes of domestic and foreign channels has reached almost every house, playing a vital role in moulding public opinion in various ways. It plays a very crucial role in educating, and entertaining the masses. Cable TV has changed the means and modes of entertainment and education.

Sitting before a TV, one can pass and enjoy his free time listening to music, viewing movies, learning techniques of body building, hearing sermons of religious saints, learning about lives of wild animals, birds, water creatures, knowing about space and what not.

During the election period, one can know the electoral positions of political parties and their leaders, from all parts of the country and its impact on the election campaign and all facts of electioneering, just sitting before the TV.

Youngsters and teenage students are seen viewing the channels as per their likings; if some are viewing the music channels some are seen quenching their thirst for knowledge viewing channels like ‘Discovery’ or ‘National Geography’ or ‘History’ etc. The image on the small screen thus has a significant impression on all, more particularly on the gullible children and on the teens. The young mind takes the reel as real and thus is more often and more easily moulded and motivated by the visual media.

The present day fashion, hair dressing, sexual liberties, dating and awakening towards the right of youth, awareness among the women of their rights are because of the role visual media is playing in society. In a hysterical effort to excel others, some channels are showing such scenes and images which are of no importance or have an adverse effect on the minds of viewers.

Showing of sexual and rape cases, with minute details by the anchor and showing brutal scenes of murder, the channels have crossed the limit of ethics and morality. The TV coverage of massacre, creates feeling of hatred among communities and motivates others to wreak vengeance. Obsessed by the sole aim of making a fast buck the channels are competing with one another to stoop to any kind of absurdity, without considering even for a minute as to what effect such visuals have on society.  (460 Words)

Title:  Visual media Vs Indian Society

 

Precis :

Visual media plays an important role in creating awareness in society as it has a prolonged effect on the viewers. Advancement in technology has enabled visual media to penetrate in every house, so it can easily moulds public opinion. Cable TV has significantly affected the lifestyle of people. Methods of entertainment and passing leisure time have changed. During elections, one can know the latest status through TV. Youngsters and teenagers watch different channels as per their choices. They seem to be easily influenced by visual media. The present awareness towards fashion, sexual liberties, rights of youth and women are the result of the impact of visual media on society. Owing to unhealthy competition, TV channels are showing indecent and instigating scenes and programmes causing hatred and violence among the people, just for popularity and making money. They have no regard for ethics and morality and the effect of such visuals. (150 words)

Precis Writing (Example-4)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

Precis Writing (Example-5)

India is suffering from many social problems. Corruption is one of them. The most disquieting aspect of the widespread corruption in India is the fact that it is not anymore confined to politicians or the government machinery alone. It is prevalent amongst almost every section of the society, at every level. As the practice of corruption is a dishonest act, one tends to think that most of the Indians are dishonest, the extent could be varying only in degree between the individuals. The reason for the dishonesty is greediness and the desire to get things done at any cost. One can think that most of the countrymen are greedy and do not anymore consider that the means should justify the ends. This is not a flattering statement and many readers would desire that it would not be so and that such a statement could have been avoided. But, the fact is, that most of the Indians are involved in corrupt practices in one way or the other, either due to greed or due to compulsion.

In any case, the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of not getting involved in corrupt dealings is conspicuous by its absence amongst the majority. The study of world phenomenon of corruption has repeatedly branded India as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Unfortunately, this view has not disturbed most of the Indians at all and they do not seem to care as to what others think of them; so long as the existing systems and practices would allow them to make money and get things done in one way or the other. The irony is that India is still considered to be a very religious country and it is still widely believed that the religion is the basis of Indian life, thoughts and actions. This is obviously true, considering the fact that there are hundreds of temples, churches and mosques spread all over the country and they are all densely visited, day in and day out, by the feverishly praying Indians.

Is not religious ethos contrary to corruption and dishonest practices? The unfortunate situation in India is that those who call themselves most religious are often found to have indulged themselves in dishonest practices on many occasions. Several of the religious centres, of all religions, are suspected to be steeped in nepotism, as, such incidents have been repeatedly published in the press. (401 Words)

Title:   Corruption – Enrooted in Society

Precis :

Corruption, one of the social problems widespread in India is not anymore a politician thing it has spread its wings in all section of the society. As this unfair act is more prevalent in India , the outside world perceives Indians as corrupted
beings and they can go to any extent to fulfill their greediness. In Spite of India being branded as a corrupted nation by the world, its people are not giving any heed and are constantly involved in making money for getting unnecessary things
done. On the other hand India is also recognised as a religious nation, with all its temples, churches, mosques which are crowded by visitors everyday. Which religion preaches corruption and dishonest practices? Many instances of nepotism, religious believers involved in dishonest practices have been published
in the press. (134 Words)

Precis Writing (Example-6)

The real implication of equal distribution is that each man shall have the wherewithal to supply all his natural needs and no more. e.g. if one man has a weak digestion and requires only a quarter of a pound of flour for his bread and another needs a pound, both should be in a position to satisfy their wants. To bring this ideal into being the entire social order has got to be reconstructed. A society based on non-violence cannot nurture any other ideal. We may not perhaps be able to realise the goal, but we must bear it in mind and work unceasingly to near it. To the same extent as we progress towards our goal we shall find contentment and happiness and to that extent too shall we have contributed towards the bringing into being of a non-violent society.

It is perfectly possible for an individual to adopt this way of life without having to wait for others to do so. And if an individual can observe a certain rule of conduct, it follows that a group of individuals can do likewise. It is necessary for me to emphasise the fact that no one need wait for anyone else in order to adopt a right course. Men generally hesitate to make a beginning if they feel that the objective cannot be had in its entirety. Such an attitude of mind is in reality a bar to progress. Now, let us consider how equal distribution can be brought about through non-violence. The first step towards it is for him who has made this ideal part of his being to bring about the necessary changes in his personal life. He would reduce his wants to a minimum, bearing in mind the poverty of India. (294 words)

Title: The Ideal Society of Non-Violent

Precis

Equal distribution means that everyone should be just able to meet their essential needs and no more, even if their needs are different. This is a possible and ideal situation in a non-violent society. Although, such a society is difficult to achieve, it can result only by transforming our social structures, relations, values and practices. Waiting for others to start before us is not a pre-requisite. If one of us changes his behaviour, others will follow. The first step towards achieving equal distribution through a non-violent society is to reduce our own personal needs, remembering that India is poor. (99 words)

Important words :

Wherewithal : the money or other means needed for a particular purpose. साधन

Unceasingly : without stopping; continuously लगातार

Contentment : a feeling of happy satisfaction संतुष्टि, संतोष

Precis Writing (Example-7)

There is a imbalance between what man is and what he wishes to be. This discord is responsible for our unrest. We talk like wise men but act like lunatics. We cannot prepare for war and at the same time for a world community. We are tormented by inner uneasiness and pangs of conscience. The warring sides of our nature require to be reconciled. If we are to defeat fratricidal tendencies in us, we must break our self-will, the pride of egoism which is widespread in all sides of our life. In man, there is always an urge to self-transcendence, but until it becomes absolute unselfishness, narrow loyalties and destructive rivalries will prevail. The unrest in the world is a reflection of our inner disharmony. A people are saved not by their military leaders or industrial magnates, or by their priests and politicians, but by their saints of implacable integrity. Religion is the discipline by which we are helped to overcome the discord in our nature and integrate our personality.

If we reflect on the history of religious development, we will be surprised at the amount of intellectual ingenuity, passion and zeal spent on the task of defining the Supreme to which silence or poetry would seem to be the most appropriate response. Self-righteousness breeds fanaticism. None but fools and fanatics are quite certain of their views of God. With crusaders there is no arguing. Before God there is neither Greek nor barbarian, neither rich nor poor, neither master nor slave. They are all citizens of the commonwealth, members of one family. A truly religious person cannot hold back but should lead. He cannot remain silent when he should speak up. He should not compromise when he should stand fast. Ethical values have relevance to social facts. We must face up to the ugly facts of sin, pride and greed. Human nature is essentially good and it is opposed to tyranny, injustice and authoritarianism.

Religion appeals to the hearts of men to root out fear, guilt and faith in force. The tradition of tolerance, not merely in a negative, but in a positive sense, that is an appreciation of other faiths, has been with us for centuries. Tolerance is not apathy, but is conviction without condescension. Aggressiveness is not an essential part of human nature. Combativeness can be replaced by meekness and gentleness. The Cross indicates that the love which suffers is more powerful than the force which inflicts suffering. (410 Words)

Title:   Tolerance Helps in Reducing Discord

Precis

What a man wants to be and what he is, there is imbalance and difference between it, this causes feeling of unease and regret in human mind. Until we become unselfish, swallow our pride and overcome our desires, the conflict will remain. This cannot be removed by political, military or business leaders, but by saintly people, who must lead others to change their outlook. Man’s inherent nature is good and against any form of cruelty or oppression. Our religions developed over the ages and it reflects the great efforts made to define God, by excessively enthusiastic people. However, God is indefinable, treating all persons equally irrespective of wealth, position or class. Religion also helps us to remove our fear and guilt feelings. This has been proved by history. Feelings of conflict should be replaced by compassion and kindness. (138 Words)

Tormented : Something that causes extreme physical or mental pain       तीव्र मानसिक या शारीरिक पीड़ा

Reconcile : To find a way of dealing with two ideas, situations,    statements ताल-मेल बैठाना

Fratricidal :  Conflict within a single family or organization

Implacable : impossible to change, जिसे बदलना असंभव हो

Ingenuity : skill or cleverness चालाकी

Righteousness : the quality of being morally right or justifiable न्याय परायण

Crusaders : a long and determined attempt to achieve something you strongly believe in

Tyranny : an act or the pattern of harsh, cruel, and unfair control over other people उत्पीड़न

Authoritarianism : Principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action.

Condescension : showing superior attitude toward others

Meekness :  the quality of being quiet, gentle, and unwilling to argue

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