Essay on India China relations Issues & Clashes
“We can choose our friends, but not our neighbours”. This statement of our Ex Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee is quite significant. India is one of the fastest growing developing countries in the world, is on friendly terms with most of the countries. But the relations between India and China have become toxic in recent time. India is fighting not only with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic but also with its source country. India and China are close neighbours linked by mountains and rivers.
- In the 1950’s a term was used to describe the relationship between India and China “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai” which means India and China are brothers.
- However, over the years relations between India and China have become tense mostly related to boundaries. Be it One Belt One Road initiative or the Doka La controversy.
- India and China share common boundaries with Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan. The two countries have fought a war, in 1962, where India lost.
- The main cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions.
- After the war, the de facto borders stabilised along the Line of Actual Control (LAC). LAC is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the Sino-Indian border dispute.
- But LAC is only a concept, there are no official records delineating the actual LAC unlike LOC. India and China disagree over where the LAC lies. Often periodic patrols were performed by both sides.
- Latest such disputes over the unsettled borders where both teeter to ward off a border clash are 1) Pangong Lake Intrusion 2) Galwan Valley Intrusion 3) Situation in hot spring kongka pass.
- Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a plan of China. India argues that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a part of BRI initiative which violates its sovereignty.
- Because it passes through the part of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) that belongs to India. Even India’s neighbour’s forge closer ties to China as part of this initiative.
- To counter the rise of China, India is tying with strategic players such as the US, Japan, Australia with whom it is doing Quad, 2+2 dialogue, Malabar exercise.
On 2nd September 2020, India banned 118 chinese apps like PUBG, TikTok, ShareIt, UCBrowser and Weibo citing threat to national security and the privacy of Indian citizens. Through Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, India is trying to replace chinese products with domestic products in the possible sectors. Further, it needs to boost up its economic relations with other countries too. Because We are defined not by our borders but by our bonds.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes in english
“India doesn’t have one problem with China, we have a whole lot of problems pending with China. “ ——-Narendra Modi. India is fighting not only with the deadly COVID-19 virus but also with the source country ever since the pandemic. China and India are close neighbours linked by mountains and rivers. In the 1950’s a term was used to describe the relationship between India and China “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai” which means India and China are brothers. However, over the years relations between India and China have become tense mostly related to boundaries. Be it One Belt One Road initiative or the Doka La controversy. India and China share common boundaries with Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan.
Current India-China skirmishes :
- The two countries have fought a war, in 1962, where India lost. The main cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions.
- After the war, the de facto borders stabilised along the Line of Actual Control(LAC). LAC is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the Sino-Indian border dispute.
- But LAC is only a concept – there are no official records delineating the actual LAC unlike LOC. India and China disagree
over where the LAC lies.
- Often periodic patrols were performed by both sides, and mostly crisscrossed. Latest such disputes over the unsettled borders where both teeter to ward off a border clash are 1. Pangong Lake Intrusion 2. Galwan Valley Intrusion 3.
Situation in hot spring kongka pass.
Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) :
- BRI is a plan of China. India argues that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor(CPEC) is a part of BRI initiative which violates its sovereignty because it passes through the part of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) that belongs to India.
- Even India’s neighbour’s forge closer ties to China as part of this initiative. To counter the rise of China, India is tying with strategic players such as the US, Japan, Australia with whom it is doing Quad, 2+2 dialogue, Malabar exercise.
- On 2nd September 2020, India banned 118 chinese apps like PUBG,TikTok,ShareIt, UCBrowser, and Weibo citing threat to national security and the privacy of Indian citizens.
The New York Times reported that the October 2020 power outage in Mumbai could have been triggered by a Chinese cyber attack quoting a report by the American cybersecurity company Recorded Future. Through Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, India is trying to replace chinese products with domestic products in the possible sectors. Further, it needs to boost up its economic relations with other countries too. Because We are defined not by our borders but by our bonds.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Internal Security of India in english
Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.
- While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
- In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
- Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
- At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
- This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
- Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
- The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security.
- Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.
In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Bioterrorism – Internal threat to India
“Innovation is a good thing. The human condition – put aside bioterrorism and a few footnotes – is improving because of innovation.” — Bill Gates — Were you aware that intelligence agencies proclaimed that the Novel-coronavirus
might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China?. This was conspired when researchers couldn’t figure out how bat viruses could mutate to attack humans.
- Bioterrorism is the release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins deliberately to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.
- Deadly pathogens are the ‘next big thing’ in terror and it’s going to be a defense problem. Bioterrorism aims to create casualties, terror, societal disruption.
- The goal of the terrorists,non-state actors is to make their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
- During World War-I,II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale program to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
- Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.
Why are bioweapons considered as perfect weapons of terror ?
- Can be spread through air, water,food,aerosol sprays or by mail on infected
- Lethal pathogens are readily accessible.
- Highly difficult to detect.
Classification of Biological Agents :
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories. These are:
● Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax.
● Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever
● Category C : Low-priority agents. These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus.
During the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s (SCO’s) first military medicine conference, Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh said that bioterrorism is a real threat in today’s time and the Armed Forces medical services should be at the forefront of combating the menace.
The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.
In India, National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear(CBRN) attacks. As time goes, the weapons have been shifted from swords to malicious biological weapons. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial for appropriate response against it. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 is a necessity of time to deal with bioterrorism firmly.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India
Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.
- Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
- It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
- It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
- The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
- Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
- Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.
The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India
In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.
- In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
- Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
- Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
- Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
- Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
- In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
- Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.
Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Social Media as Internal Security issue In India
Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.
- These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
- If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages. The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
- Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
- We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
- Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
- These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
- In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes.
- It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
- Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.
The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India
Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.
- In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd of his waking hours.
- The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
- Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
- Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
- They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
- They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
- Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
- Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.
We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India
Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.
- It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
- Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
- A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
- In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
- In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
- Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
- These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
- The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.
Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.
Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security
“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.
Evolution of Naxalism :
- The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
- Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
- The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
- This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
- Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
- According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
How are they spreading ?
They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.
The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.
Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.