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Essay on development at the cost of environment degradetion

Essay on development at the cost of environment degradetion

Introduction :

“Environment is no one’s property to destroy, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect.” These words of Mohith Agadi reflects the irrational utilization of resources for development  activities without considering the environment. Development is a process that leads to positive change in physical, environmental, economic and social aspects of our life. Day by day the issue of environment is increasing as we are degrading our environment in the name of economic growth.

  • As a result we are facing serious repercussions like climate change, global warming, flood, cyclones and ozone layer depletion etc.
  • According to the world bank report higher level of economic growth imposed Rs 3.75 trillion worth of environment damage cost.
  • Rapid industrialization and urbanization are inevitable to bring economic development, to increase the per capita income and ease of living.
  • But these activities have caused negative environmental consequences such as pollution, disasters, forced migration, imbalanced weather phenomena etc.
  • More urbanization and higher industrial setups are being encroached on the forest land. Now-a-days micro plastics are contaminating the water resources very badly.
  • Subsequent use of private vehicle by each family member had supplemented their contribution to pollution.
  • According to environment performance index released by world economic forum, India ranks 168th out of 180 countries, which was the worst in the south Asian countries.
  • Water scarcity and extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of floods and droughts could further strain the economy which is already reeling under pressure due to Covid-19.
  • Government has taken many initiatives to conserve the environment such as Biological diversity Act, 2002, Project Tiger 1972, World summit on sustainable development, Rio de janerio summit 1992, Project elephant 1992 etc.
  • At ground level, efforts made by people can further succeed these programmes. Moreover there should be the maximum recycling and reuse of water, improvement in energy efficient machines is the most effective measure in industries.

Conclusion :

Balancing economic development and environmental sustainable is the need of the hour, to bring this sustainable development in mainstream, united nations launched the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Countries must switch their development plans to the sustainable plans. Thus balancing economic development and environment protection requires a refocusing of economic activity not towards producing less but producing differently.

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Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Positive Effects of Coronavirus on Environment

Introduction :

Covid-19 virus has become worldwide disease and almost all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus. As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.

  • Today, when the production of almost everything is slowed down and factories are not as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke is also reduced which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • This indicates that air has become more pure and we can breathe in pure air. With the increase in number of flights, not only the air traffic increases but the quality of air also getting worse, but now the scenario is changed.
  • To reduce the risk of coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home. This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses.

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. The coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind however, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty again.

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Essay on Strategy For New India at 75

Introduction :

New India @ 75 is a path breaking initiative which envisions how India should be in her 75th year of Independence and seeks to bring together all stakeholders including the industry, government, institutions, community groups and individuals to translate the vision into a reality. ‘Strategy for New India’ by NITI Aayog replaced five year plans with an aim to accelerate economic growth to 9 to 10% and to achieve UN sustainable development goals. The 41 Chapters under the documents have been merged under four sessions – Drivers, infrastructure, inclusion and governance.

  • India is on its way to celebrate its 75th independence day on 15th August 2022. The past 75 years took India from a poverty stricken, uneducated country to become one of the greatest pioneers in space technology & pharmaceuticals.
  • However, even after 75 years some issues are left out of fixing or are being handled in a careless manner. India is set to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2025 but its per capita income is among world’s lowest.
  • Half of the population is working in agriculture and allied activities but the income of farmers is extremely low to a point that they are forced to commit suicides.
  • India is 3rd largest economy in the world but its tax to GDP ratio is just half of the OECD countries. In addition to that, Infrastructure will play a huge role.
  • We are in dire need of private railways, Buses with IT enabled services to make our country a truly digital India. Also, India needs to include all its citizens into healthcare services via Ayushman Bharat Scheme, educating them via Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, and provide them shelter via PM Awas Yojna.
  • Moreover, to make the above targets, we need strong and effective governance. The focus is to improve the policy environment so that the contribution of private investors and stakeholders can be diverted to mainstream to achieve the goals set out for new India 2022.
  • Alarming features such as Mining, River valley projects, infrastructure projects, tourism and agriculture are included in this strategy.
  • With all this we have to limit environmental damage, there is an urgent need to conserve non-forest ecosystems such as grassland, wetlands, mountains and deserts.
  • We need to learn from the many alternatives initiatives for food, water, energy etc, which shows the ways to more just and sustainable livelihoods and ways of living.

Conclusion :

Being one of the most populous country of the world, it is a little bit tough but not impossible to change. We need proper utilization of human capital in the direction of all round development of our country. Jan Bhagidari, balanced development, public private partnership lies at the core of the strategy for New India initiative. If the above problems are addressed and vision of ‘strategy for new India @ 75’ is fulfilled, India can truly evolve as a superpower.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Save Water – Saving the future generations

Introduction :

Water is the primary requirement for all the living beings. Human beings and all other animals cannot survive for a day without water. Plants also need water in order to grow and survive as well. Water is used in cleaning our clothes and utensils, wash, cultivating crops, cooking food items, and many other activities. We know that almost three-fourths part of the earth is water but all this water is not suitable for use, only 2% of those water is usable and so it is very necessary to save water. 

  • With the increasing population the water available is inadequate to meet the needs of the people. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.
  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish.
  • There are two extremes in India. The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood. Wastage of water needs to be controlled. 
  • We should identify the water wastage facts and try to save water as much as possible. Currently, the biggest problem related to global warming is a huge water depreciation on Earth.
  • This is mainly caused due to misuse of water happening at various places. In the current scenario, it is important to understand the formula for the conversation of water and thereby save water.
  • Because pure water resources are the primary sources for all our necessities. And when it becomes depreciated, it can lead to huge catastrophic conditions for human beings. 
  • There are many regions in the world that are facing extreme water scarcity due to decline of groundwater and scanty rainfalls. Also, in some areas, the groundwater is contaminated or it has been overused.
  • Thus, these factors have to lead to drought situations and in these areas it has lead to water scarcity. Furthermore, urbanization and industrialization have added to the problems where groundwater has been overused to fulfill the increasing demands of the population.
  • According to the WHO report, 1 out of people does not have access to safe drinking water. Seeing this, the water crisis in the future does seem inevitable.

Conclusion :

Also, it calls for an immediate action plan in order to conserve water so that precious resource can be saved for today as well for future generations. The ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate. Another factor is water leakage. Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages and Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. People who live in those areas where there is plenty of water available should understand the value of water and thus save water. People should understand the importance of water and thus wastage of water should be controlled.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Short Essay on Plastic ban in english for students :

Introduction :

Plastic, polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped by the application of heat and pressure. Plastic Bags are used for various purposes. The most common use of these bags is to carry grocery items. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable.

  • They have become a major cause of land pollution. Used plastic bags stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution.
  • Many countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • We must understand that these have been banned for our good. Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants.

Conclusion :

The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market. The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Thus, plastic bags are ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic bags. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

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Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Long essay on Plastic Ban for students

Introduction :

Plastic, polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped by the application of heat and pressure. Plastic Bags are used for various purposes. The most common use of these bags is to carry grocery items. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable. They have become a major cause of land pollution. Used plastic bags stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution.

  • Many countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • We must understand that these have been banned for our good. Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants. Plastic bags have become the main cause of land pollution today.
  • The plastic bags entering into the water bodies are a major cause of water pollution. Hence we can conclude that these are deteriorating our environment in every possible way.
  • The production of plastic bags releases toxic chemicals. These are the main cause of serious illness. The polluted environment is a major reason for various diseases which are spreading easily in human beings.
  • Waste plastic bags are the main reason for trapping the drains and sewers, especially during rains. This can result in a flood-like situation and disrupt the normal life of people.
  • The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Thus, plastic bags are ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health.
  • Although the Indian government has imposed a ban on the usage of plastic bags in many states. But people are still carrying these bags.

Conclusion :

Shopkeepers stop providing plastic bags for few days only in the beginning. It is time when we all must contribute our bit to make this ban a success. Thus we the educated lot of society must take it as our responsibility to stop using plastic bags. In this way, we can support the government in this campaign. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic bags. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Short Essay on Plastic pollution in english 250 words : 

Introduction :

Plastic is used for various purposes. The most common use of it is to carry grocery items in the form of bags. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable. Plastic stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution. This is the reason why many countries have banned the use of plastic in the form of bags. These countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags.

  • The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states. We must understand that these have been banned for our good.
  • Every individual must take it has his responsibility to stop the use of plastic to make our environment cleaner. Plastic cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases and illnesses in them.
  • Likewise, the marine creatures also tend to mistake the plastic pieces for food and eat them. People who have sea food can get infected if they have fishes suffering from illness.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants. Plastic bags are mostly made of polypropylene which is produced from petroleum and natural gas.
  • These are both non-renewable fossil fuels and their extraction creates greenhouse gases that are the leading cause of global warming.

Conclusion :

The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market. The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Plastic is ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic. It is not that difficult to keep a cloth bag with us while going the market. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

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Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Long Essay on Plastic pollution in english in 400 words

Introduction :

Plastic pollution has become a major threat to our environment in today’s times and it is likely to make things worse in future.  Plastic pollution is damaging our environment rapidly. Waste plastic material is hard to dispose and contributes to major pollution on earth. This has become a cause of global concern. The increasing use of plastic bags, utensils and furniture, the amount of plastic waste has also gone up and so has the plastic pollution.

  • Plastic waste is entering the water bodies such as rivers, seas and even oceans and is polluting our water drastically. This water is then supplied at our places.
  • No matter how much we filter this water it can never get back to its pure form. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals. Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags.
  • Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them. The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avoid it as soon as possible.
  • Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.
  • We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of using plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it.

Conclusion :

We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution these days. The government must also take strict measures to ensure these are not used. It is of utmost importance to spread awareness about the harmful effects of plastic waste on our environment.  This can be done by way of television and radio and social media. This should help people understand the seriousness of the issue.

Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so.
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.
  • Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.

Conclusion :

If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation. India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Clean India Movement – A step towards cleanliness

Introduction :

The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi had said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence” during his time before the independence of India. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people of India a lot about the cleanliness and sanitation as well as its implementation in the daily lives. After many years of independence of India, a most effective campaign of cleanliness is launched to call people for their active participation and complete the mission of cleanliness. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a Swachh Bharat Mission is launched.

  • In order to fulfill the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and make India an ideal country all over the world, the Prime Minister of India has initiated a campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2nd of October 2014).
  • People can make India clean in a number of ways. First of all, carrying a small poly-bag is a must. Most noteworthy, a recycled paper bag is the best.
  • Indians must certainly use it to throw trash in dustbins. Indians probably throw trash on the street because they dislike carrying it.
  • However, a recycled paper bag makes it easier to carry waste. Hence, Indians can carry this bag to the dustbin for waste disposal.
  • Segregating wastes is also very important. It is something which many Indians ignore. Most noteworthy, the segregation of waste at home should be in 3 separate bins.
  • These 3 bins are Biodegradable, Recyclable and Others. The waste management department should help in implementing this system.
  • Another notable way to clean India is the compost pit. Compost pit helps in the preparation of compost. To create compost pit at home, some items are required.
  • These items are kitchen wastes, leaves, grass, etc. Consequently, the microorganisms convert this organic matter into compost. Through this campaign the government of India would solve the sanitation problems by enhancing the waste management techniques.
  • Clean India movement is completely associated with the economic strength of the country. Community cleanliness drive is yet another brilliant way of making India clean.
  • It has a psychological benefit. This is because it is easier to do a thing when others are doing it. The birth date of the Mahatma Gandhi is targeted in both, the launch and completion of the mission.

Conclusion :

The basic goals behind launching the Swachh Bharat Mission are to make the country full of sanitation facilities as well as eliminate all the unhealthy practices of people in daily routines. Clean India would bring more tourists and enhance its economic condition. The Prime Minister of India has requested to every Indian to devote their 100 hours per year for the cleanliness in India which is very sufficient to make this country a clean country by 2019.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Making India Clean & Healthy

Introduction :

Mahatma Gandhi had said before the independence of India that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people a lot about the cleanliness. To fulfil his dream Swachh Bharat Abhiyan initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd of October in 2014 on the 145th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. Its primary goal is to make India open defecation-free by October 2, 2019, through the construction of at least 12 crore toilets across rural and urban households.

  • As of February 1, 2019, the government claims 9.2 crore toilets built in rural areas. Based on toilet construction, the govt has declared 28 states and UTs as Open Defecation Free.
  • But independent surveys show open defecation continues even in areas that the government has declared Open Defecation Free.
  • It is also found that 23% of people who own a toilet continue to defecate in the open, including people in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, which have been declared open defecation- free states. 
  • The Mission’s objectives also include creating sustainable solid and liquid waste management systems, promoting social inclusion by improving sanitation for women and marginalized communities, and eradicating manual scavenging.
  • Side by side of the main Swachh Bharat Mission, the Indian government also launched the Clean India: Clean Schools campaign.
  • The aim of the campaign was to ensure separate toilets for boys and girls in schools, appropriate sanitary facilities for menstruating students, hand washing station that can cater to at least 10 students at the same time, availability of soaps etc.
  • Our school has all the sanitation equipment necessary to facilitate Clean India, Clean Schools campaign. We have hygienically secure toilets with handwashing facilities.
  • Our female classmates feel comfortable coming to school because of the measures taken to make the girls’ toilet modern and friendly. Our teachers make it a point to emphasise the benefits of personal hygiene.

Conclusion :

In its National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2017-18 (NARSS), the government claimed 77% rural households had access to toilets, of which 93.4% used them regularly. It also claimed 95.6% of the surveyed villages that had been declared ODF were indeed free of open defecation. In urban areas, the government’s target was to build 67 lakh urban toilets by October 2019. It claims it has already built 60 lakh household toilets by October 2018.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Delhi Pollution – Growing Issue In India

Introduction : 

Pollution is one of the major issues causing concern not only in India but across the world. Delhi, the national capital of the country, is being tagged as one of the most heavily polluted capital cities in the world. It is the world’s worst city in terms of air pollution, with an unhealthy air quality index for the majority of the year. Thus, today, one of the biggest threats to the welfare of the people of Delhi. There has been a huge rise in the vehicular population, in spite of the metro railways, aggravating traffic congestion and increasing air and noise pollution. 

  • There has also been a number of diesel vehicles plying on the roads, which are largely responsible for the air pollution. Citizens need to start the public transport more and more to reduce the pollution level in the city.
  • Government has ensured to increase the no. of buses and auto-rickshaws in the capital as well. Stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana in northwest India has been cited as a major cause of air pollution in Delhi
  • Particulate matter (PM) is basically a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets like acids, chemicals, gas, water, metals, soil dust particles, etc. the measurement of which gives an idea of the pollution of a city.
  • There are mobile enforcement teams deployed at various locations for monitoring polluting vehicles. Citizens need to avoid all kinds of contact near construction sites.
  • These sites release gases which makes the air very harmful for eyes and for the respiratory system. The above measures are known by many of us yet the level of national capital remains at 11th in the ranking of WHO for the most polluted cities.
  • The practicing of the above measures is the need for hour and to live happier days with our loved one is we all demand. I whole heartedly appeal to every citizen to take steps to make pollution free capital, a pollution free India.

Conclusion :

 With a view to reducing vehicular pollution, there has been a ban imposed on the plying of more than 15 years old commercial or transport vehicles. Steps are taken to transform garbage into compost by developing new sanitary land-fill sites. It’s not that the Government is not taking steps to control pollution in Delhi, But we need proper and efficient implementation of plans and programmes and policies launched by the Government to make it successful.

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Books & Ebooks

Delhi High Court JJA Book – Translation Book for Delhi High Court JJA/Restorer

Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Book  – Translation Book for Delhi High Court JJA/Restorer

This book is highly recommended to Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Exam aspirants who want a series of essay topics for Practice. All expected essay topics with 100+ expected essays are covered in this book. This book includes 100+ essay topics as per the latest pattern and according to word limit. You must prepare from it.

Main (Descriptive) Examination syllabus 

Main (Descriptive) Exam of English language would consist of two sections i.e.

  • Part ‘A’ : Essay (250 words =40 Marks) & Letter (10 Marks); and
  • Part ‘B’ : Grammar (30 Marks) & Translation (25 words =20 Marks).
  • Main Exam Will Consist Total – 100 Marks
  • Time Duration of Main Examination Will be 120 Minutes.

Minimum pass marks for UR candidates will be 50% and for Reserved Category candidates including PwD & Ex-servicemen will be 45%. Only the successful candidates of Stage -II, Main (Descriptive) Examination will be called for the next stage of the Examination, i.e .. Stage ­III I English Typing Test.

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Translation Preparation Tips for Delhi High Court JJA

1) Prepare a Proper Study Plan

2) Go Through Both Hindi and English Newspapers

3) Brush-up Grammar Rules and Usage of Vocabulary

4) Attempt Previous Year Papers and Mock Tests

How to prepare Essay Writing for Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Exam ?

Essay Writing is nothing but how well you present your thoughts and ideas on a particular topic in a well-structured and good looking manner. It requires imagination and good writing skills for writing an essay. Both these skills are essential as both these factors together will help you present a good essay in the best manner.

Gathering of thoughts on a particular topic will not help you if you are not able to present them effectively and efficienty. Likewise, just good writing skills are no good if you are not able to think of innovative and relevant points for the given descriptive topic. Check out some important tips below to score well in the essay writing section of Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Exam

Build a daily Reading Habit 

  • Read any English Newspaper daily – Reading the newspaper will not only strengthen your general knowledge but will give you ideas to be more specific and informative about the topic you asked.
  • Try to Grasp writing skills used in that Newspaper
  • Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Practice writing in essay or precis in your own words. Set a limit of words for yourself and write the essay within that word limit.

Use of Dictionary to look up the difficult words

  • Note down Important Vocabulary
  • Make use of the dictionary to check new words, its usage and meaning and also note down in your notebook separately.
  • Always try 3-4 sentence making with the new word so that you do not forget to use the same in your exams as per the requirement.

Try writing at least one or two essays on daily basis 

  • You just need to pick at least one topic daily from the current news and Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Try to write about the topic in your own words within the limit prescribed in your exam.
  • After writing the Essay, you can look for more essays on the topic you have chosen for yourself to get more ideas on the same and note down the important key points.

List of Most Important Essay Topics for Descriptive Paper

Delhi High Court JJA Important Expected Essay Topics :

  • NRA- Pros & Cons
  • Online Frauds in India
  • Inter-caste Marriages
  • WhatsApp Privacy Policy
  • Bird Flu & Its Impact
  • Life After Lockdown
  • Cultural Diversity In India
  • Covid-19 Impact on Economy
  • New Education Policy
  • Farm bill 2020
  • Ayushman Bharat
  • Lockdown In India
  • Women Safety In India
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Mission
  • Online Education in India
  • Work from Home – Pros & Cons
  • Disaster Management
  • Gender Equality
  • Mental Health
  • Honour Killing
read more
Books & Ebooks

Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Book – Essay and Letter writing Book for Delhi High Court JJA/Restorer

Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Book – Essay and Letter writing Book for Delhi High Court JJA/Restorer

This book is highly recommended to Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Exam aspirants who want a series of essay topics for Practice. All expected essay topics with 100+ expected essays are covered in this book. This book includes 100+ essay topics as per the latest pattern and according to word limit. You must prepare from it.

Main (Descriptive) Examination syllabus 

Main (Descriptive) Exam of English language would consist of two sections i.e.

  • Part ‘A’ : Essay (250 words =40 Marks) & Letter (10 Marks); and
  • Part ‘B’ : Grammar (30 Marks) & Translation (25 words =20 Marks).
  • Main Exam Will Consist Total – 100 Marks
  • Time Duration of Main Examination Will be 120 Minutes.

Minimum pass marks for UR candidates will be 50% and for Reserved Category candidates including PwD & Ex-servicemen will be 45%. Only the successful candidates of Stage -II, Main (Descriptive) Examination will be called for the next stage of the Examination, i.e .. Stage ­III I English Typing Test.

Buy Now

How to prepare Essay Writing for Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Exam ?

Essay Writing is nothing but how well you present your thoughts and ideas on a particular topic in a well-structured and good looking manner. It requires imagination and good writing skills for writing an essay. Both these skills are essential as both these factors together will help you present a good essay in the best manner.

Gathering of thoughts on a particular topic will not help you if you are not able to present them effectively and efficienty. Likewise, just good writing skills are no good if you are not able to think of innovative and relevant points for the given descriptive topic. Check out some important tips below to score well in the essay writing section of Delhi High Court JJA Descriptive Exam

Build a daily Reading Habit 

  • Read any English Newspaper daily – Reading the newspaper will not only strengthen your general knowledge but will give you ideas to be more specific and informative about the topic you asked.
  • Try to Grasp writing skills used in that Newspaper
  • Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Practice writing in essay or precis in your own words. Set a limit of words for yourself and write the essay within that word limit.

Use of Dictionary to look up the difficult words

  • Note down Important Vocabulary
  • Make use of the dictionary to check new words, its usage and meaning and also note down in your notebook separately.
  • Always try 3-4 sentence making with the new word so that you do not forget to use the same in your exams as per the requirement.

Try writing at least one or two essays on daily basis 

  • You just need to pick at least one topic daily from the current news and Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Try to write about the topic in your own words within the limit prescribed in your exam.
  • After writing the Essay, you can look for more essays on the topic you have chosen for yourself to get more ideas on the same and note down the important key points.

List of Most Important Essay Topics for Descriptive Paper

Delhi High Court JJA Important Expected Essay Topics :

  • NRA- Pros & Cons
  • Online Frauds in India
  • Inter-caste Marriages
  • WhatsApp Privacy Policy
  • Bird Flu & Its Impact
  • Life After Lockdown
  • Cultural Diversity In India
  • Covid-19 Impact on Economy
  • New Education Policy
  • Farm bill 2020
  • Ayushman Bharat
  • Lockdown In India
  • Women Safety In India
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Mission
  • Online Education in India
  • Work from Home – Pros & Cons
  • Disaster Management
  • Gender Equality
  • Mental Health
  • Honour Killing
read more
BlogBooks & EbooksEssays

ECGC PO Descriptive Paper Book – Essay Writing Book for ECGC PO Exam

This book is highly recommended to ECGC PO Descriptive Exam aspirants who want a series of essay topics for Practice. All expected essay topics with 100+ expected essays are covered in this book. This book includes 100+ essay topics as per the Exam. You must prepare from it.
The Descriptive Test of ECGC PO 2021 will include 2 topics, namely
1) Precis writing
2) Essay writing
The total marks designated for ECGC PO Descriptive Test is 40 and you will be given 40 minutes of time to complete this test. Only Precis writing and Essay writing would be asked in the test.

 

Buy Now

Descriptive Pattern of ECGC PO Exam

The Descriptive Test of ECGC PO 2021 will include 2 topics these are 1) Precis writing and 2) Essay writing

S. No. Topics No. of questions Marks  Time allotted 
1) Essay Writing One out of two given options 20 40 minutes for both questions together
2) Precis Writing One out of two given options 20

Important Details

These two questions will carry a total of 40 marks, and you will have 40 minutes to attempt these two sections. There will not be any sectional time limit in the exam. All selected candidates for descriptive exam will have to attempt two questions based on Essay writing and precise writing in 40 minutes together.

The exam test would be conducted online, i.e., the candidates will have to type their answers with the help of the keyboard and their typing speed can become the game changer for this exam. If you want to score better in this test, you should have a good hold over sentence structuring in english as well as better typing speed too.

Important Tips to prepare for Descriptive Paper in ECGC PO Exam

As it is already discussed that the descriptive writing can be the game-changer in ECGC Po Descriptive exam. Those candidates who have a good hold on the writing skills or on the English language section can surely do wonders in this test section. But we can also not deny the fact that your thoughts along with your writing skills will be tested accordingly. You will have to impress the examiner  with your thoughts and writing skills. Your writing must be short as per the word limit prescribed in the exam. It should be crisp and informative too.

Also give a thought to the words you are going to write in the examination. Make sure your words and message you are trying to the convey is crystal clear and legible to the reader or examiner. Don’t try to write out of the box and try to be specific and choosy while making use of any difficult word or expression.

How to prepare Essay Writing for ECGC PO 2021 Descriptive Exam ?

Essay Writing is nothing but how well you present your thoughts and ideas on a particular topic in a well-structured and good looking manner. It requires imagination and good writing skills for writing an essay. Both these skills are essential as both these factors together will help you present a good essay in the best manner.

Gathering of thoughts on a particular topic will not help you if you are not able to present them effectively and efficienty. Likewise, just good writing skills are no good if you are not able to think of innovative and relevant points for the given descriptive topic. Check out some important tips below to score well in the essay writing section of ECGC PO Descriptive Exam

Build a daily Reading Habit 

  • Read any English Newspaper daily – Reading the newspaper will not only strengthen your general knowledge but will give you ideas to be more specific and informative about the topic you asked.
  • Try to Grasp writing skills used in that Newspaper
  • Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Practice writing in essay or precis in your own words. Set a limit of words for yourself and write the essay within that word limit.

Use of Dictionary to look up the difficult words

  • Note down Important Vocabulary
  • Make use of the dictionary to check new words, its usage and meaning and also note down in your notebook separately.
  • Always try 3-4 sentence making with the new word so that you do not forget to use the same in your exams as per the requirement.

Try writing at least one or two essays on daily basis 

  • You just need to pick at least one topic daily from the current news and Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Try to write about the topic in your own words within the limit prescribed in your exam.
  • After writing the Essay, you can look for more essays on the topic you have chosen for yourself to get more ideas on the same and note down the important key points.

Tips to prepare Precis Writing for ECGC PO Exam

What is Precis Writing?

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important aspects and details of the passage given.

“Precis denotes a brief, concise, clear and well connected abstract, summary of a given passage”.  Ability to produce a satisfactory precis is very important for many purposes in practical life. Government Officials & Businessman have no time to go through long and unnecessary details; thus a precis is a good tool for saving their valuable time.

So it is necessary for the officials working as secretary or as private secretary to have expertise in the art of precis writing. The candidates are required to write a precis of a given composition. Thus, the art of writing precis helps one to secure good marks in the examinations.

 

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD PRECIS

One must keep the following points in mind while writing a precis

1. Conciseness

It is the soul of a good precis. The precis must not exceed onethird of the length of original passage.

2. Completeness :

Precis must give a complete idea of the passage. The main idea of the original passage should be presented in the same order in precis writing.

3. Clarity

A precis should be clear and lucid, free from any ambiguity or obscurity. In an attempt to shorten the passage, you must take care that the sentences constructed by you are free from any error, like improper use of words.

4. Grammatical Accuracy

A precis must be free from grammatical errors, spelling and punctuation errors etc.

  1. One-third of total paragraph
  2. Own words
  3. Clarity
  4. Complete
  5. Avoid mistakes
  6. Single Paragraph

Rules for Good Precis Writing

For avoiding errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as given below :

  • Read the passage carefully
  • Decide Theme of the Passage
  • Brevity and Clarity
  • Use Own Language
  • Accuracy of the Language
  • Avoid Direct Speech and
  •  Use Indirect Speech

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Start with basic idea
  • Include all the important keywords
  • Use easy vocabulary
  • Do not make assumptions
  • Avoid using abbreviations
  • Title can be underlined
  • Use Statistical data
  • Proper Tense usage

How to write Good Precis

There are many important components which make a good precis. For those who have just started their preparation for the upcoming exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely useful.

  • Should be a summary of the original paragraph
  • Covering all important keywords from the original paragraph
  • The details in the precis must match in that of paragraph
  • Use of linking words such as and, because, therefore, etc.
  • Should be precise and clear
  • Should be in your own words
  • Must be logically connected
  • Should have an appropriate title
  • Don’t use any idiom of your own

Precis Writing (Example 1)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

 

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

 

Precis Writing (Example -2)

In today’s scenario, Mass media, specifically visual media, plays a pivotal role in creating an atmosphere of awareness in society. Media refers to different communication channels or ways through which knowledge and information is conveyed to the viewers or the readers. Visual media refers to the media that conveys knowledge and information to the viewers through their eyes; it includes television, cinema, posters etc. Whatever, is supplied through the visual media has instant and longer lasting effect on the minds of the viewers.

With rapid development of information and technology, the visual media, in the shape of cable TV, with multitudes of domestic and foreign channels has reached almost every house, playing a vital role in moulding public opinion in various ways. It plays a very crucial role in educating, and entertaining the masses. Cable TV has changed the means and modes of entertainment and education.

Sitting before a TV, one can pass and enjoy his free time listening to music, viewing movies, learning techniques of body building, hearing sermons of religious saints, learning about lives of wild animals, birds, water creatures, knowing about space and what not.

During the election period, one can know the electoral positions of political parties and their leaders, from all parts of the country and its impact on the election campaign and all facts of electioneering, just sitting before the TV.

Youngsters and teenage students are seen viewing the channels as per their likings; if some are viewing the music channels some are seen quenching their thirst for knowledge viewing channels like ‘Discovery’ or ‘National Geography’ or ‘History’ etc. The image on the small screen thus has a significant impression on all, more particularly on the gullible children and on the teens. The young mind takes the reel as real and thus is more often and more easily moulded and motivated by the visual media.

The present day fashion, hair dressing, sexual liberties, dating and awakening towards the right of youth, awareness among the women of their rights are because of the role visual media is playing in society. In a hysterical effort to excel others, some channels are showing such scenes and images which are of no importance or have an adverse effect on the minds of viewers.

Showing of sexual and rape cases, with minute details by the anchor and showing brutal scenes of murder, the channels have crossed the limit of ethics and morality. The TV coverage of massacre, creates feeling of hatred among communities and motivates others to wreak vengeance. Obsessed by the sole aim of making a fast buck the channels are competing with one another to stoop to any kind of absurdity, without considering even for a minute as to what effect such visuals have on society.  (460 Words)

Title:  Visual media Vs Indian Society

 

Precis :

Visual media plays an important role in creating awareness in society as it has a prolonged effect on the viewers. Advancement in technology has enabled visual media to penetrate in every house, so it can easily moulds public opinion. Cable TV has significantly affected the lifestyle of people. Methods of entertainment and passing leisure time have changed. During elections, one can know the latest status through TV. Youngsters and teenagers watch different channels as per their choices. They seem to be easily influenced by visual media. The present awareness towards fashion, sexual liberties, rights of youth and women are the result of the impact of visual media on society. Owing to unhealthy competition, TV channels are showing indecent and instigating scenes and programmes causing hatred and violence among the people, just for popularity and making money. They have no regard for ethics and morality and the effect of such visuals.

(150 words)

 

 

read more
BlogBooks & Ebooks

ECGC PO Descriptive Paper Book – Precis Writing Book for ECGC PO Exam

ECGC PO 2021 Descriptive Paper Book – Precis Writing Book for ECGC PO Exam –
This book is highly recommended to ECGC PO Descriptive Exam aspirants who want a series of precis topics for Practice. All expected precis with various topics are covered in it. This book includes 60+ precis writing exercises on various topics as per the Exam. You must prepare from it.
The Descriptive Test of ECGC PO 2021 will include 2 topics, namely
1) Precise
2) Essay
The total marks designated for ECGC PO Descriptive Test is 40 and you will be given 40 minutes of time to complete this test. Only Precis writing and Essay writing would be asked in the test.

Buy Now

Descriptive Pattern of ECGC PO Exam

The Descriptive Test of ECGC PO 2021 will include 2 topics these are 1) Precis writing and 2) Essay writing

S. No. Topics No. of questions Marks  Time allotted 
1) Essay Writing One out of two given options 20 40 minutes for both questions together
2) Precis Writing One out of two given options 20

Important Details

These two questions will carry a total of 40 marks, and you will have 40 minutes to attempt these two sections. There will not be any sectional time limit in the exam. All selected candidates for descriptive exam will have to attempt two questions based on Essay writing and precise writing in 40 minutes together.

The exam test would be conducted online, i.e., the candidates will have to type their answers with the help of the keyboard and their typing speed can become the game changer for this exam. If you want to score better in this test, you should have a good hold over sentence structuring in english as well as better typing speed too.

Important Tips to prepare for Descriptive Paper in ECGC PO Exam

As it is already discussed that the descriptive writing can be the game-changer in ECGC Po Descriptive exam. Those candidates who have a good hold on the writing skills or on the English language section can surely do wonders in this test section. But we can also not deny the fact that your thoughts along with your writing skills will be tested accordingly. You will have to impress the examiner  with your thoughts and writing skills. Your writing must be short as per the word limit prescribed in the exam. It should be crisp and informative too.

Also give a thought to the words you are going to write in the examination. Make sure your words and message you are trying to the convey is crystal clear and legible to the reader or examiner. Don’t try to write out of the box and try to be specific and choosy while making use of any difficult word or expression.

How to prepare Essay Writing for ECGC PO 2021 Descriptive Exam ?

Essay Writing is nothing but how well you present your thoughts and ideas on a particular topic in a well-structured and good looking manner. It requires imagination and good writing skills for writing an essay. Both these skills are essential as both these factors together will help you present a good essay in the best manner.

Gathering of thoughts on a particular topic will not help you if you are not able to present them effectively and efficienty. Likewise, just good writing skills are no good if you are not able to think of innovative and relevant points for the given descriptive topic. Check out some important tips below to score well in the essay writing section of ECGC PO Descriptive Exam

Build a daily Reading Habit 

  • Read any English Newspaper daily – Reading the newspaper will not only strengthen your general knowledge but will give you ideas to be more specific and informative about the topic you asked.
  • Try to Grasp writing skills used in that Newspaper
  • Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Practice writing in essay or precis in your own words. Set a limit of words for yourself and write the essay within that word limit.

Use of Dictionary to look up the difficult words

  • Note down Important Vocabulary
  • Make use of the dictionary to check new words, its usage and meaning and also note down in your notebook separately.
  • Always try 3-4 sentence making with the new word so that you do not forget to use the same in your exams as per the requirement.

Try writing at least one or two essays on daily basis 

  • You just need to pick at least one topic daily from the current news and Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs
  • Try to write about the topic in your own words within the limit prescribed in your exam.
  • After writing the Essay, you can look for more essays on the topic you have chosen for yourself to get more ideas on the same and note down the important key points.

Tips to prepare Precis Writing for ECGC PO Exam

What is Precis Writing?

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important aspects and details of the passage given.

“Precis denotes a brief, concise, clear and well connected abstract, summary of a given passage”.  Ability to produce a satisfactory precis is very important for many purposes in practical life. Government Officials & Businessman have no time to go through long and unnecessary details; thus a precis is a good tool for saving their valuable time.

So it is necessary for the officials working as secretary or as private secretary to have expertise in the art of precis writing. The candidates are required to write a precis of a given composition. Thus, the art of writing precis helps one to secure good marks in the examinations.

 

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD PRECIS

One must keep the following points in mind while writing a precis

1. Conciseness

It is the soul of a good precis. The precis must not exceed onethird of the length of original passage.

2. Completeness :

Precis must give a complete idea of the passage. The main idea of the original passage should be presented in the same order in precis writing.

3. Clarity

A precis should be clear and lucid, free from any ambiguity or obscurity. In an attempt to shorten the passage, you must take care that the sentences constructed by you are free from any error, like improper use of words.

4. Grammatical Accuracy

A precis must be free from grammatical errors, spelling and punctuation errors etc.

  1. One-third of total paragraph
  2. Own words
  3. Clarity
  4. Complete
  5. Avoid mistakes
  6. Single Paragraph

Rules for Good Precis Writing

For avoiding errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as given below :

  • Read the passage carefully
  • Decide Theme of the Passage
  • Brevity and Clarity
  • Use Own Language
  • Accuracy of the Language
  • Avoid Direct Speech and
  •  Use Indirect Speech

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Start with basic idea
  • Include all the important keywords
  • Use easy vocabulary
  • Do not make assumptions
  • Avoid using abbreviations
  • Title can be underlined
  • Use Statistical data
  • Proper Tense usage

How to write Good Precis

There are many important components which make a good precis. For those who have just started their preparation for the upcoming exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely useful.

  • Should be a summary of the original paragraph
  • Covering all important keywords from the original paragraph
  • The details in the precis must match in that of paragraph
  • Use of linking words such as and, because, therefore, etc.
  • Should be precise and clear
  • Should be in your own words
  • Must be logically connected
  • Should have an appropriate title
  • Don’t use any idiom of your own

 

Precis Writing (Example 1)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

 

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

Precis Writing (Example -2)

In today’s scenario, Mass media, specifically visual media, plays a pivotal role in creating an atmosphere of awareness in society. Media refers to different communication channels or ways through which knowledge and information is conveyed to the viewers or the readers. Visual media refers to the media that conveys knowledge and information to the viewers through their eyes; it includes television, cinema, posters etc. Whatever, is supplied through the visual media has instant and longer lasting effect on the minds of the viewers.

With rapid development of information and technology, the visual media, in the shape of cable TV, with multitudes of domestic and foreign channels has reached almost every house, playing a vital role in moulding public opinion in various ways. It plays a very crucial role in educating, and entertaining the masses. Cable TV has changed the means and modes of entertainment and education.

Sitting before a TV, one can pass and enjoy his free time listening to music, viewing movies, learning techniques of body building, hearing sermons of religious saints, learning about lives of wild animals, birds, water creatures, knowing about space and what not.

During the election period, one can know the electoral positions of political parties and their leaders, from all parts of the country and its impact on the election campaign and all facts of electioneering, just sitting before the TV.

Youngsters and teenage students are seen viewing the channels as per their likings; if some are viewing the music channels some are seen quenching their thirst for knowledge viewing channels like ‘Discovery’ or ‘National Geography’ or ‘History’ etc. The image on the small screen thus has a significant impression on all, more particularly on the gullible children and on the teens. The young mind takes the reel as real and thus is more often and more easily moulded and motivated by the visual media.

The present day fashion, hair dressing, sexual liberties, dating and awakening towards the right of youth, awareness among the women of their rights are because of the role visual media is playing in society. In a hysterical effort to excel others, some channels are showing such scenes and images which are of no importance or have an adverse effect on the minds of viewers.

Showing of sexual and rape cases, with minute details by the anchor and showing brutal scenes of murder, the channels have crossed the limit of ethics and morality. The TV coverage of massacre, creates feeling of hatred among communities and motivates others to wreak vengeance. Obsessed by the sole aim of making a fast buck the channels are competing with one another to stoop to any kind of absurdity, without considering even for a minute as to what effect such visuals have on society.  (460 Words)

Title:  Visual media Vs Indian Society

 

Precis :

Visual media plays an important role in creating awareness in society as it has a prolonged effect on the viewers. Advancement in technology has enabled visual media to penetrate in every house, so it can easily moulds public opinion. Cable TV has significantly affected the lifestyle of people. Methods of entertainment and passing leisure time have changed. During elections, one can know the latest status through TV. Youngsters and teenagers watch different channels as per their choices. They seem to be easily influenced by visual media. The present awareness towards fashion, sexual liberties, rights of youth and women are the result of the impact of visual media on society. Owing to unhealthy competition, TV channels are showing indecent and instigating scenes and programmes causing hatred and violence among the people, just for popularity and making money. They have no regard for ethics and morality and the effect of such visuals. (150 words)

Precis Writing (Example-3)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

Precis Writing (Example-4)

India is suffering from many social problems. Corruption is one of them. The most disquieting aspect of the widespread corruption in India is the fact that it is not anymore confined to politicians or the government machinery alone. It is prevalent amongst almost every section of the society, at every level. As the practice of corruption is a dishonest act, one tends to think that most of the Indians are dishonest, the extent could be varying only in degree between the individuals. The reason for the dishonesty is greediness and the desire to get things done at any cost. One can think that most of the countrymen are greedy and do not anymore consider that the means should justify the ends. This is not a flattering statement and many readers would desire that it would not be so and that such a statement could have been avoided. But, the fact is, that most of the Indians are involved in corrupt practices in one way or the other, either due to greed or due to compulsion.

In any case, the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of not getting involved in corrupt dealings is conspicuous by its absence amongst the majority. The study of world phenomenon of corruption has repeatedly branded India as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Unfortunately, this view has not disturbed most of the Indians at all and they do not seem to care as to what others think of them; so long as the existing systems and practices would allow them to make money and get things done in one way or the other.

The irony is that India is still considered to be a very religious country and it is still widely believed that the religion is the basis of Indian life, thoughts and actions. This is obviously true, considering the fact that there are hundreds of temples, churches and mosques spread all over the country and they are all densely visited, day in and day out, by the feverishly praying Indians.

Is not religious ethos contrary to corruption and dishonest practices? The unfortunate situation in India is that those who call themselves most religious are often found to have indulged themselves in dishonest practices on many occasions. Several of the religious centres, of all religions, are suspected to be steeped in nepotism, as, such incidents have been repeatedly published in the press. (401 Words)

Title:   Corruption – Enrooted in Society

Precis :

Corruption, one of the social problems widespread in India is not anymore a politician thing it has spread its wings in all section of the society. As this unfair act is more prevalent in India , the outside world perceives Indians as corrupted
beings and they can go to any extent to fulfill their greediness. In Spite of India being branded as a corrupted nation by the world, its people are not giving any heed and are constantly involved in making money for getting unnecessary things
done. On the other hand India is also recognised as a religious nation, with all its temples, churches, mosques which are crowded by visitors everyday. Which religion preaches corruption and dishonest practices? Many instances of nepotism, religious believers involved in dishonest practices have been published
in the press. (134 Words)

Precis Writing (Example-5)

The real implication of equal distribution is that each man shall have the wherewithal to supply all his natural needs and no more. e.g. if one man has a weak digestion and requires only a quarter of a pound of flour for his bread and another needs a pound, both should be in a position to satisfy their wants. To bring this ideal into being the entire social order has got to be reconstructed. A society based on non-violence cannot nurture any other ideal. We may not perhaps be able to realise the goal, but we must bear it in mind and work unceasingly to near it. To the same extent as we progress towards our goal we shall find contentment and happiness and to that extent too shall we have contributed towards the bringing into being of a non-violent society.

It is perfectly possible for an individual to adopt this way of life without having to wait for others to do so. And if an individual can observe a certain rule of conduct, it follows that a group of individuals can do likewise. It is necessary for me to emphasise the fact that no one need wait for anyone else in order to adopt a right course. Men generally hesitate to make a beginning if they feel that the objective cannot be had in its entirety. Such an attitude of mind is in reality a bar to progress. Now, let us consider how equal distribution can be brought about through non-violence. The first step towards it is for him who has made this ideal part of his being to bring about the necessary changes in his personal life. He would reduce his wants to a minimum, bearing in mind the poverty of India. (294 words)

Title: The Ideal Society of Non-Violent

Precis

Equal distribution means that everyone should be just able to meet their essential needs and no more, even if their needs are different. This is a possible and ideal situation in a non-violent society. Although, such a society is difficult to achieve, it can result only by transforming our social structures, relations, values and practices. Waiting for others to start before us is not a pre-requisite. If one of us changes his behaviour, others will follow. The first step towards achieving equal distribution through a non-violent society is to reduce our own personal needs, remembering that India is poor. (99 words)

Important words :

Wherewithal : the money or other means needed for a particular purpose. साधन

Unceasingly : without stopping; continuously लगातार

Contentment : a feeling of happy satisfaction संतुष्टि, संतोष

Precis Writing (Example-6)

There is a imbalance between what man is and what he wishes to be. This discord is responsible for our unrest. We talk like wise men but act like lunatics. We cannot prepare for war and at the same time for a world community. We are tormented by inner uneasiness and pangs of conscience. The warring sides of our nature require to be reconciled. If we are to defeat fratricidal tendencies in us, we must break our self-will, the pride of egoism which is widespread in all sides of our life. In man, there is always an urge to self-transcendence, but until it becomes absolute unselfishness, narrow loyalties and destructive rivalries will prevail. The unrest in the world is a reflection of our inner disharmony. A people are saved not by their military leaders or industrial magnates, or by their priests and politicians, but by their saints of implacable integrity. Religion is the discipline by which we are helped to overcome the discord in our nature and integrate our personality.

If we reflect on the history of religious development, we will be surprised at the amount of intellectual ingenuity, passion and zeal spent on the task of defining the Supreme to which silence or poetry would seem to be the most appropriate response. Self-righteousness breeds fanaticism. None but fools and fanatics are quite certain of their views of God. With crusaders there is no arguing. Before God there is neither Greek nor barbarian, neither rich nor poor, neither master nor slave. They are all citizens of the commonwealth, members of one family. A truly religious person cannot hold back but should lead. He cannot remain silent when he should speak up. He should not compromise when he should stand fast. Ethical values have relevance to social facts. We must face up to the ugly facts of sin, pride and greed. Human nature is essentially good and it is opposed to tyranny, injustice and authoritarianism.

Religion appeals to the hearts of men to root out fear, guilt and faith in force. The tradition of tolerance, not merely in a negative, but in a positive sense, that is an appreciation of other faiths, has been with us for centuries. Tolerance is not apathy, but is conviction without condescension. Aggressiveness is not an essential part of human nature. Combativeness can be replaced by meekness and gentleness. The Cross indicates that the love which suffers is more powerful than the force which inflicts suffering. (410 Words)

Title:   Tolerance Helps in Reducing Discord

Precis

What a man wants to be and what he is, there is imbalance and difference between it, this causes feeling of unease and regret in human mind. Until we become unselfish, swallow our pride and overcome our desires, the conflict will remain. This cannot be removed by political, military or business leaders, but by saintly people, who must lead others to change their outlook. Man’s inherent nature is good and against any form of cruelty or oppression. Our religions developed over the ages and it reflects the great efforts made to define God, by excessively enthusiastic people. However, God is indefinable, treating all persons equally irrespective of wealth, position or class. Religion also helps us to remove our fear and guilt feelings. This has been proved by history. Feelings of conflict should be replaced by compassion and kindness. (138 Words)

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Books & Ebooks

Precis Writing Book for IB-ACIO Tier-II – Grade II/Executive Exam

This book is specially designed for the aspirants of ‘IB-ACIO Grade-II/executive Tier-II descriptive exam. This book comprises of 60+ solved examples of Précis Writing over various most expected topics. The book clearly demonstrate the steps to write an effective précis and also the points to be kept in mind while writing a good précis effectively. This book is fully updated according to latest pattern. While the specialised study and practice material will pave the way for your success, it will ensure you a successful career with IB. The book is highly recommended for the aspirants to boost their solving skills with thorough practice of numerous actual exam-style questions provided in the book, and prepare themselves to face the exam with Confidence.

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Important Tips to prepare for Descriptive Paper in IB ACIO Tier 2 Exam

Descriptive writing can be the game-changer in IB ACIO Tier 2 Descriptive. Those candidates who have a good hold on the writing skills or on the English language section can surely do wonders in this test section.
But we can also not deny the fact that your thoughts along with your writing skills will be tested accordingly. You will have to impress the examiner  with your thoughts and writing skills. Your writing must be short as per the word limit prescribed in the exam. It should be crisp and informative too.

Also give a thought to the words you are going to write in the examination. Make sure your words and message you are trying to the convey is crystal clear and legible to the reader or examiner. Don’t try to write out of the box and try to be specific and choosy while making use of any difficult word or expression.

How to prepare Essay Writing for IB ACIO Tier 2 Descriptive Exam ?

1) Essay Writing is nothing but how well you present your thoughts and ideas on a particular topic in a well-structured and good looking manner.

2) It requires imagination and good writing skills for writing an essay. Both these skills are essential as both these factors together will help you present a good essay in the best manner.

3) Gathering of thoughts on a particular topic will not help you if you are not able to present them effectively and efficienty.

4) Likewise, just good writing skills are no good if you are not able to think of innovative and relevant points for the given descriptive topic. Check out some important tips below to score well in the essay writing section of Descriptive Exam

Build a daily Reading Habit

Read any English Newspaper daily –

Reading the newspaper will not only strengthen your general knowledge but will give you ideas to be more specific and informative about the topic you asked.

Try to Grasp writing skills used in that Newspaper

** Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs Practice writing in essay or precis in your own words.
** Set a limit of words for yourself and write the essay within that word limit.

Use of Dictionary to look up the difficult words

** Note down Important Vocabulary
** Make use of the dictionary to check new words, its usage and meaning and also note down in your notebook separately.
** Always try 3-4 sentence making with the new word so that you do not forget to use the same in your exams as per the requirement.

Try writing at least one or two essays on daily basis

** You just need to pick at least one topic daily from the current news and Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs

** Try to write about the topic in your own words within the limit prescribed in your exam.
After writing the Essay, you can look for more essays on the topic you have chosen for yourself to get more ideas on the same and note down the important key points.

Tips to prepare Precis Writing for IB ACIO Tier 2 Descriptive Exam

What is Precis Writing?

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important aspects and details of the passage given.

“Precis denotes a brief, concise, clear and well connected abstract, summary of a given passage”.  Ability to produce a satisfactory precis is very important for many purposes in practical life. Government Officials & Businessman have no time to go through long and unnecessary details; thus a precis is a good tool for saving their valuable time.

So it is necessary for the officials working as secretary or as private secretary to have expertise in the art of precis writing. The candidates are required to write a precis of a given composition. Thus, the art of writing precis helps one to secure good marks in the examinations.

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD PRECIS

One must keep the following points in mind while writing a precis

****Conciseness****

It is the soul of a good precis. The precis must not exceed onethird of the length of original passage.

****Completeness*****

Precis must give a complete idea of the passage. The main idea of the original passage should be presented in the same order in precis writing.

*****Clarity*****

A precis should be clear and lucid, free from any ambiguity or obscurity. In an attempt to shorten the passage, you must take care that the sentences constructed by you are free from any error, like improper use of words.

*****Grammatical Accuracy*****

A precis must be free from grammatical errors, spelling and punctuation errors etc.

**One-third of total paragraph
**Own words
**Clarity
**Complete
**Avoid mistakes
**Single Paragraph
**Rules for Good Precis Writing

For avoiding errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as given below

***Read the passage carefully
***Decide Theme of the Passage
***Brevity and Clarity
***Use Own Language
***Accuracy of the Language
***Avoid Direct Speech and Use Indirect Speech

Do’s and Don’ts

***Start with basic idea
***Include all the important keywords
***Use easy vocabulary
***Do not make assumptions
***Avoid using abbreviations
***Title can be underlined
***Use Statistical data
***Proper Tense usage

How to write Good Precis

There are many important components which make a good precis. For those who have just started their preparation for the upcoming exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely useful.

***Should be a summary of the original paragraph
***Covering all important keywords from the original paragraph
***The details in the precis must match in that of paragraph
***Use of linking words such as and, because, therefore, etc.
***Should be precise and clear
***Should be in your own words
***Must be logically connected
***Should have an appropriate title
***Don’t use any idiom of your own

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Precis Writing (Example -1)

In today’s scenario, Mass media, specifically visual media, plays a pivotal role in creating an atmosphere of awareness in society. Media refers to different communication channels or ways through which knowledge and information is conveyed to the viewers or the readers. Visual media refers to the media that conveys knowledge and information to the viewers through their eyes; it includes television, cinema, posters etc. Whatever, is supplied through the visual media has instant and longer lasting effect on the minds of the viewers.

With rapid development of information and technology, the visual media, in the shape of cable TV, with multitudes of domestic and foreign channels has reached almost every house, playing a vital role in moulding public opinion in various ways. It plays a very crucial role in educating, and entertaining the masses. Cable TV has changed the means and modes of entertainment and education.

Sitting before a TV, one can pass and enjoy his free time listening to music, viewing movies, learning techniques of body building, hearing sermons of religious saints, learning about lives of wild animals, birds, water creatures, knowing about space and what not.

During the election period, one can know the electoral positions of political parties and their leaders, from all parts of the country and its impact on the election campaign and all facts of electioneering, just sitting before the TV.

Youngsters and teenage students are seen viewing the channels as per their likings; if some are viewing the music channels some are seen quenching their thirst for knowledge viewing channels like ‘Discovery’ or ‘National Geography’ or ‘History’ etc. The image on the small screen thus has a significant impression on all, more particularly on the gullible children and on the teens. The young mind takes the reel as real and thus is more often and more easily moulded and motivated by the visual media.

The present day fashion, hair dressing, sexual liberties, dating and awakening towards the right of youth, awareness among the women of their rights are because of the role visual media is playing in society. In a hysterical effort to excel others, some channels are showing such scenes and images which are of no importance or have an adverse effect on the minds of viewers.

Showing of sexual and rape cases, with minute details by the anchor and showing brutal scenes of murder, the channels have crossed the limit of ethics and morality. The TV coverage of massacre, creates feeling of hatred among communities and motivates others to wreak vengeance. Obsessed by the sole aim of making a fast buck the channels are competing with one another to stoop to any kind of absurdity, without considering even for a minute as to what effect such visuals have on society.  (460 Words)

Title:  Visual media Vs Indian Society

 

Precis :

Visual media plays an important role in creating awareness in society as it has a prolonged effect on the viewers. Advancement in technology has enabled visual media to penetrate in every house, so it can easily moulds public opinion. Cable TV has significantly affected the lifestyle of people. Methods of entertainment and passing leisure time have changed. During elections, one can know the latest status through TV. Youngsters and teenagers watch different channels as per their choices. They seem to be easily influenced by visual media. The present awareness towards fashion, sexual liberties, rights of youth and women are the result of the impact of visual media on society. Owing to unhealthy competition, TV channels are showing indecent and instigating scenes and programmes causing hatred and violence among the people, just for popularity and making money. They have no regard for ethics and morality and the effect of such visuals.

(150 words)

 

Precis Writing (Example-2)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

Precis Writing (Example-3)

India is suffering from many social problems. Corruption is one of them. The most disquieting aspect of the widespread corruption in India is the fact that it is not anymore confined to politicians or the government machinery alone. It is prevalent amongst almost every section of the society, at every level. As the practice of corruption is a dishonest act, one tends to think that most of the Indians are dishonest, the extent could be varying only in degree between the individuals. The reason for the dishonesty is greediness and the desire to get things done at any cost. One can think that most of the countrymen are greedy and do not anymore consider that the means should justify the ends. This is not a flattering statement and many readers would desire that it would not be so and that such a statement could have been avoided. But, the fact is, that most of the Indians are involved in corrupt practices in one way or the other, either due to greed or due to compulsion.

In any case, the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of not getting involved in corrupt dealings is conspicuous by its absence amongst the majority. The study of world phenomenon of corruption has repeatedly branded India as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Unfortunately, this view has not disturbed most of the Indians at all and they do not seem to care as to what others think of them; so long as the existing systems and practices would allow them to make money and get things done in one way or the other.

The irony is that India is still considered to be a very religious country and it is still widely believed that the religion is the basis of Indian life, thoughts and actions. This is obviously true, considering the fact that there are hundreds of temples, churches and mosques spread all over the country and they are all densely visited, day in and day out, by the feverishly praying Indians.

Is not religious ethos contrary to corruption and dishonest practices? The unfortunate situation in India is that those who call themselves most religious are often found to have indulged themselves in dishonest practices on many occasions. Several of the religious centres, of all religions, are suspected to be steeped in nepotism, as, such incidents have been repeatedly published in the press. (401 Words)

Title:   Corruption – Enrooted in Society

Precis :

Corruption, one of the social problems widespread in India is not anymore a politician thing it has spread its wings in all section of the society. As this unfair act is more prevalent in India , the outside world perceives Indians as corrupted
beings and they can go to any extent to fulfill their greediness. In Spite of India being branded as a corrupted nation by the world, its people are not giving any heed and are constantly involved in making money for getting unnecessary things
done. On the other hand India is also recognised as a religious nation, with all its temples, churches, mosques which are crowded by visitors everyday. Which religion preaches corruption and dishonest practices? Many instances of nepotism, religious believers involved in dishonest practices have been published
in the press. (134 Words)

Precis Writing (Example-4)

The real implication of equal distribution is that each man shall have the wherewithal to supply all his natural needs and no more. e.g. if one man has a weak digestion and requires only a quarter of a pound of flour for his bread and another needs a pound, both should be in a position to satisfy their wants. To bring this ideal into being the entire social order has got to be reconstructed. A society based on non-violence cannot nurture any other ideal. We may not perhaps be able to realise the goal, but we must bear it in mind and work unceasingly to near it. To the same extent as we progress towards our goal we shall find contentment and happiness and to that extent too shall we have contributed towards the bringing into being of a non-violent society.

It is perfectly possible for an individual to adopt this way of life without having to wait for others to do so. And if an individual can observe a certain rule of conduct, it follows that a group of individuals can do likewise. It is necessary for me to emphasise the fact that no one need wait for anyone else in order to adopt a right course. Men generally hesitate to make a beginning if they feel that the objective cannot be had in its entirety. Such an attitude of mind is in reality a bar to progress. Now, let us consider how equal distribution can be brought about through non-violence. The first step towards it is for him who has made this ideal part of his being to bring about the necessary changes in his personal life. He would reduce his wants to a minimum, bearing in mind the poverty of India. (294 words)

Title: The Ideal Society of Non-Violent

Precis

Equal distribution means that everyone should be just able to meet their essential needs and no more, even if their needs are different. This is a possible and ideal situation in a non-violent society. Although, such a society is difficult to achieve, it can result only by transforming our social structures, relations, values and practices. Waiting for others to start before us is not a pre-requisite. If one of us changes his behaviour, others will follow. The first step towards achieving equal distribution through a non-violent society is to reduce our own personal needs, remembering that India is poor. (99 words)

Important words :

Wherewithal : the money or other means needed for a particular purpose. साधन

Unceasingly : without stopping; continuously लगातार

Contentment : a feeling of happy satisfaction संतुष्टि, संतोष

Precis Writing (Example-5)

There is a imbalance between what man is and what he wishes to be. This discord is responsible for our unrest. We talk like wise men but act like lunatics. We cannot prepare for war and at the same time for a world community. We are tormented by inner uneasiness and pangs of conscience. The warring sides of our nature require to be reconciled. If we are to defeat fratricidal tendencies in us, we must break our self-will, the pride of egoism which is widespread in all sides of our life. In man, there is always an urge to self-transcendence, but until it becomes absolute unselfishness, narrow loyalties and destructive rivalries will prevail. The unrest in the world is a reflection of our inner disharmony. A people are saved not by their military leaders or industrial magnates, or by their priests and politicians, but by their saints of implacable integrity. Religion is the discipline by which we are helped to overcome the discord in our nature and integrate our personality.

If we reflect on the history of religious development, we will be surprised at the amount of intellectual ingenuity, passion and zeal spent on the task of defining the Supreme to which silence or poetry would seem to be the most appropriate response. Self-righteousness breeds fanaticism. None but fools and fanatics are quite certain of their views of God. With crusaders there is no arguing. Before God there is neither Greek nor barbarian, neither rich nor poor, neither master nor slave. They are all citizens of the commonwealth, members of one family. A truly religious person cannot hold back but should lead. He cannot remain silent when he should speak up. He should not compromise when he should stand fast. Ethical values have relevance to social facts. We must face up to the ugly facts of sin, pride and greed. Human nature is essentially good and it is opposed to tyranny, injustice and authoritarianism.

Religion appeals to the hearts of men to root out fear, guilt and faith in force. The tradition of tolerance, not merely in a negative, but in a positive sense, that is an appreciation of other faiths, has been with us for centuries. Tolerance is not apathy, but is conviction without condescension. Aggressiveness is not an essential part of human nature. Combativeness can be replaced by meekness and gentleness. The Cross indicates that the love which suffers is more powerful than the force which inflicts suffering. (410 Words)

Title:   Tolerance Helps in Reducing Discord

Precis

What a man wants to be and what he is, there is imbalance and difference between it, this causes feeling of unease and regret in human mind. Until we become unselfish, swallow our pride and overcome our desires, the conflict will remain. This cannot be removed by political, military or business leaders, but by saintly people, who must lead others to change their outlook. Man’s inherent nature is good and against any form of cruelty or oppression. Our religions developed over the ages and it reflects the great efforts made to define God, by excessively enthusiastic people. However, God is indefinable, treating all persons equally irrespective of wealth, position or class. Religion also helps us to remove our fear and guilt feelings. This has been proved by history. Feelings of conflict should be replaced by compassion and kindness. (138 Words)

Tormented : Something that causes extreme physical or mental pain       तीव्र मानसिक या शारीरिक पीड़ा

Reconcile : To find a way of dealing with two ideas, situations,    statements ताल-मेल बैठाना

Fratricidal :  Conflict within a single family or organization

Implacable : impossible to change, जिसे बदलना असंभव हो

Ingenuity : skill or cleverness चालाकी

Righteousness : the quality of being morally right or justifiable न्याय परायण

Crusaders : a long and determined attempt to achieve something you strongly believe in

Tyranny : an act or the pattern of harsh, cruel, and unfair control over other people उत्पीड़न

Authoritarianism : Principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action.

Condescension : showing superior attitude toward others

Meekness :  the quality of being quiet, gentle, and unwilling to argue

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Precis Writing book in english for ssc cgl & chsl

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important details of the passage given. This book comprises of 50+ solved examples of Précis Writing over various topics. The book clearly demonstrate the steps to write an effective précis and also the points to be kept in mind while writing a good précis effectively. This book is fully updated according to latest pattern & is very useful for ssc cgl, chsl & other related exams.

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Typing is a skill that can help you saving money as well as time. With this book, you will get a lifetime benefit, whether you are using a keyboard at work or at home. Easy-to-use lessons are given in manageable blocks and there are 50+ exercises to consolidate what you have learned. This book is equally useful for students preparing for SSC CHSL Tier 2 exam.

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Descriptive writing book Pdf for IBPS PO Mains & Bank Exams

This book is highly recommended for IBPS Bank PO/MT/SO Mains Exam Descriptive Exam aspirants who want a series of expected topics for Practice in english. This book includes 70+ current topics within Word Limit as per the Exam. This is such a excellent book to upgrade your knowledge for the respective topic very clearly. You must prepare from it.

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The book provides effective way to learn English as well as to translate from Hindi to English. It covered 50+ sets of translation exercises. It also contains several common hindi sentences that have been translated into English that allow a learner to easily understand day-to-day words and how to use them in sentences when writing or speaking in English. By learning how typical Hindi sentences, when translated into english can be used in everyday life, one can improve his or her grasp about using both the language.

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