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Essay on Naxalism

Essay on Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Essay on Naxalism Vs Internal Security of India in english

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essay on Naxalism Vs Bioterrorism – Internal threat to India

Introduction :

“Innovation is a good thing. The human condition – put aside bioterrorism and a few footnotes – is improving because of innovation.” — Bill Gates — Were you aware that intelligence agencies proclaimed that the Novel-coronavirus
might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China?. This was conspired when researchers couldn’t figure out how bat viruses could mutate to attack humans.

  • Bioterrorism is the release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins deliberately to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.
  • Deadly pathogens are the ‘next big thing’ in terror and it’s going to be a defense problem. Bioterrorism aims to create casualties, terror, societal disruption.
  • The goal of the terrorists,non-state actors is to make their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
  • During World War-I,II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale program to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.

Why are bioweapons considered as perfect weapons of terror ?

  • Can be spread through air, water,food,aerosol sprays or by mail on infected
    envelopes.
  • Lethal pathogens are readily accessible.
  • Highly difficult to detect.

Classification of Biological Agents :

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories. These are:
● Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax.
● Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever
● Category C : Low-priority agents. These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus.

During the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s (SCO’s) first military medicine conference, Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh said that bioterrorism is a real threat in today’s time and the Armed Forces medical services should be at the forefront of combating the menace.

The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear(CBRN) attacks. As time goes, the weapons have been shifted from swords to malicious biological weapons. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial for appropriate response against it. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 is a necessity of time to deal with bioterrorism firmly.

Essay on Naxalism Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on Naxalism Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on Naxalism Vs Social Media as Internal Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on Naxalism Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Essay on Naxalism Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

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EssaysIB ACIO

Essay on Bioterrorism

Essay on Bioterrorism – A Threat To Global Security

Introduction :

Bioterrorism is a type of terrorism which involves intentional release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock and to terrorize the civilian population. These agents are generally found in nature and are altered or mutated in laboratory to be used as a weapon for mass destruction. This type of terrorism can easily be disseminated to cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual damage. It can be spread through air, water or food.

  • During World War-I and II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale programs to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus Anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.
  • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories.
  • These are (1) Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax. (2) Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever (3) Category C : Low-priority agents.
  • These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus. For restricting the development and use of biological weapons, a convention was signed at Geneva, popularly known as ‘Geneva Protocol 1925’.
  • But this convention was failed to address the production, storage, testing, and transfer of these weapons. After seeing the upcoming crisis, Biological Weapon Convention (BWC) came into force on March 26, 1975.
  • At present it has 183 member states. India is also a member state of this convention. BWC is formed to restrict the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological weapons.
  • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty which bans the entire categories of weapons of mass destruction. The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial steps for appropriate response against it. Co-operation with friendly nations and the robust surveillance system have to maintain and construction of clinical labs should be done to fight against these issues in India.

Descriptive Essay on Bioterrorism – A Threat To Global Security

Introduction :

“Innovation is a good thing. The human condition – put aside bioterrorism and a few footnotes – is improving because of innovation.” — Bill Gates — Were you aware that intelligence agencies proclaimed that the Novel-coronavirus
might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China?. This was conspired when researchers couldn’t figure out how bat viruses could mutate to attack humans.

  • Bioterrorism is the release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins deliberately to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.
  • Deadly pathogens are the ‘next big thing’ in terror and it’s going to be a defense problem. Bioterrorism aims to create casualties, terror, societal disruption.
  • The goal of the terrorists,non-state actors is to make their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
  • During World War-I,II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale program to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.

Why are bioweapons considered as perfect weapons of terror ?

  • Can be spread through air, water,food,aerosol sprays or by mail on infected
    envelopes.
  • Lethal pathogens are readily accessible.
  • Highly difficult to detect.

Classification of Biological Agents :

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories. These are:
● Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax.
● Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever
● Category C : Low-priority agents. These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus.

During the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s (SCO’s) first military medicine conference, Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh said that bioterrorism is a real threat in today’s time and the Armed Forces medical services should be at the forefront of combating the menace.

The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear(CBRN) attacks. As time goes, the weapons have been shifted from swords to malicious biological weapons. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial for appropriate response against it. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 is a necessity of time to deal with bioterrorism firmly.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Internal Security of India in english

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Essay on Naxalism

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Social Media as Internal Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

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Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications

Introduction :

“Change is the only constant in life” said by Heraclitus is true with respect to today’s changing world. In mass communication, media refers to the means of communication that help in disseminating information or news related to different sectors like sports, business, education, entertainment and politics. It is considered as a very significant tool for effective communi-cation and is a source of various information. From the last few decades media has increased its reach through various platforms such as print media, electronic media and digital media.

  • There are three types of media 1) Print Media 2) Electronic Media and 3) Digital Media. Print Media is one of the oldest means of sharing information which is produced by printing text and images on paper by using ink in a printing press.
  • Some examples of print media are newspapers, magazines, books, leaflets, brochures etc. In electronic media information can be shared on electronic devices such as radio and television.
  • It can be broadcasted to the wider section of the society. Digital Media is a form of media which is fully depend on internet and provide us fastest updates.
  • It also enable us to be aware of the latest happenings around the world. We can use digital media with the help of computers, laptops, tablets and mobile phones.
  • In the current COVID-19 situation, “We are not only fighting an epidemic but are also fighting an infodemic”, said the Director-General of the World Health Organization. Therefore the need of the hour is to lay down guidelines on digital media.
  • The government has imposed a 26% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) cap to tighten the nose of foreign companies who are making investments in digital media in the country.
  • Major concerns with respect to digital media are 1) Anyone can easily generate content and its global presence contains a lots of fake news 2) Unlike print media, digital media does not have accountability and geographical barrier.
  • 3) It does not have either their own self regulation mechanism or government constituted a regulatory body.
  • 4) Reporters rely on sensationalised news instead of firsthand news. 5) Spreading venomous, hatred, and deliberate instigation not only cause violence but even terrorism. 6) Social media agencies are liable to court but the process is not instant.

Conclusion :

We should think straight and not be tricked easily, by checking validity and source of the news. This can be done by googling the references and news images. Unregulated social and digital media could pose a threat to the society. These challenges can be addressed by regulating social media efficiently and modernizing national laws and institutions. The government should come with more laws and strict actions against the improper use of digital media which will ensure the political and social integrity of the nation.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security in english

Introduction :

Digital media has destroyed much of the magic and mystery of the medium —–John Dyer. In mass communication, media refers to the means of mass communication that help disseminating information or news related to different sectors like sports, education, entertainment, politics.

Different Types of Media

● Print Media :

○ one of the oldest means of sharing info.
○ newspapers, magazines, books, leaflets, brochures etc.
○ produced by printing, text and images on paper using ink in a printing press.

● Electronic Media :

○ radio, television, etc.
○ shared on electronic devices for the audience.
○ can be broadcasted to the wider population.

● Digital Media :

○ Gives fast updates.
○ Enables us to be aware of the latest happenings.
○ Computers, mobiles, video game,Social Media

In the current COVID-19 situation, “We are not only fighting an epidemic but are also fighting an infodemic”, said the Director-General of the World Health Organization. Henceforth the need of the hour is to lay down guidelines on digital media. The government has imposed a 26% Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) cap to tighten the nose of Chinese and other foreign companies who are making investments in digital media in the country.

Major concerns with Digital media

● Anyone can easily generate content and its global presence contains lots of fake news.
● Unlike print media, digital media does not have accountability and geographical
barrier.
● Does not have either their own self regulation mechanism or government constituted a
regulatory body.
● Reporters rely on sensationalised news instead of firsthand news.
● Spreading venomous, hatred, and deliberate instigation not only cause violence but
even terrorism.
● Social media agencies are liable to court but the process is not instant.

How do we overcome this wildfire of disinformation?

We should think straight and not be tricked easily, by checking validity and source of the news. This can be done by googling the references and news images. If the news is a bit uncanny and we are unsure about its authenticity, then we should not forward it. As the virus needs a host to spread it from person to person, a piece of fake news similarly, if we refuse to carry it forward, it will die its death.

Conclusion :

The Aarogya Setu App is an outstanding initiative by the Indian government. It gives not only real-time authentic news but also debunks false information. Unregulated social and digital media could pose a threat to India’s rise as a trustworthy and responsible nation, as also Indian democracy. These challenges can be addressed by regulating social media efficiently and modernizing National laws and institutions. The time for action has come.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs Social Media Boon or Bane for Society

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world.  The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. Social media can engage people constantly in some or other trending activities based on their choice. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages. The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating. We can find all kind of information just in one click.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of these social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days to get exposure at the lowest cost.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular.
  • It also enables a business to get new information about their customers and improve their services. In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers.
  • It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent. Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents.
  • The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth. The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning.

Conclusion : 

The misuse of social media can also create communal rifts between people by sharing fake news on these platforms. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs Fake News on Social Media – An issue 

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator. Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire.

  • Everyone is in a hurry to like, share, comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news. It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country.
  • Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations. It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India.
  • Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order. The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation.
  • Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace. Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Government needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs Role of Social media in Democracy 

Introduction :

Media has played a significant role in establishing democracy throughout the world. Media is considered as Fourth Pillar in democratic countries and without a free media democratic system cannot exist. Indian media has traveled a long way, from the days of newspaper and radio to present-day age of Television and Social Media. News that was seen as medium to educate the people on issues that were of utmost important for the society.

  • Media plays a crucial role in shaping a healthy democracy. It is the backbone of a democracy. Media makes us aware of various social, political and economic activities happening around the world.
  • The role of media is to make the society aware of their democratic rights. It acts as the voice of millions of citizens, when government institutions become corrupt and authoritarian. 
  • Television and radio have made a significant achievement in educating rural illiterate masses in making them aware of all the events in their language.
  • The need for an independent and control-free press is really essential in a democracy like India.  media act as a chain between the government and the citizens of the country, people have faith in media as it has an impact on the audience. 
  • The media has undoubtedly evolved and become more active over the years. It is the media only who reminds politicians about their unfulfilled promises at the time of elections.
  • TV news channels excessive coverage during elections helps people, especially illiterates, in electing the right person to the power.

Conclution :

This reminder compels politicians to be upto their promises in order to remain in power. In the present-day youth is more interested in the fast-moving world of technology and social media. Thus, it becomes important for media to ensure that the information that they are broadcasting should not be biased. Media is like a watchdog in a democracy that keeps government active. From being just an informer it has become an integral part of our daily lives.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs WhatsApp New Privacy Policy 

Introduction :

Social media is a boon for human civilization because it has brought the whole world together at one place where individuals can share their views and ideas and such interactions are beneficial for the people as it helps in increasing social skills. In today’s world, technology has made our life easier because with the help of technology we can learn new things and meet new people all over the world.

  • WhatsApp is one of the most important social applications which plays a major role in our daily life.
  • WhatsApp is facing a lot of criticism for its new privacy policy which says that it may share information of any of its users with Facebook and its partner companies. 
  • Since then there has been a huge rise in the dounloads of its alternative apps including Signal.
  • In response to global criticism, WhatsApp head Will Cathcart explained , with end-to-end encryption, they cannot see the users private chats or calls and neither can Facebook.
  • WhatsApp has also given users time till 8th of February 2021  to accept the new terms and conditions.
  • WhatsApp says it is collecting new information from users device such as Battery level, app version, browser information, mobile network, IP address and phone number etc.
  • It also declares that the data in some cases can be transferred to the USA or other parts where Facebook’s affiliate companies are based.
  • This new update has increased a lot of concern over the privacy of the people that use this application.

Conclusion :

Privacy experts have also criticised this new privacy policy. Indian users are more vulnerable as there is no any data protection law in India. If India had a data protection law, WhatsApp would not have been able to launch this new policy update. The government should also initiate some digital awareness programs to make the public aware of the importance of digital privacy in India.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs Mobile addiction essay in english

Introduction :

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment.

  • While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us. Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping.
  • It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities. Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us.
  • Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible. We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos.

Conclusion :

We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

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Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs Social Media – Influencer of Fake News 

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers.
  • It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent. Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs  Mob Lynching Growing Issues in India

Introduction :

The word ‘Mob Lynching’ is consist of two words i.e Mob and Lynching. Mob is a large crowd especially one that can easily become violent. If a crowd of people lynch someone who they believe is guilty of crime, they kill them without a legal trial. Thus mob lynching is a kind of killing by a crowd on the basis of some fake news or religious fanaticism. It has become a threat to our society now-a-days.

  • The main causes that lead to mob lynching is the absence of awareness and proper understanding among the masses. Fake news on social media platforms such as Whats App & Facebook also adds to this menace.
  • In such cases there always been some groups that intend to satisfy their hidden agenda against some other groups or community.
  • There is a deep gap of mistrust between the majority and minority communities, which always incites one to look at each other with suspicion and when used, they use the mob to avenge each other.
  • Anger prevalent in society also acts as a catalyst in it, irrespective of which form of anger, this anger can also be about the governance system, judicial system or security which eventually comes out as a rampaging mob.
  • Politics is also the main cause of violent mob, sometimes violence sponsored in the name of vote bank or violence in the name of religion, gives political parties a wide background for politics.
  • The incidents of mob lynching become very common since the Government imposed a ban on the sale and purchase of cattle for slaughter at animal markets across India in May 2017.
  • Though the Supreme Court, suspended the ban on the sale of cattle in its judgment in July 2017. The states where beef is the primary foods, there was a rise in attacks and dozens of innocent Muslims were killed. 

Conclusion :

Rumours about child lifters also ignited mob violence.  As the technology is proved to be boon for mankind but some people spread rumours and fake news leading to assault and death of people. Now, mob lynching has become a social menace, therefore the government should come with the law to deal with it. Strict actions should be taken against those group of people that leading to mob lynching so that innocent people may not be suffered and lost their lives. 

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.
  • Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents.

Conclusion :

There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

Essay on Digital, Electronic & Print Media Security Implications Vs Honour Killing In India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place.
  • People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts.  
  • In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion : 

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Essay on Role Of Media In Internal Security

Introduction :

Internal security is very important for any nation to maintain peace and harmony. It is a process of keeping peace within the borders of the country by upholding rule of law and defending against emerging security threats. The role of media is not limited to target the developing activities in a particular area but to offer a wide range of aspects of the policies of the country. It is a very powerful tool that control the minds of the masses. In today’s world, media become as essential as our daily needs. People rely on what is presented to them by media.

  • World press freedom index puts India at 142nd rank in its 2020 report which shows the reality of media at present time. If the media is corrupt and biased, the democratic system of our country will be collapsed.
  • Media can also become a threat for our national security. It provides a platform to internal and external state and non state actors to propagate their vested interest by various media & social media channels.
  • Social media presently plays a very important role as a means of communication between terrorist and insurgent groups.
  • It can easily provide an open platform to propagate their ideology and they are also brain washing the young generation by social networking sites like WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter etc.
  • Digital media also poses a big threat to our internal security as it is not controlled by any authrity. Anyone with the help of internet can create and share the information whether it is true or fake.
  • The recent threats due to social media include hacking, caste & ethnic tension, communal violence, cyber bullying, online frauds, fake news, hate speech and cyber terrorism etc.
  • There should be proper regulations on all types of media platforms such as print media, social media and other mediums of communication.
  • So that the vested interest of any state or non state actor cannot be fulfilled. As it is rightly said that “ Whoever controls the media, controls the mind.”

Conclusion :

In today’s globalized society, media is a very dangerous weapon against any enemy. There is a dire need of data protection laws in India so that the privacy of the masses can be protected and ensured. The compliance of the norms must be mandatory for all social media giants such as WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter and other media channels operating in India. As the security of the country cannot be compromised at any level. National power based on political stability, societal cohesion and economic development will decide the future of India’s national security.

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Essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

“The purpose of nuclear weapons is to deter. The mission of deterrence to make all parties in possession of nuclear weapons never ever use them” is a very significant statement of Rick Wilson. The nuclear doctrine of India is based on the principle that it will use a nuclear weapon only against retaliation purposes. Nuclear Doctrine based on three pillars which are “No First Use, “Credible Minimum Deterrent” and “Civilian Control”. India’s Nuclear doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent.

  • India became a nuclear power country without signing a non prolife-ration treaty. (1) No First Use : As per the Nuclear doctrine, India conforms to a No First Use Policy when it comes to nuclear weapons.
  • (2) Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nuclear forces, a vigorous command and control system and early warning capabilities.
  • The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivability will be central to India’s nuclear deterrent. The nuclear doctrine demands a highly effective military capability.
  • Nuclear policy in general, is how a country with a nuclear weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful military decision.
  • After independence, a group of Indian scientists led by Homi Bhabha convinced Pt Jawaharlal Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test code named “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II in 1998 for which India faced universal condemnation.
  • The USA said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike. Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons namely the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea.

Conclusion :

Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. The most important aspect of India’s nuclear doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nuclear disarmament. As India has the largest thorium reserves in the world and hence can exceed easily in this sphere. India only lacks in trained human resources and technology required to convert fuel to power and if achieved, then India will become one of the most prosperous nations of the world.

India’s Nuclear policy essay in english

Introduction :

Our nuclear weapons are meant purely as a deterrent against nuclear adventure by an adversary. —Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons: the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea. India’s Journey from non-nuclear state to nuclear state was challenging. Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. However, India remained pro-nuclear disarmament.

Foreign Policy Experts saw a paradox in India’s Foreign Policy i.e., on one hand, India wanted to develop nuclear weapons and on another hand, India called for global disarmament.

India’s Nuclear-weapons journey

  • Shortly after independence, a group of Indian scientists led by physicist Homi Bhabha convinced Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test codenamed “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan under Indira Gandhi’s leadership. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II on May 11, 1998. India faced universal condemnation in the aftermath of the Pokhran II tests.
  • The United States said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision, the United Kingdom expressed its “displeasure,” and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • In 1999, India came out with an explicit nuclear doctrine emphasising “minimal deterrence, no first use and non-use against non-nuclear weapon states”.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike.
  • India must ensure that deterrence does not fail, and that there is a clear communication to the adversary of the certainty of harsh nuclear retaliation.
  • India’s nuclear doctrine should be periodically reviewed and updated, possibly every decade or so,taking into account technological developments and changes in the security environment.
  • Instead of focusing on adopting a first strike policy, India must work towards strengthening its counter strike and second strike capability.

Conclusion :

India’s third leg, its sea based nuclear deterrence, must be strengthened at the earliest. The Balakot strikes that followed the Pulwama attack demonstrate that the Narendra Modi government is not shy of taking cross-border military action. If another sub-conventional attack, say a terror attack, occurs on Indian soil anytime soon, these theories will likely be
tested. If Indian policymakers do indeed feel the need to review the nation’s nuclear doctrine,
they should be cognizant of the costs involved in so doing.

Long essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

The nucleur doctrine of India is based on the principle that India will only use a nucleur weapon in retaliation to a country’s attempt of attacking India, Its states or uses the weapon in peace and at the time of war. Nuclear Doctrine based on 3 pillars which are “No 1st Use, “Credible minimum deterrent” and “Civillian Control”. India’s Nucleur doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent. It is a consensus document and does not restrict the country from exercising its nucleur weapon option in any manner.

  • India became a nucleur power country without signing a non proliferation treaty which makes it the first country to have accomplished something like this.
  •  No 1st Use : As per the Nucleur doctrine, India conforms to a no 1st Use policy when it comes to nucleur weapons. The theories of no 1st use and deterrence go hand in hand.
    It is universally acknowledged that a nucleur war between 2 nucleur powers would only.
  • Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nucleur forces, a vigorous command and control system, effectual intelligence and early warning capabilities. The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivility will be central to India’s nucleur deterrent. The nucleur doctrine demands a highly effective millitary capability.
  • Nucleur Command Authority : On 4th June, 2003, India unveiled 3 tier NCA to manage Raj Sarkar India’s Nucleur Policy its army with a nucleur weapon.
  • Nucleur policy in general, is how a country with a nucleur weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful millitary decision.
  • NCA comprises political council headed by prime minister, executive council headed by national security advisor to PM and strategic forces command.
  • Strategic forces command (SFC) would be responsible for the administration of the nucleur force and will be tasked with the nucleur weapon.

Conclusion :

SFC is 2nd tri service command in India. The 1st one was set up in Andaman and nicobar islands in 2001.Establishment of NCA will add credibility to nucleur policies in India. The most important aspect of India’s nucleur doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nucleur disarmament. The 5 major nucleur nations are antipathic to relinquishing their monopoly over the production and deployment of Nucleur weapon while denying a similar priviledge to other countries.

Essay on India’s Nuclear policy Vs Internal Security of India in english

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essay on Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Essay on India’s Nuclear policy Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on India’s Nuclear policy Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on India’s Nuclear policy Social Media as Internal Security issue

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on India’s Nuclear policy as Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Essay on India’s Nuclear policy Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

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Essay on Depression & Stress Level Issues in India

Essay on Depression & Stress Level Issues in India in 400 words

Introduction :

Gandhi Ji once said, “It is the health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver”. This statement indicates the importance of health in our life. People normally focus on their physical healthy and ignore the mental health. But the fact is that mental health is as important as physical health. Poor mental health leads to depression, fear, anxiety and feeling of loneliness. Depression can be defined as “a mental condition characterized by the feelings of hopelessness and inadequacy accompanied by a lack of energy and interest in life.”

  • Some of the causes that trigger depression could be fear of academic excellence, feeling of isolation, conflicting relationships, increasing complexities in academics, and financial condition.
  • Depression hampers an individual’s ability to function. The most serious fact is that not only adults, even teenagers suffer from it.
  • The symptoms of depression can be seen as Insomnia, weight gain and weight loss, difficulty in making decisions, suicidal thoughts, feelings of guilt, worthlessness and restlessness.
  • Covid-19, a faceless enemy has caused significant distress around the globe. Apart from the evident physical symptoms in infected cases, it has caused serious damage to public mental health.
  • Major causes of depression were job cuts, health issues, and the overall volatile environment. It is a serious, but treatable, medical condition.
  • It can be treated by offering emotional support, understanding, patience and encouragement. One should not try to isolate oneself and try to spend time with friends or family members.
  • If references to suicide or self-harm are made, reaching out to a mental health professional immediately. Setting realistic goals for oneself by breaking down large tasks into smaller ones can help largely reducing depression and stress.
  • According to the study conducted by GOQii, surveying 10,000 Indians stress levels have been on the rise with 43 per cent Indians suffering from depression due to the lockdown.
  • Recently Sushant Singh Rajput, an actor committed suicide at his apartment who has symptoms of clinical depression.
  • Regular exercises such as morning walk, yoga, and meditation have proved to be great medicine for curing mental health problems like depression & stress

Conclusion :

It is very important to have a good diet and enough sleep. We can prevent mental illness by taking care of ourself such as calming our mind by listening to music and taking care of our body. Workshops and seminars should be conducted, to aware the people about the psychological problems such as stress and depression. Thus we can say that ‘Our greatest battle is with ourself ’ A strong mind and healthy body will help us to overcome the battle of depression and stress.

Essay on Depression & Stress Level Issues in India in english

Introduction :

“Anxiety does not empty tomorrow of its sorrows, but only empties today of its strength.” —-Charles Spurgeon
The Oxford Dictionary defines depression as “a mental condition characterized by severe feelings of hopelessness and inadequacy, typically accompanied by a lack of energy and interest in life.” Some of the causes that trigger depression could be fear of academic excellence, feeling of isolation and loneliness, conflicting relationships, increasing complexities in academics, and financial condition. Depression hampers an individual’s ability to function. The most serious fact is that not only adults, even teenagers suffer from this.

Signs & Symptoms of Depression

● Insomnia.
● Weight gain and weight loss.
● Difficulty in making decisions
● Suicidal thoughts.
● Feelings of guilt,worthlessness.
● Restlessness, agitation, irritability.

Covid-19, a faceless enemy has caused significant distress around the globe. Apart from the evident physical symptoms in infected cases, it has caused serious damage to public mental health. Major causes of depression were job cuts, health scares, and the overall volatile environment. It is a serious, but treatable, medical condition.

How can It be treated?

● Offering emotional support, understanding, patience and encouragement.
● Trying not to isolate oneself and spend time with a trusted friend or family member.
● Increasing one’s awareness about the illness by learning from trusted sources.
● If references to suicide or self-harm are made, reaching out to a mental health
professional immediately.
● Setting realistic goals for yourself by breaking down large tasks into smaller ones.

According to the study conducted by GOQii, surveying 10,000 Indians stress levels have been on the rise with 43 per cent Indians suffering from depression due to the lockdown.

With the “#NOTASHAMED” an awareness campaign was conducted by “The Live Love Laugh foundation” which was founded by Deepika Padukone where she spoke about her story of depression and how she dealt with it.

Despite being one of the highest-paid actresses in India she took a stance saying “NO LIFE SHOULD BE LOST DUE TO MENTAL ILLNESS”. Recently Sushant Singh Rajput, an actor committed suicide at his apartment who has symptoms of clinical depression.

Conclusion :

It was said that he googled information about “schizophrenia”, “bipolar disorder” and “painless death” before hanging himself. Inculcating exercise in one’s routine could help improve mental health. Workshops and seminars should be conducted, to cognizant people about the psychological problems of stress and depression. And also a large section of the population should contribute to the surveys conducted by NGOs so that clear data will help the Government to roll-out programs in this line.

Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Mental health in english

Gandhi Ji once said, “It is the health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver”. This statement indicates the importance of health in our life. People normally focus on their physical healthy and ignore the fitness of mind. But the fact is that mental health is as important as physical health. We can control our life due to our highly developed brain. So, it becomes very important for us to keep our body and mind fit and healthy for better performance and result.

  • There are many factors that have great impact on our fitness level such as depression, aggression, negative thinking, frustration and fear.
  • A mentally healthy person is always in a good mood and can easily manage situations of distress and depressions.
  • Mental fitness denotes having a positivity in feeling and thinking that improves our ability to enjoy life. It is a positive term and give up negative thoughts that come to our mind.
  • The term mental fitness is being used by psychologists, schools, organizations and the general population to denote logical thinking and reasoning ability.
  • In the same way the mental illness is the instability of one’s health, which includes changes in emotion, thinking and behaviour.
  • Mental illness can be caused due to stress or other incidents. It could also arise from genetic factors, social disadvantage and poor physical health. Mental illness is curable.

Conclusion :

We can overcome this illness with positive thinking and change in your lifestyle. Regular exercises such as morning walk, yoga, and meditation have proved to be great medicine for curing mental health. It is very important to have a good diet and enough sleep. We can prevent mental illness by taking care of ourself such as calming our mind by listening to music and taking care of our body.

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Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Mobile Addiction in english

Introduction :

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment.

  • While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us. Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping.
  • It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities. Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us.
  • Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible. We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos.

Conclusion :

We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

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Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Social Media Boon or Bane for Society

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world.  The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. Social media can engage people constantly in some or other trending activities based on their choice. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages. The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating. We can find all kind of information just in one click.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of these social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days to get exposure at the lowest cost.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular.
  • It also enables a business to get new information about their customers and improve their services. In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers.
  • It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent. Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents.
  • The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth. The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning.

Conclusion : 

The misuse of social media can also create communal rifts between people by sharing fake news on these platforms. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Fake News on Social Media

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator. Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire.

  • Everyone is in a hurry to like, share, comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news. It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country.
  • Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations. It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India.
  • Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order. The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation.
  • Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace. Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Government needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Role of Social media in Democracy 

Introduction :

Media has played a significant role in establishing democracy throughout the world. Media is considered as Fourth Pillar in democratic countries and without a free media democratic system cannot exist. Indian media has traveled a long way, from the days of newspaper and radio to present-day age of Television and Social Media. News that was seen as medium to educate the people on issues that were of utmost important for the society.

  • Media plays a crucial role in shaping a healthy democracy. It is the backbone of a democracy. Media makes us aware of various social, political and economic activities happening around the world.
  • The role of media is to make the society aware of their democratic rights. It acts as the voice of millions of citizens, when government institutions become corrupt and authoritarian. 
  • Television and radio have made a significant achievement in educating rural illiterate masses in making them aware of all the events in their language.
  • The need for an independent and control-free press is really essential in a democracy like India.  media act as a chain between the government and the citizens of the country, people have faith in media as it has an impact on the audience. 
  • The media has undoubtedly evolved and become more active over the years. It is the media only who reminds politicians about their unfulfilled promises at the time of elections.
  • TV news channels excessive coverage during elections helps people, especially illiterates, in electing the right person to the power.

Conclution :

This reminder compels politicians to be upto their promises in order to remain in power. In the present-day youth is more interested in the fast-moving world of technology and social media. Thus, it becomes important for media to ensure that the information that they are broadcasting should not be biased. Media is like a watchdog in a democracy that keeps government active. From being just an informer it has become an integral part of our daily lives.

Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs WhatsApp New Privacy Policy

Introduction :

Social media is a boon for human civilization because it has brought the whole world together at one place where individuals can share their views and ideas and such interactions are beneficial for the people as it helps in increasing social skills. In today’s world, technology has made our life easier because with the help of technology we can learn new things and meet new people all over the world.

  • WhatsApp is one of the most important social applications which plays a major role in our daily life.
  • WhatsApp is facing a lot of criticism for its new privacy policy which says that it may share information of any of its users with Facebook and its partner companies. 
  • Since then there has been a huge rise in the dounloads of its alternative apps including Signal.
  • In response to global criticism, WhatsApp head Will Cathcart explained , with end-to-end encryption, they cannot see the users private chats or calls and neither can Facebook.
  • WhatsApp has also given users time till 8th of February 2021  to accept the new terms and conditions.
  • WhatsApp says it is collecting new information from users device such as Battery level, app version, browser information, mobile network, IP address and phone number etc.
  • It also declares that the data in some cases can be transferred to the USA or other parts where Facebook’s affiliate companies are based.
  • This new update has increased a lot of concern over the privacy of the people that use this application.

Conclusion :

Privacy experts have also criticised this new privacy policy. Indian users are more vulnerable as there is no any data protection law in India. If India had a data protection law, WhatsApp would not have been able to launch this new policy update. The government should also initiate some digital awareness programs to make the public aware of the importance of digital privacy in India.

Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Social Media – Influencer of Fake News In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers.
  • It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent. Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Mob Lynching Growing Issues in India

Introduction :

The word ‘Mob Lynching’ is consist of two words i.e Mob and Lynching. Mob is a large crowd especially one that can easily become violent. If a crowd of people lynch someone who they believe is guilty of crime, they kill them without a legal trial. Thus mob lynching is a kind of killing by a crowd on the basis of some fake news or religious fanaticism. It has become a threat to our society now-a-days.

  • The main causes that lead to mob lynching is the absence of awareness and proper understanding among the masses. Fake news on social media platforms such as Whats App & Facebook also adds to this menace.
  • In such cases there always been some groups that intend to satisfy their hidden agenda against some other groups or community.
  • There is a deep gap of mistrust between the majority and minority communities, which always incites one to look at each other with suspicion and when used, they use the mob to avenge each other.
  • Anger prevalent in society also acts as a catalyst in it, irrespective of which form of anger, this anger can also be about the governance system, judicial system or security which eventually comes out as a rampaging mob.
  • Politics is also the main cause of violent mob, sometimes violence sponsored in the name of vote bank or violence in the name of religion, gives political parties a wide background for politics.
  • The incidents of mob lynching become very common since the Government imposed a ban on the sale and purchase of cattle for slaughter at animal markets across India in May 2017.
  • Though the Supreme Court, suspended the ban on the sale of cattle in its judgment in July 2017. The states where beef is the primary foods, there was a rise in attacks and dozens of innocent Muslims were killed. 

Conclusion :

Rumours about child lifters also ignited mob violence.  As the technology is proved to be boon for mankind but some people spread rumours and fake news leading to assault and death of people. Now, mob lynching has become a social menace, therefore the government should come with the law to deal with it. Strict actions should be taken against those group of people that leading to mob lynching so that innocent people may not be suffered and lost their lives. 

Depression & Stress Level Issues in India Vs Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.
  • Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents.

Conclusion :

There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

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Essays

Top 20 most important essay topics for Ib acio tier 2

Top 20 most important essay topics for Ib acio tier 2

Trends of Topics –

  • General Topics
  • Current Social Issues
  • Internal/External Security Issues
  • Global Issues

20 Most Expected Essay Topics

  • Digital Media & Print Media Issues
  • Depression & Stress Level Issues in India
  • Money Laundering Challenges in India
  • New Education Policy – Pros & Cons
  • Internal Security Challenges In India
  • Cyber Security – Issues & Challenges
  • India’s Nuclear Policy
  • National Security & NSD in India
  • India – Pakistan Border Conflict
  • Mob Lynching Issues & Challenges
  • Trend of Digital Currencies in India
  • Abrogation of Article 370 & 35A
  • India – USA Relations
  • NRC, UCC & CAA
  • Major Implication of Covid-19 Pandemic
  • Plight of Migrant workers in India
  • Healthcare in India – Issues & Challenges
  • Importance of Healthy Lifestyle
  • Usage of Artificial Intelligence in Today’s life
  • Role of media in Present Time
  • Farm Bills 2020 – Issues and challenges

IB ACIO Tier 2 Exam Pattern 

Section Name Maximum marks Time
Essay 30

1 Hour

English Comprehension and Precis Writing 20

Full details About – IB ACIO Tier 2 Exam 

  • Essay – 30 Marks (Within 400 words)
  • Precis – 10 Marks
  • Comprehension – 10 Marks (5 Questions)
  • Total Time : 1 hour
  • Mode of Exam – English

Important Tips For Essay Writing

  • Choose the Topic you can describe easily
  • Use one or two quotations at proper places
  • Write in short paragraphs
  • Don’t repeat the same things
  • Stick to Word limit
  • Conclude as a whole

Essay Introduction : 

Introduce the topic precisely to grab attention of the reader

Dialogue, Quote, Summary in simple language of the topic

Essay Body : 

Describe in your topic –

  • Main Idea
  • Supportive Sentences
  • Pros & Cons
  • Challenges
  • Avoid biased Opinion

Essay Conclution : 

  • Sums up your overall idea
  • Provide final perspective
  • Try to be optimistic
  • Give Suggestions & Solutions

Trends of Topics Asked in IB ACIO Examination :

  • General Topics
  • Current Social Issues
  • Internal Security
  • Climate Change/Global Warming

Other Most Expected Essay Topics for IB ACIO Tier 2 : 

  • Major Implication of Covid-19 / Changing Social Norms due to Pandemic
  • National Education Policy 2020 – Issues & Challenges
  • Social Media – Good, Bad & Ugly
  • Gender Equality in India
  • Migrant workers & Covid-19
  • Healthcare in India – Issues & Challenges
  • Importance of Healthy Lifestyle / Mental Health
  • Is Nepotism restricted to Bollywood ? What are your Views?
  • Unemployment Vs Underemployment – Which one is more dangerous ?
  • Usage of Artificial Intelligence in Today’s life
  • Man Vs Climate Change
  • Air Pollution of Indian Cities Vs Urbanization
  • Water Crisis in India
  • Will Farm Bills 2020 help double the farmer’s income by 2022 ?
  • Corruption in India
  • How to deal with natural disasters in India?
  • How Safe are girls in India?
  • Role of media in India
  • Rise in crime rate in India

 

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Important Tips to prepare for Descriptive Paper in IB ACIO Tier 2 Exam

Descriptive writing can be the game-changer in IB ACIO Tier 2 Descriptive. Those candidates who have a good hold on the writing skills or on the English language section can surely do wonders in this test section.
But we can also not deny the fact that your thoughts along with your writing skills will be tested accordingly. You will have to impress the examiner  with your thoughts and writing skills. Your writing must be short as per the word limit prescribed in the exam. It should be crisp and informative too.

Also give a thought to the words you are going to write in the examination. Make sure your words and message you are trying to the convey is crystal clear and legible to the reader or examiner. Don’t try to write out of the box and try to be specific and choosy while making use of any difficult word or expression.

How to prepare Essay Writing for IB ACIO Tier 2 Descriptive Exam ?

1) Essay Writing is nothing but how well you present your thoughts and ideas on a particular topic in a well-structured and good looking manner.

2) It requires imagination and good writing skills for writing an essay. Both these skills are essential as both these factors together will help you present a good essay in the best manner.

3) Gathering of thoughts on a particular topic will not help you if you are not able to present them effectively and efficienty.

4) Likewise, just good writing skills are no good if you are not able to think of innovative and relevant points for the given descriptive topic. Check out some important tips below to score well in the essay writing section of Descriptive Exam

Build a daily Reading Habit

Read any English Newspaper daily –

Reading the newspaper will not only strengthen your general knowledge but will give you ideas to be more specific and informative about the topic you asked.

Try to Grasp writing skills used in that Newspaper

** Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs Practice writing in essay or precis in your own words.
** Set a limit of words for yourself and write the essay within that word limit.

Use of Dictionary to look up the difficult words

** Note down Important Vocabulary
** Make use of the dictionary to check new words, its usage and meaning and also note down in your notebook separately.
** Always try 3-4 sentence making with the new word so that you do not forget to use the same in your exams as per the requirement.

Try writing at least one or two essays on daily basis

** You just need to pick at least one topic daily from the current news and Start practicing by writing in small paragraphs

** Try to write about the topic in your own words within the limit prescribed in your exam.
After writing the Essay, you can look for more essays on the topic you have chosen for yourself to get more ideas on the same and note down the important key points.

Tips to prepare Precis Writing for IB ACIO Tier 2 Descriptive Exam

What is Precis Writing?

Precis writing is nothing but summarising a given passage in limited words, covering all the important aspects and details of the passage given.

“Precis denotes a brief, concise, clear and well connected abstract, summary of a given passage”.  Ability to produce a satisfactory precis is very important for many purposes in practical life. Government Officials & Businessman have no time to go through long and unnecessary details; thus a precis is a good tool for saving their valuable time.

So it is necessary for the officials working as secretary or as private secretary to have expertise in the art of precis writing. The candidates are required to write a precis of a given composition. Thus, the art of writing precis helps one to secure good marks in the examinations.

ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD PRECIS

One must keep the following points in mind while writing a precis

****Conciseness****

It is the soul of a good precis. The precis must not exceed onethird of the length of original passage.

****Completeness*****

Precis must give a complete idea of the passage. The main idea of the original passage should be presented in the same order in precis writing.

*****Clarity*****

A precis should be clear and lucid, free from any ambiguity or obscurity. In an attempt to shorten the passage, you must take care that the sentences constructed by you are free from any error, like improper use of words.

*****Grammatical Accuracy*****

A precis must be free from grammatical errors, spelling and punctuation errors etc.

**One-third of total paragraph
**Own words
**Clarity
**Complete
**Avoid mistakes
**Single Paragraph
**Rules for Good Precis Writing

For avoiding errors in writing a precis, follow a set of rules as given below

***Read the passage carefully
***Decide Theme of the Passage
***Brevity and Clarity
***Use Own Language
***Accuracy of the Language
***Avoid Direct Speech and Use Indirect Speech

Do’s and Don’ts

***Start with basic idea
***Include all the important keywords
***Use easy vocabulary
***Do not make assumptions
***Avoid using abbreviations
***Title can be underlined
***Use Statistical data
***Proper Tense usage

How to write Good Precis

There are many important components which make a good precis. For those who have just started their preparation for the upcoming exams, knowing the features of a good precis is extremely useful.

***Should be a summary of the original paragraph
***Covering all important keywords from the original paragraph
***The details in the precis must match in that of paragraph
***Use of linking words such as and, because, therefore, etc.
***Should be precise and clear
***Should be in your own words
***Must be logically connected
***Should have an appropriate title
***Don’t use any idiom of your own

Precis Writing (Example -1)

In today’s scenario, Mass media, specifically visual media, plays a pivotal role in creating an atmosphere of awareness in society. Media refers to different communication channels or ways through which knowledge and information is conveyed to the viewers or the readers. Visual media refers to the media that conveys knowledge and information to the viewers through their eyes; it includes television, cinema, posters etc. Whatever, is supplied through the visual media has instant and longer lasting effect on the minds of the viewers.

With rapid development of information and technology, the visual media, in the shape of cable TV, with multitudes of domestic and foreign channels has reached almost every house, playing a vital role in moulding public opinion in various ways. It plays a very crucial role in educating, and entertaining the masses. Cable TV has changed the means and modes of entertainment and education.

Sitting before a TV, one can pass and enjoy his free time listening to music, viewing movies, learning techniques of body building, hearing sermons of religious saints, learning about lives of wild animals, birds, water creatures, knowing about space and what not.

During the election period, one can know the electoral positions of political parties and their leaders, from all parts of the country and its impact on the election campaign and all facts of electioneering, just sitting before the TV.

Youngsters and teenage students are seen viewing the channels as per their likings; if some are viewing the music channels some are seen quenching their thirst for knowledge viewing channels like ‘Discovery’ or ‘National Geography’ or ‘History’ etc. The image on the small screen thus has a significant impression on all, more particularly on the gullible children and on the teens. The young mind takes the reel as real and thus is more often and more easily moulded and motivated by the visual media.

The present day fashion, hair dressing, sexual liberties, dating and awakening towards the right of youth, awareness among the women of their rights are because of the role visual media is playing in society. In a hysterical effort to excel others, some channels are showing such scenes and images which are of no importance or have an adverse effect on the minds of viewers.

Showing of sexual and rape cases, with minute details by the anchor and showing brutal scenes of murder, the channels have crossed the limit of ethics and morality. The TV coverage of massacre, creates feeling of hatred among communities and motivates others to wreak vengeance. Obsessed by the sole aim of making a fast buck the channels are competing with one another to stoop to any kind of absurdity, without considering even for a minute as to what effect such visuals have on society.  (460 Words)

Title:  Visual media Vs Indian Society

 

Precis :

Visual media plays an important role in creating awareness in society as it has a prolonged effect on the viewers. Advancement in technology has enabled visual media to penetrate in every house, so it can easily moulds public opinion. Cable TV has significantly affected the lifestyle of people. Methods of entertainment and passing leisure time have changed. During elections, one can know the latest status through TV. Youngsters and teenagers watch different channels as per their choices. They seem to be easily influenced by visual media. The present awareness towards fashion, sexual liberties, rights of youth and women are the result of the impact of visual media on society. Owing to unhealthy competition, TV channels are showing indecent and instigating scenes and programmes causing hatred and violence among the people, just for popularity and making money. They have no regard for ethics and morality and the effect of such visuals.

(150 words)

 

Precis Writing (Example-2)

When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in house knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.   (183 words)

Title:   Human being: A social animal

Precis :

Being a social animal, we are bound up with our actions and desires with others. Our food, clothes, residents and beliefs are interconnected. Without the use of languages created by others, we would have been mere an animal. If we had not been a social animal, we would have been primitive and beast like in thoughts and feelings. Thus, society plays a significant role in a person’s life.   (68 words)

Precis Writing (Example-3)

Truly Imagination and untiring enthusiastic efforts of generations build a Nation. One generation transfers the fruits of its hard work and toil to another, which then takes forward the mission the next level. As the coming generation also has its dreams and aspirations for the nation’s future, it therefore adds something from its side to the national vision which the next generation strives hard to achieve. This process goes on and the nation climbs steps of glory and gains higher strength. Any organization, society, or even a nation without a vision is like a ship cruising on the high seas without any aim or direction.

It is the clarity of national vision which constantly drives the people towards the goal. Our last generation, the glorious generation of freedom fighters led by Mahatma Gandhi, Subhash Chandra Bose, Baba Sahab Ambedkar and many others, set for the nation a vision of free India. This was the first vision set by the people for the nation.

It therefore went deep into the minds and hearts of the masses and soon became the great inspiring and driving force for the people to collectively plunge into the struggle for freedom. The unified dedicated efforts of the people from every walk of life won freedom for the country. The next generation has put India strongly on the path of economic, agricultural and technological development. But India has stood too long in the line of developing nations. Let us, collectively, set the national vision of developed India.

It means the major transformation of our national economy to make it one of the largest economies in the world; where the countrymen live well above the poverty line, their education and health is of a high standard, national security is reasonably assured and the core competence in certain major areas gets enhanced significantly so that the production of quality goods, including exports, rises and brings all-round prosperity for the people. (320 words)

Title: Building a Truly Developed India

Precis :

Building a nation really takes a long time because successive generations add their own desires and dreams to the nation’s future. They also need to try to fulfil the previous generation’s aspirations. This cycle repeats with successive generations. A clear goal or vision is required to progress satisfactorily in this direction. The generation of our freedom fighters had a popular vision for a free India, thus inspiring the freedom struggle. The next generation has worked on developing India’s economy, agriculture and technology. We should aspire for a developed India with a prosperous economy in which people are educated, healthy, skilled, prosperous and fully secured. (104 Words)

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Essays

Essay on India Pakistan Border conflicts

Essay on India – Pakistan Border conflicts

Introduction :

“Boundary in political geography is an  imaginary line between two nations, separating the imaginary rights of one from the imaginary rights of another”. From the above statement of Ambrose Bierce we can infer that the common reason behind the formation of any new nation is the conflict of imaginary rights between the nations. Rivalry between India and Pakistan along with their border tensions have their roots in pre independence era. Pakistan which is curved out from Indian soil on 14th August, 1947 by creating Redcliff line at the time of partition.

  • The Radcliffe Line was drawn as boundary line between the India and Pakistan. Before partition both the neighbours claimed Kashmir, which was ruled by a Hindu King Raja Hari Singh despite having 77% muslim population.
  • Maharaja didn’t accede to either India or Pakistan and remain as an independent state. But Pakistan’s army invaded Kashmir which made Maharaja to seek help from India.
  • On 26th October Maharaja acceded to India signing “Instrument of Accession”. However, Pakistan views Kashmir as an integral part of its territory.
  • The invaders were gradually driven out of Kashmir except the area which is known as “Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK)” in India and “Azad Kashmir” in Pakistan. Since then the de facto border has been the altercation in the path of friendly relations between both.
  • Since the formation, India and Pakistan involved in two major wars of 1947 and 1965 and a limited war of 1999 which is known as Kargil War.
  • The war of 1947 was due to the fear of handover Kashmir to India by the Maharaja of Kashmir. While the war of 1965 was started with the operation Gibraltar initiated by the Pakistan. In 1999, Pakistan occupied Kargil region.
  • India responded by launching a major military and diplomatic unit to drive out the Pakistani infiltrators. These two nations now share a border with a total length of 3,323 km.
  • If we take geographical features into account both areas contain the Himalaya Mountains and the Indus River. There is an Indus Water treaty that shows who to use the water available in the Indus River and its tributaries.
  • As the recent attack was Pulwama Attack on 14th February 2019. The aftermath of this attack was scrapping Article 370 and 35A which reconstituted the state into two union territories, J&K and Ladakh.

Conclusion :

The amendment brought changes to land ownership rights and preferential treatment for the people of the state in jobs and education. The US shows an interest in ensuring regional stability, preventing nuclear weapons proliferation, and minimizing the potential of a nuclear war between India and Pakistan. The countrymen are most affected in any type of conflicts or military attacks so it is high time that we must come together and think about human lives and give up border conflicts because life has greater importance than borders.

Essay on India – Pakistan Border conflicts in english

Introduction :

“ Cricket is a pressure game, and when it comes to India and Pakistan match the pressure is doubled” — Imran Khan
Nuclear-armed neighbours India and Pakistan have fought 3 wars : Indo-Pakistani War of 1947,1965,1999 on disputed border. But why do they dispute the territory – and how did it start? The conflict between India and Pakistan over Kashmir dates back to 1947 when the British withdrew from the subcontinent and the colonial empire divided into two new countries along religious lines: Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan.

  • The Radcliffe Line was drawn as the boundary demarcation line between the Indian and Pakistani. Before partition both the unfriendly neighbours claimed Kashmir, which was ruled by a Hindu King Raja Hari Singh despite having 77% muslim population.
  • Maharaja didn’t accede to either India or Pakistan hoping to remain as an independent state. But Pakistan’s army invaded Kashmir which made Maharaja to seek help from Nehru, the then PM of India.
  • On 26th October Maharaja acceded to India signing “Instrument of Accession”. However, Pakistan views Kashmir as an integral part of its territory, owing to the strategic location and the valley’s Islamic identity.
  • The invaders were gradually driven out of Kashmir except the area which is known as “Pakistan Occupied Kashmir” in India and “Azad Kashmir” in Pakistan.
  • Since then the de facto border has been the altercation in the path of friendly relations between both. These two now share a border with a total length of 3,323 km.
  • If we take geographical features into account both areas contain the Himalaya Mountains and the Indus River. There is an Indus Water treaty that purports who to use the water available in the Indus River and its tributaries.
  • The more recent attack was Pulwama Attack on 14th February 2019. The aftermath of this was scrapping Article 370 and 35A which reconstituted the state into two union territories, Jammu Kashmir and Ladakh.
  • The amendment brought changes to land ownership rights and preferential treatment for the people of the state in jobs and education.

Conclusion :

Pakistan opposed it and took the issue to the UN Security Council. Due to these two 3rd world Countries entire South Asia has been identified as an epicenter of terrorism and religious extremism. Therefore the US shows an interest in ensuring regional stability, preventing nuclear weapons proliferation, and minimizing the potential of a nuclear war between India and Pakistan. But until the political fate of Kashmir is fully developed, a war is always a constant threat between these two countries.

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs WhatsApp New Privacy Policy & Its Impact

Introduction :

Social media is a boon for human civilization because it has brought the whole world together at one place where individuals can share their views and ideas and such interactions are beneficial for the people as it helps in increasing social skills. In today’s world, technology has made our life easier because with the help of technology we can learn new things and meet new people. WhatsApp is one of the most important social applications which plays a major role in our daily life.

  • WhatsApp is facing a lot of criticism for its new privacy policy which says that it may share information of any of its users with Facebook and its partner companies. 
  • Since then there has been a huge rise in the dounloads of its alternative apps including Signal. In response to global criticism, WhatsApp head Will Cathcart explained , with end-to-end encryption, they cannot see the users private chats or calls and neither can Facebook.
  • WhatsApp has also given users time till 8th of February 2021  to accept the new terms and conditions. WhatsApp says it is collecting new information from users device such as Battery level, app version, browser information, mobile network, IP address and phone number etc.
  • It also states that the data in some cases will be transferred to the US or other parts where Facebook’s affiliate companies are based.
  • Privacy policies of different countries of the world have put different types of restrictions on business. 
  • EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides much more control to the users on their personal information shared on the online platforms such as WhatsApp privacy policy.
  • While in the EU also, WhatsApp privacy policy talks about sharing information with Facebook, but users have an additional right “Managing and Retaining our personal Information”.
  • They can not only restrict or object to a certain type of information used by the platform but also can withdraw their consent to WhatsApp for processing of data.

Conclusion :

This new update has increased a lot of concern over the privacy of the people that use this application. Indian users are more vulnerable as there is no any data protection law in India. If India had a data protection law, WhatsApp would not have been able to launch this new policy update. It is high time that the government should initiate some digital awareness programs to make the public aware of the importance of digital privacy and also enforce new laws about the same.

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.

Conclusion :

Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents. There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

 

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Climate Change – Danger to the whole world 

Introduction :

Climate change is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last for a few decades. Change in the pattern of the climate on the Earth has become a global cause of concern. Researchers continually observe the pattern to understand the past, present as well as the future climatic conditions. A record of the climate has been accumulated and is updated regularly based on the geological evidences.

  • There are a number of factors that have contributed towards weather change. These include the variations in solar energy received on the Earth, eruption of volcanoes, orbital changes and plate tectonics.
  • Besides, a number of human activities have also led to the changes in the climatic conditions, particularly over the past few decades.
  • The change that has taken place in the recent past is also referred to as outcome of global warming.
  • The new age technology is adding to the emission of carbon on the planet which in turn is having a negative impact on the climate.
  • Changes in the climatic conditions are also having a negative impact on the water system. It has resulted in the melting of glaciers and erratic rainfall patterns that in turn are leading to environmental imbalance.
  • Man due to his need and greed has done many activities that not only harm the environment but himself too. Many plant and animal species go extinct due to human activity.
  • Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel, industrial waste, a different type of pollution and many more.
  • All these things damage the climate and ecosystem very badly. And many species of animals and birds got extinct or on a verge of extinction due to hunting. These climatic changes have a negative impact on the environment.
  • The ocean level is rising, glaciers are melting, CO2 in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes.
  • Apart from that, it is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct. And there will be a heavy loss to the environment
  • If we do not do anything and things continue to go on like right now then a day in future will come when humans will become extinct from the surface of the earth.
  • But instead of neglecting these problems we start acting on then we can save the earth and our future.

Conclusion :

Although humans mistake has caused great damage to the climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to undo what we have done until now to damage the environment. As we discussed besides the natural forces, human activities have also contributed majorly to this change. It is important to take the climate change issue seriously and control human activities that are contributing towards this change.

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster.
  • It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country.
  • This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness. Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.
  • If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation.

Conclusion :

India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Right to Privacy – Necessity of Present Time

Introduction :

The needs of human beings start from the most primary needs such as food, clothing and shelter to secondary needs such as education, work and recreation and further on to wants such as entertainment, good food, leisure travel, etc. The question that must be asked is where does privacy fit into all these needs and wants? A basic degree of privacy is a primary need in any civilized society. As the degree of privacy increases, it evolves into a secondary need and further to a want.

  • Right to Privacy refers to respecting and ensuring the privacy of the individual. The Supreme Court has cut straight to the heart of the issue in the Aadhaar petitions.
  • On behalf of all Indian citizens, it asks the current government to address the most basic questions in a democracy governed by the law: what are the privacy rights of its citizens and are they protected equally, with the same justice for the rich and the poor alike?
  • The right to privacy suggests that it is completely the choice of an individual that which parts of his life he chooses to disclose to the society. Nobody has the right to interfere in someone’s life without his permission.
  • Every individual has his private family and professional life and only he has the sole right to disclose it to others. Technological developments have greatly impacted the privacy of the people.
  • Security and anti-terrorism are the hot topics for global governments that consider the privacy of individuals as a hindrance in their missions to fight terrorism.
  • As a result, intelligence services are granted full rights to breach the security and privacy of the people thus ultimately prying into the life of people.
  • Aadhar initiative requires collection of personal data from residents of India, and this has resulted in controversy regarding its potential to be missed.
  • This is so because it requires collection of biometric details like iris scanning and finger prints which are essentially crucial details and could be misused.
  • Cyber space is a vulnerable space and is prone to threat & cyber security architecture is also not very strong in India.

Conclusion :

However, Aadhar in itself is a well-intentioned program so as to plug leakages and ensure financial inclusion. This will lead to better targeting of subsidies. With the use of the internet, in this age, social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are driving new forms of social interaction and the availability has raised privacy concerns. Towards this the government must strengthen cyber security system and assure by means of legislation that private details would be maintained private against violation of right to privacy.

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Virtual Currency – The Future of Currency

Introduction : 

Bitcoin is a digital currency that is widely known for its creator’s anonymity. It is a kind of virtual currency which was launched as an open source software in 2009. Its creator whose identity to this day remains unknown, goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Since its inception, virtual currency, has grown in both its popularity and its use. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator.

  • Bitcoin is often referred to as a “virtual currency” or “cryptocurrency.” All transfers of bitcoin are verified and recorded on a public ledger known as the block chain.
  • It is an electronic or digital currency that works on a peer-to-peer basis. Like currency notes, it can be sent from one person to another.
  • The beauty of this cryptocurrency is that if you receive a bitcoin from another, you can be as sure of the payment as you would on receiving physical currency notes, with the same anonymity ascribed to it.
  • This anonymity is lacking in other forms of digital payment such as online banking or e-wallets. You can send bitcoins digitally to anyone who has a bitcoin address anywhere in the globe.
  • One person could have multiple addresses for different purposes. Receivers can get to spend them within minutes of receiving the coins.

Conclusion :

It is to be noted that cryptocurrency transactions are settled immediately without any third-party approvals. With recognition at universal level, cryptocurrencies can be accessed by everyone. As India moves to digitize much of its financial services and parts of its consumer market, cryptocurrencies offer a new, dynamic addition to the Digital India project.

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Technological Development in India

 Introduction : 

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information. New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.

  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems.
  • The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains.
  • In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable. The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society.

Conclusion :

Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science. When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

 

India – Pakistan Border conflicts Vs Global Warming – Growing danger to the world

Introduction :

Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green-house effect created by green-house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately it would cause end of life on the earth. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, lack of food etc.

  • It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is the cause of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc.
  • Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth.
  • Gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface.
  • The concentrations of greenhouse gases are not larger than oxygen and nitrogen, because neither has more than two atoms per molecule, and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms possess.
  • Flooding of fresh water marshlands, low-lying cities, and islands with marine water is one of the major effects of global warming.
  • The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
  • Due to melting of the ice peaks, there is loss of habitat near the poles. Now the polar bears are considered to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season because of declining ice packs. 
  • Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it.
  • We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas. Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide.

Conclusion :

Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.

 

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Climate Change essay

Essay on climate change in english

Introduction :

Climate change is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last for a few decades. Change in the pattern of climate has become a global cause of concern. Researchers continually observe the pattern to understand the past, present as well as the future climatic conditions. A record of the climate has been generated and updated regularly based on the geological evidences. There are a large number of factors that have been contributing towards this change.

  • These factors include the variations in solar energy  on the Earth, volcano eruptions,  orbital changes and change in plate tectonics. Besides this, human activities have also led to the changes in the climatic conditions over the past few decades.
  • The new technology is also adding to the emission of carbon which is having a negative impact on the climate. Change in climatic conditions are having a negative impact on the water system too.
  • It also resulted in the melting of glacier and erratic rainfall patterns that are leading to environmental imbalance.
  • Men due to his need have done many activities that not only harm the environment but themselves too. Many plant and animal species have become extinct due to human activities.
  • Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel, industrial waste, different type of pollution and many more.
  • All these things damaging the climate and the ecosystem in a very bad way. Many species of animals and birds are on a verge of extinction due to hunting.
  • The ocean level is continuously rising, glaciers are melting, carban dioxide in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes.
  • It is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct in near future and there will be a huge loss to the environment too.
  • If we don’t do anything then a day in future will come when humans will also become extinct from the earth. But instead of neglecting towards these issues we should start acting on them then we can save the earth and our future.

Conclusion :

Though humans activities has caused great damage to our climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to restore what we have done until now which damage the environment drastically. As we discussed besides the natural forces, human activities have also contributed majorly to this change. Therefore, it is extremely important to take the climate change issue seriously and control activities that are contributing towards this problem.

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Essay on Climate Change Vs Cultural Diversity in India

Introduction :

Indian culture is diverse and consist of various customs, ideas and social beliefs. India has different cultures and communities that differ in their food habits, cloths, languages, and traditions. It is the oldest and famous among the other cultures of the world. Indian literature is also a combination of various communities, traditions, customs, and religions. The diversity of Indian culture is well known worldwide. Cultural diversity is also seen in Indian Philosophy, art, music, and even Literature.

  • India is a global hub of multi-cultural and multi-traditional festivals like Dussehra, Holi, Diwali, Christmas, Ramazan, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ganesh Chaturthi etc.
  • Each Indian festival tells its own cultural and national tale and is celebrated with different customs & traditions.
  • In India three National festivals are also celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm, these are the Republic Day, Independence Day, and Gandhi Jayanti.
  • In India, God lives in the heart of every person. Indians hold different prayers, beliefs, and values. In the Hindu tradition, everyone worships and respects Cows, Neem tree, Banyan tree, and Peepal tree.
  • In India rivers are also worshiped and have great religious significance and sentiments. Rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna Godavari, Bramhaputra, Narmada, and Tapti occasionally worshiped in India.
  • The Joint family system is the prevailing system in India. In most cases, the family members consist of parents, children, children’s spouses, and offspring.
  • All of these family members live together under a single roof and the eldest male member is the head of the family.
  • Arranged marriages are also a part of Indian culture. Most Indians have their marriages planned by their parents. In almost all marriages in India, the bride’s family gives dowry to bridegroom.
  • Weddings are certainly festive occasions in Indian culture. There is involvement of decorations, clothing, music, dance, rituals in Indian weddings.
  • India is a home of many sacred and religious places like the Amarnath temple, Badrinath, Haridwar, Vaishno Devi and Varanasi, which are located in the northern part of the country. However, in the southern region, Rameshwaram temple and Sabrimala temple have great significance.

Conclusion :

India celebrates a huge number of festivals. These festivals are very diverse because of multi-religious and multi-cultural societies in India. Indians greatly value festive occasions and the whole country joins in the celebrations irrespective of the differences. Thus, we can say that India is filled with traditions and modern culture. People have the freedom to practice any religion they want. This is why Indian culture is widespread across the world.

 

Essay on Climate Change Vs Save Energy – Making the world Bright

Introduction :

Energy conservation refers to the efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy. The energy on Earth is not in unlimited supply. Energy can take plenty of time to regenerate. This certainly makes it essential to conserve energy. Energy conservation is achievable either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service usage. Energy conservation plays an important role in saving non-renewable energy resources. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources take many centuries to regenerate. Moreover, humans consume energy at a faster rate than it can be produced.

  • Therefore, energy conservation would lead to the preservation of these precious non-renewable sources of energy. Energy conservation will reduce the expenses related to fossil fuels.
  • Fossil fuels are very expensive. Therefore, consumers are required to pay higher prices for goods and services.
  • Energy conservation would certainly reduce the amount of fossil fuel being mined. This would reduce the costs of consumers.
  • Energy conservation would also strengthen the economy as consumers will have more disposable income to spend on goods and services.
  • Energy conservation is good for scientific research. This is because energy conservation gives researchers plenty of time to conduct researches.
  • These researchers will have more time to come up with various energy solutions and alternatives. Humans must ensure to have fossil fuels as long as possible.
  • This would give enough time to finding practical solutions. Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection.
  • Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection. This is because various energy sources are significantly harmful to the environment. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels considerably pollutes the atmosphere.
  • Moreover, nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste. Hence, energy conservation will lead to environmental protection.
  • Energy conservation would also result in the good health of humans. The pollution released due to energy sources is harmful to the human body.
  • The air pollution due to fossil fuels can cause various respiratory problems. Another important way of energy conservation is by using energy-efficient products.
  • Energy-efficient products are those that use lesser energy than their normal counterparts. One prominent example can be using an energy-efficient LED bulb rather than a normal light bulb.
  • The sun and the winds are always part of our life. And they are abundantly available in many countries. Also, such energy is clean energy which does not emit carbon dioxide, the main culprit in global warming.

Conclusion :

Today there are many energy- efficient alternatives for all kinds of appliances. So we have the power to make better choices for reducing our consumption of energy. Mahatma Gandhi absolutely right said, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed”. Energy conservation is considered as a quick and economical way to solve the problem of power shortage.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Water Crisis in India 

Introduction :

India has many social problems and frequent water crisis in many States is one of them. Food and drinking water are quite essential for comfortable living. India suffers from water shortage for cultivation and drinking despite the fact that many big rivers, flow through some parts of India. In the south there are the Krishna, Godavari, Cauvery, Perilya. In the north there are Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi and other rivers. Much of the water goes to the sea unused. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.

  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. Houses built of thatch are submerged in the water.
  • The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish. When there is inadequate yield of crops there is famine. Rice, wheat, and sugar cane are scarce.
  • In fact there is scarcity of every type of grain. There are two extremes in India. The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood.
  • Nearly 40 per cent of water demand in urban India is met by ground water. So ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate of 2-3 metres per year.
  • India is one of the major food growers in the world. That produces tons of quantity of food to feed its population and export the surplus that is left.
  • In addition, producing this much food requires a lot of water too. The traditional method of irrigation wastes a lot of water due to evaporation, water conveyance, drainage, percolation, and the overuse of groundwater.
  • Besides, most of the areas in India use traditional irrigation techniques that stress the availability of water. Due to rapid construction that uses concrete and marbles do not let the rainwater to get absorbed in the soil.
  • But, if we install some mechanism in our houses that can hold the rainwater then we can recharge the groundwater.
  • But, the solution to this problem lies in the extensive irrigation techniques such as micro-irrigation in which we provide water to plants and crops using a sprinkler or drip irrigation.

Conclusion :

Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages in its 83.0 km long pipeline network. Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. Instead of increasing the supply of water to meet demand, a more viable method of addressing the water crisis is to manage consumption. There are plenty of technologies there that allow to recycle rainwater that will help in saving water.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Water Conservation 

Introduction : 

We are living in this dynamic world where everything is changing at a very fast rate. The human needs are not exception to it. As the population of this world is increasing the needs and necessities of the basic things are also increasing. Water is one of the basic necessities of life. We require plenty of water every day for drinking, cooking and washing. The chief sources of potable water are the surface and ground water.

  • Clean water is affecting the lives of people in India and other countries of the world in many ways, and the lack of clean water is becoming a major problem.
  • Water conservation is the only way to save water in the future to solve the problem of water scarcity.
  • Three-fourths of the Earth  is surrounded by water, whereas very few percent of water is available for human use Since 97% of the entire water in the ocean is salt water, which is not suitable for human use.
  • Only 3% of the entire water on the earth is worth use which is 70% in the form of ice layer and glacier and 1% drinking water Is available in the form of water.

Conclusion :

If gradually all of us will start saving water saving excess water will be possible. To save ourselves from the water wastage, we must be aware of the news of the people who are struggling daily for each drop of water for their living. To spread awareness, we should promote programs related to water conservation. We should encourage family members, children, friends, neighbors and co-workers to adopt this process to get positive results.

Essay on Climate Change Vs PLASTIC POLLUTION 

Introduction :

Plastic pollution has become a major threat to our environment in today’s times and it is likely to make things worse in future.  Plastic pollution is damaging our environment rapidly. Waste plastic material is hard to dispose and contributes to major pollution on earth. This has become a cause of global concern. The increasing use of plastic bags, utensils and furniture, the amount of plastic waste has also gone up and so has the plastic pollution.

  • Plastic waste is entering the water bodies such as rivers, seas and even oceans and is polluting our water drastically. This water is then supplied at our places.
  • No matter how much we filter this water it can never get back to its pure form. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals. Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags.
  • Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them. The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avoid it as soon as possible.
  • Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.
  • We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of using plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it.

Conclusion :

We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution these days. The government must also take strict measures to ensure these are not used. It is of utmost importance to spread awareness about the harmful effects of plastic waste on our environment.  This can be done by way of television and radio and social media. This should help people understand the seriousness of the issue.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Global Warming 

Introduction :

Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green-house effect created by green-house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately it would cause end of life on the earth. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, lack of food etc.

  • It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is the cause of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc.
  • Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth. Gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface.
  • The concentrations of greenhouse gases are not larger than oxygen and nitrogen, because neither has more than two atoms per molecule, and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms possess.
  • Flooding of fresh water marshlands, low-lying cities, and islands with marine water is one of the major effects of global warming.
  • The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
  • Due to melting of the ice peaks, there is loss of habitat near the poles. Now the polar bears are considered to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season because of declining ice packs. 
  • Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it. We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas.

Conclusion :

Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide. Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.

 

Essay on Climate Change Vs Delhi Pollution 

Introduction :

Pollution is one of the major issues causing concern not only in India but across the world. Delhi, the national capital of the country, is being tagged as one of the most heavily polluted capital cities in the world. It is the world’s worst city in terms of air pollution, with an unhealthy air quality index for the majority of the year. Thus, today, one of the biggest threats to the welfare of the people of Delhi.

  • There has been a huge rise in the vehicular population, in spite of the metro railways, aggravating traffic congestion and increasing air and noise pollution. 
  • There has also been a number of diesel vehicles plying on the roads, which are largely responsible for the air pollution.
  • Citizens need to start the public transport more and more to reduce the pollution level in the city. Govt. has ensured to increase the no. of buses and auto-rickshaws in the capital as well.
  • Stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana in northwest India has been cited as a major cause of air pollution in Delhi.
  • Particulate matter (PM) is basically a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets like acids, chemicals, gas, water, metals, soil dust particles, etc. the measurement of which gives an idea of the pollution of a city.
  • There are mobile enforcement teams deployed at various locations for monitoring polluting vehicles.
  • Citizens need to avoid all kinds of contact near construction sites. These sites release gases which makes the air very harmful for eyes and for the respiratory system.
  • The above measures are known by many of us yet the level of national capital remains at 11th in the ranking of WHO for the most polluted cities.
  • The practicing of the above measures is the need for hour and to live happier days with our loved one is we all demand.

Conclusion :

I whole heartedly appeal to every citizen to take steps to make pollution free capital, a pollution free India. With a view to reducing vehicular pollution, there has been a ban imposed on the plying of more than 15 years old commercial or transport vehicles. Steps are taken to transform garbage into compost by developing new sanitary land-fill sites. It’s not that the Government is not taking steps to control pollution in Delhi, But we need proper and efficient implementation of plans and programmes and policies launched by the Government to make it successful.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Earthquake Safety 

Introduction :

Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline. Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued.

  • Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake.
  • Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
  • The severity of the Earthquake depends upon the magnitude and distance from the epicenter. Also, the local geographical conditions play a role in determining the severity.
  • Ground rupture refers to the visible breaking of the Earth’s surface. Another significant effect of Earthquake is landslides. Landslides occur due to slope instability.
  • This slope instability happens because of Earthquake. Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction. This happens when water-saturated granular material loses its strength.
  • Therefore, it transforms from solid to a liquid. Consequently, rigid structures sink into the liquefied deposits. Earthquakes can result in fires.
  • This happens because Earthquake damages the electric power and gas lines. Above all, it becomes extremely difficult to stop a fire once it begins.
  • There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake. Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake.

Conclusion :

 If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops.  If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Noise Pollution 

Introduction :

Noise pollution is a form of pollution which has become a threat for the society nowadays. Noise pollution is when the level of noise increases more than the normal level. The world health organization says that any sound less than 70 decibel is not hazardous to the living organisms. The excessive amount of noise out in the environment makes it unsafe to live in. The unpleasant sounds and noise can cause an imbalance in nature.

  • As the world is turning to technology for their comfort, at the same time, harming us. The industries no matter how big or small contribution to noise pollution. 
  • Similarly, the increasing use of automobiles is a major cause of noise pollution. Not only automobiles but other transport vehicles like airplanes, buses, bikes, trucks and more also are a part of it.
  • Social events like marriages, parties, and religious functions in places like clubs, pubs, temples, halls etc. create a lot of nuisance in the residential areas.
  • In addition, the construction activities like mining, the building of flyovers, bridges and more also produce great noise. Noise pollution causes a number of hearing problems.
  • High levels of noise damage the Eardrums and sometimes even cause loss of hearing. Noise pollution primarily affects a person’s hearing, leading to hearing impairment to even permanent loss of hearing.
  • It causes an increase in blood pressure, hypertension, fatigue, and cardiovascular diseases. Noise pollution also disturbs a person’s state of mind causing disturbed sleep patterns, stress, aggressive behavior, decreased concentration, and poor quality of life.
  • Noise disturbance is extremely dangerous to elderly people and pregnant women. Not only humans but noise pollution also impacts wildlife too.
  • Pets become aggressive or afraid when they hear a loud noise. Noise pollution can impact their listening skills and cause changes in their behavior, starting with a pet at home.

Conclusion :

It leads to changes in their hearing due to which their communication also becomes affected. They are unable to hear properly during migration as they require sound to find their way. Noise pollution also affects crop production. We must make people aware of the impact of noise pollution and also encourage them to adopt ways that do not contribute to noise pollution. If everyone starts doing the same on an individual level, we will surely be able to reduce noise pollution.

 

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India US relations essay

India US relations essay | Essay on India US relationships

Introduction :

“When diplomacy ends, war begins” is a popular statement of Adolf Hitler. It is seen that most of the wars begin due to toxic relationship between two or more nations. That is why the diplomatic relationship is strategically very important for every country.  India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, edu-cation, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health.

  • There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India is a developing country and have a huge market which is a big opportunity for all developed countries like USA.
  • US is also important for India in terms of resolving the issues regarding internal security and terrorism from neighbouring countries.
  • US is a major export hub of India and imports crude oil and hydrocarbons. USA is also a home of around 4 million Indians and we get huge amount of remittance from them.
  • We can also see lots of Indians who took various constitutional post in US government. India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs.
  • Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-China war. US didn’t support India in Bangla-desh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test which is known as Smiling Buddha, at Pokhran.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), also participated in Malabar exercise. A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue between India & US started which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities.
  • However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle. Along with these friendly exchanges, India-US relationship also experiences some toxic movements.

Conclusion :

US regularly point out human rights violation in Kashmir. India’s tariffs on imports are also considered as a hindrance to smoother trade. In international politics, there is no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. As partnership between India and US would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity so both the governments must now try to complete the unfinished agreements regardless of the differences between them.

India US relations essay in english

Introduction :

India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, education, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health. There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India and the US have thrown off the yoke of colonialism and have drafted the constitution that begins with the same three words : “ We the people”.
—– Barack Obama
Do you know when Christopher Columbus discovered America he actually thought it was India and called them Indians.

  • A partnership between the world’s oldest democracy and the world’s largest democracy is best for both worlds.
  • But India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs. Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-Sino war.
  • US didn’t support India in Bangladesh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test at Pokhran(Code-named: Smiling Buddha).

Convergence in Relations

  • Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement(COMCASA), is a military agreement that allows both the nations to share and completely rely on the encrypted communications and equipment.
  • A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
    Placed Pakistan on the grey-list of the Financial Action Task Force and played a vital role in countering China.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement(BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quad, participated in Malabar exercise.

Divergence in Relations

Trade Deal : Trade has been a major altercation between both countries and US referred India as “tariff king” that imposes “tremendously high” import duties.

US-Pakistan Equation : US has softened its position on Pakistan in the last few months, due to the role Pakistan can play in the Afghan deal (between the US and the Taliban). In return, Pakistan wants the US support.

Internal Issues in India : India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities. However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle.

Conclusion :

In international politics, there are no permanent friends and no permanent enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. India-US relation remains pivotal to reinforce the world order in the 21st century. As partnership would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity the two governments must now strive to complete the unfinished agreements, regardless of the differences and enhance the
US-India ties. 

India US relations Vs Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.

Conclusion :

Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents. There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

India US relations Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

India US relations Vs WhatsApp New Privacy Policy & Its Impact

Introduction :

Social media is a boon for human civilization because it has brought the whole world together at one place where individuals can share their views and ideas and such interactions are beneficial for the people as it helps in increasing social skills. In today’s world, technology has made our life easier because with the help of technology we can learn new things and meet new people. WhatsApp is one of the most important social applications which plays a major role in our daily life.

  • WhatsApp is facing a lot of criticism for its new privacy policy which says that it may share information of any of its users with Facebook and its partner companies. 
  • Since then there has been a huge rise in the dounloads of its alternative apps including Signal. In response to global criticism, WhatsApp head Will Cathcart explained , with end-to-end encryption, they cannot see the users private chats or calls and neither can Facebook.
  • WhatsApp has also given users time till 8th of February 2021  to accept the new terms and conditions. WhatsApp says it is collecting new information from users device such as Battery level, app version, browser information, mobile network, IP address and phone number etc.
  • It also states that the data in some cases will be transferred to the US or other parts where Facebook’s affiliate companies are based.
  • Privacy policies of different countries of the world have put different types of restrictions on business. 
  • EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides much more control to the users on their personal information shared on the online platforms such as WhatsApp privacy policy.
  • While in the EU also, WhatsApp privacy policy talks about sharing information with Facebook, but users have an additional right “Managing and Retaining our personal Information”.
  • They can not only restrict or object to a certain type of information used by the platform but also can withdraw their consent to WhatsApp for processing of data.

Conclusion :

This new update has increased a lot of concern over the privacy of the people that use this application. Indian users are more vulnerable as there is no any data protection law in India. If India had a data protection law, WhatsApp would not have been able to launch this new policy update. It is high time that the government should initiate some digital awareness programs to make the public aware of the importance of digital privacy and also enforce new laws about the same.

India US relations Vs Climate Change – Danger to the whole world 

Introduction :

Climate change is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last for a few decades. Change in the pattern of the climate on the Earth has become a global cause of concern. Researchers continually observe the pattern to understand the past, present as well as the future climatic conditions. A record of the climate has been accumulated and is updated regularly based on the geological evidences.

  • There are a number of factors that have contributed towards weather change. These include the variations in solar energy received on the Earth, eruption of volcanoes, orbital changes and plate tectonics.
  • Besides, a number of human activities have also led to the changes in the climatic conditions, particularly over the past few decades.
  • The change that has taken place in the recent past is also referred to as outcome of global warming.
  • The new age technology is adding to the emission of carbon on the planet which in turn is having a negative impact on the climate.
  • Changes in the climatic conditions are also having a negative impact on the water system. It has resulted in the melting of glaciers and erratic rainfall patterns that in turn are leading to environmental imbalance.
  • Man due to his need and greed has done many activities that not only harm the environment but himself too. Many plant and animal species go extinct due to human activity.
  • Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel, industrial waste, a different type of pollution and many more.
  • All these things damage the climate and ecosystem very badly. And many species of animals and birds got extinct or on a verge of extinction due to hunting. These climatic changes have a negative impact on the environment.
  • The ocean level is rising, glaciers are melting, CO2 in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes.
  • Apart from that, it is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct. And there will be a heavy loss to the environment
  • If we do not do anything and things continue to go on like right now then a day in future will come when humans will become extinct from the surface of the earth.
  • But instead of neglecting these problems we start acting on then we can save the earth and our future.

Conclusion :

Although humans mistake has caused great damage to the climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to undo what we have done until now to damage the environment. As we discussed besides the natural forces, human activities have also contributed majorly to this change. It is important to take the climate change issue seriously and control human activities that are contributing towards this change.

India US relations Vs Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster.
  • It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country.
  • This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness. Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.
  • If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation.

Conclusion :

India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

India US relations Vs Right to Privacy – Necessity of Present Time

Introduction :

The needs of human beings start from the most primary needs such as food, clothing and shelter to secondary needs such as education, work and recreation and further on to wants such as entertainment, good food, leisure travel, etc. The question that must be asked is where does privacy fit into all these needs and wants? A basic degree of privacy is a primary need in any civilized society. As the degree of privacy increases, it evolves into a secondary need and further to a want.

  • Right to Privacy refers to respecting and ensuring the privacy of the individual. The Supreme Court has cut straight to the heart of the issue in the Aadhaar petitions.
  • On behalf of all Indian citizens, it asks the current government to address the most basic questions in a democracy governed by the law: what are the privacy rights of its citizens and are they protected equally, with the same justice for the rich and the poor alike?
  • The right to privacy suggests that it is completely the choice of an individual that which parts of his life he chooses to disclose to the society. Nobody has the right to interfere in someone’s life without his permission.
  • Every individual has his private family and professional life and only he has the sole right to disclose it to others. Technological developments have greatly impacted the privacy of the people.
  • Security and anti-terrorism are the hot topics for global governments that consider the privacy of individuals as a hindrance in their missions to fight terrorism.
  • As a result, intelligence services are granted full rights to breach the security and privacy of the people thus ultimately prying into the life of people.
  • Aadhar initiative requires collection of personal data from residents of India, and this has resulted in controversy regarding its potential to be missed.
  • This is so because it requires collection of biometric details like iris scanning and finger prints which are essentially crucial details and could be misused.
  • Cyber space is a vulnerable space and is prone to threat & cyber security architecture is also not very strong in India.

Conclusion :

However, Aadhar in itself is a well-intentioned program so as to plug leakages and ensure financial inclusion. This will lead to better targeting of subsidies. With the use of the internet, in this age, social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are driving new forms of social interaction and the availability has raised privacy concerns. Towards this the government must strengthen cyber security system and assure by means of legislation that private details would be maintained private against violation of right to privacy.

India US relations Vs Virtual Currency – The Future of Currency

Introduction : 

Bitcoin is a digital currency that is widely known for its creator’s anonymity. It is a kind of virtual currency which was launched as an open source software in 2009. Its creator whose identity to this day remains unknown, goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Since its inception, virtual currency, has grown in both its popularity and its use. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator.

  • Bitcoin is often referred to as a “virtual currency” or “cryptocurrency.” All transfers of bitcoin are verified and recorded on a public ledger known as the block chain.
  • It is an electronic or digital currency that works on a peer-to-peer basis. Like currency notes, it can be sent from one person to another.
  • The beauty of this cryptocurrency is that if you receive a bitcoin from another, you can be as sure of the payment as you would on receiving physical currency notes, with the same anonymity ascribed to it.
  • This anonymity is lacking in other forms of digital payment such as online banking or e-wallets. You can send bitcoins digitally to anyone who has a bitcoin address anywhere in the globe.
  • One person could have multiple addresses for different purposes. Receivers can get to spend them within minutes of receiving the coins.

Conclusion :

It is to be noted that cryptocurrency transactions are settled immediately without any third-party approvals. With recognition at universal level, cryptocurrencies can be accessed by everyone. As India moves to digitize much of its financial services and parts of its consumer market, cryptocurrencies offer a new, dynamic addition to the Digital India project.

India US relations Vs Technological Development in India

 Introduction : 

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information. New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.

  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems.
  • The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains.
  • In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable. The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society.

Conclusion :

Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science. When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

 

India US relations Vs Global Warming – Growing danger to the world

Introduction :

Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green-house effect created by green-house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately it would cause end of life on the earth. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, lack of food etc.

  • It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is the cause of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc.
  • Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth.
  • Gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface.
  • The concentrations of greenhouse gases are not larger than oxygen and nitrogen, because neither has more than two atoms per molecule, and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms possess.
  • Flooding of fresh water marshlands, low-lying cities, and islands with marine water is one of the major effects of global warming.
  • The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
  • Due to melting of the ice peaks, there is loss of habitat near the poles. Now the polar bears are considered to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season because of declining ice packs. 
  • Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it.
  • We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas. Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide.

Conclusion :

Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.

 

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Essays

Impact of covid-19 on indian economy essay in english

Impact of covid-19 on indian economy essay in english 

Introduction :

Covid-19 is a kind of virus that affect the respiratory tract of humans and other mammals. It is associated with common cold, pneumonia and other respiratory symptoms. It has become worldwide disease and all nations are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Up to 53% of businesses in the country will be affected due to corona virus outbreak.

  • Coronavirus outbreak was first reported at Wuhan in China on 31 December, 2019.  WHO is working with global experts, governments, and other health agencies to provide advice to the countries about covid-19 precautionary and preventive measures.
  • If we talk about trade, China is the largest exporter and second-largest importer in the world. It accounts for 13% of world exports and 11% of world imports.
  • It will impact the Indian industry. India’s total electronic imports account for 45% of China. Around one-third of machinery that India purchases from the world come from China and around 90% of mobile phones come from China.
  • Therefore, we can say that due to the current outbreak of coronavirus, the import dependence on China will have a significant impact on the Indian industry.
  • In todays scenario, many farmers around the country are also facing uncertainty too. A large number of businesses such as hotels and airlines are reducing salaries and laying off employees.

Conclusion :

Major companies operating in India have temporarily suspended or reduced operations. World Bank and credit rating agencies have downgraded India’s growth for 2021, however, the International Monetary Fund projection for India for the financial year 2021-22 of 1.9% GDP growth is the highest among G-20 nations.

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Short Essay on Positive Effects of Coronavirus on Environment

Introduction :

Covid-19 virus has become worldwide disease and almost all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus. As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.

  • Today, when the production of almost everything is slowed down and factories are not as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke is also reduced which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • This indicates that air has become more pure and we can breathe in pure air. With the increase in number of flights, not only the air traffic increases but the quality of air also getting worse, but now the scenario is changed.
  • To reduce the risk of coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home. This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses.

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. The coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind however, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty again.

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Long Essay Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

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