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Essay on Modernization of Indian Armed Forces

Essay on Modernization of Indian Armed Forces in english

Introduction :

We often say that freedom is never free and that’s true because Armed Forces are protecting us regularly from external aggression and internal disturbances. Our armed forces have proved their capabilities in this regard. Modernization of armed forces is a continuous process based on eliminating threats, security challenges and technical issues. The military forces of republic of India consists of Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air force. The supreme commander of the Indian armed forces is the President of India.

  • Defense ministry manages the three organizations with changing times and warfare strategies. In the recent introduced budget, around Rs 4.78 lakh crores allocated to ministry of defense.
  • This allocation helps our armed forces to be modernized with the time. As the country emerges as the global power, it must build its military power capability to fight new challenges coming its way.
  • Since we have the 3rd largest army in the world but somewhere we lack in our defense security. We need faster procurement of advanced weapons in view of emerging threats to its security.
  • Some threats like cyber warfare, space warfare, negative use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) etc are need to be tacked through proper modernization techniques.
  • Our Prime Minister addressed on the effective implementation of the provisions of the union budget 2021-22 in the defense sector, urges the private players to come forward and take the responsibility of both designing and manufacturing of equipments.
  • For Proper modernization of armed forces, various deals have occurred like 36 Rafel Jets deal from France, S-400 rifle system from Russia, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) technology adoption from Israel and United States under defense procurement procedure.
  • It is the time when we should boost up these deals and complete the targets. In our armed forces, Navy has very significant capabilities gaps as per maritime capability perspective plan by 2027, India has approved around 200 ships but still need more to cover the targets.
  • Because China is the biggest threat in marine territories for our country. There are various initiatives launched by the government like Capital Acquisition Budget (CAB), it can enhance approximately 64% of its modernization funds in 2021-22.

Conclusion :

MSMEs and starting various startups as defense India startup challenge is one of them. Atmanirbahar bharat and Make in India schemes are very useful to do modernization of armed forces which is the need of the hour. Various organizations are helpful to tackle these challenges such as Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Since government has taken the steps to modernize or to improve the security system, still there is a need to boost the defense Public Sector Units and we have to manufacture our own weapons and equipment so that our country can become the superpower in the world.

Essay on Modernization of Indian Armed Forces

Introduction :

We often say that freedom is never free and that’s true because Armed Forces are protecting us regularly from external aggression and internal disturbances. Our armed forces have proved their capabilities in this regard. Modernization of armed forces is a continuous process based on eliminating threats, security challenges and technical issues. In the recent introduced budget, around Rs 4.7 lakh crores allocated to ministry of defense. This allocation helps our armed forces to be modernized with the time.

  • India is the second largest importer of arms after Saudi Arabia. It affects our military capabilities during war situation.
  • Some threats like cyber warfare, space warfare, negative use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) etc. are need to be tacked through proper modernization techniques.
  • For Proper modernization of armed forces, various deals have occurred like 36 Rafel Jets deal from France, S-400 rifle system from Russia, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) technology adoption from Israel and United States under defense procurement procedure.
  • It is the time when we should boost up these deals and complete the targets. In our armed forces, Navy has very significant capabilities gaps as per maritime capability perspective plan by 2027, India has approved around 200 ships but still need more to cover the targets.
  • Because China is the biggest threat in marine territories for our country. There are various initiatives launched by the government like Capital Acquisition Budget (CAB), it can enhance approximately 64% of its modernization funds in 2021-22.
  • MSMEs and starting various startups as defense India startup challenge is one of them. Atmanirbahar bharat and Make in India schemes are very useful to do modernization of armed forces which is the need of the hour.

Conclusion :

Public Private Partnership (PPP) helps seven proposed projects which worths 2000 crores including major ports operations under Sagarmala Project. Apart from this various challenges hinder our path such as acquisition process of India is very tardy like red tapism, lack of proper industrial base, down grade capabilities of public manufacturing sector etc. Various organizations are helpful to tackle these challenges such as Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) etc. Proper roadmap should be required for upcoming 10 to 15 years regarding defense modernization proper implementation of policies can make India a superpower nation in the world.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces essay in english

Introduction :

The military forces of republic of India consists of Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Airforce. The supreme commander of the Indian armed forces is the President of India. Defense ministry manages the three organizations with changing times and warfare strategies. The defense forces are at utmost need of being modernized to effectively counter the rising challenges along the border and insurgencies beyond the borders. As the country emerges as the global power, it must build its military power capable to fight new challenges coming its way.

  • Since we have the 3rd largest army in the world but somewhere we lack in our defense security. We need faster procurement of advanced weapons in view of emerging threats to its security.

Modernization of the Indian armed forces is very complex process and it focuses on several points-

1) System of command and control.

2) System and equipment that would better protect and provide the safe assistance to the troops.

3) Information system that involves the framework for surveillance of air and marine space.

  • As our PM addressed on the effective implementation of the provisions of the union budget 2021-22 in the defense sector, he urges the private players to come forward and take the responsibility of both designing and manufacturing of equipments.
  • In the current scenario India is the second largest importer of the defense procurement in the world after Soudi Arabia. India has its own advanced weapon system and equipments.

Conclusion :

Total amount of 4.78 crores has been allocated for ministry of defense in the budget with nearly 19% increase in capital outlay. Also Rs 2000 crores worth 7 projects have been proposed in Public Private Partnership in financial year 2021-22. Defense India startup challenges started by the defense ministry shall be lauded. Since government has taken the steps to modernize or to improve the security system, still there is a need to boost the defense Public Sector Units (PSUs) and we have to manufacture our own weapons and equipments. 

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Space Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

India is developing itself into a big technology giant along with the latest technology. India is also proving itself in space technology. Outer space has become a new area of  competition and conflicts between different countries. It is important for us to focus on our space security. With the growth in technological and operational capabilities and the potential for space domain, it is continuously becoming more and more complex area.

  • From seeing space through telescope to sending human being in space, we have come to long way. Over the last few decades, space technology has played an important role in connecting the world.
  • It is used in various sectors like television broadcasting, mobiles phone networks, satellite communications, GPS and meteorology etc.
  • Rapid change in space technology also comes with the danger of attack on it as it is also used for security purposes which raises the concerns.
  • There are many security issues which increases the analysis of space security. 1) The possibility of collision of satellite into the space is rising which leads to conflicts.
  • 2) There is a rapid increase in cyber threats to space assets. 3) There is an increase of space debris. 4) Today weaponisation of space has becomes a big threat to space security.
  • India need not to weaponise the space but at the same time should also not remain behind. Therefore, apart from auxiliary and defensive system, India has established a weaponized system under Mission Shakti.
  • India has tested its first Anti satellite (ASAT) in 2019 during the operation named Mission Shakti. Creation of Defence Space Agency (DSA) and a  space warfare exercise called IndSpaceEx also shows space advancement of India.
  • For protecting Indian satellites  from debris and other hazards, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has launched an early warning system project named NETRA.
  • Under NETRA project, ISRO will put up many observational facilities like telescopes, connected radars, data processing units, and a control center.
  • The United Kingdom (UK) has made a recent proposal called “Reducing Space Threats through Norms, Rules and Principles of Responsible Behaviors”. It is aimed at looking at problems in space through a bottom-up approach. 
  • Countries must reach to a common understanding of basic building blocks of a governance regime such as effective measures to improve safety, security and sustainability of space activities and implementation of transparency etc.

Conclusion :

The government need to invest in developing mutual interest. National Security today is under great stress and the role of technology is very important in the future wars. Today, National Security is not the responsibility of the Armed Forces alone. Space has the potential to provide an edge to our Armed Forces, which would bring a historical change in the National Security policy of India. 

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Technological Development in India

Introduction :

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information. New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.

  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems.
  • The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains. In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable.
  • The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society. Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science.

Conclusion :

When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Essay on India US relationships

Introduction :

“When diplomacy ends, war begins” is a popular statement of Adolf Hitler. It is seen that most of the wars begin due to toxic relationship between two or more nations. That is why the diplomatic relationship is strategically very important for every country.  India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, edu-cation, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health.

  • There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India is a developing country and have a huge market which is a big opportunity for all developed countries like USA.
  • US is also important for India in terms of resolving the issues regarding internal security and terrorism from neighbouring countries.
  • US is a major export hub of India and imports crude oil and hydrocarbons. USA is also a home of around 4 million Indians and we get huge amount of remittance from them.
  • We can also see lots of Indians who took various constitutional post in US government. India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs.
  • Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-China war. US didn’t support India in Bangla-desh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test which is known as Smiling Buddha, at Pokhran.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), also participated in Malabar exercise. A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue between India & US started which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities.
  • However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle. Along with these friendly exchanges, India-US relationship also experiences some toxic movements.

Conclusion :

US regularly point out human rights violation in Kashmir. India’s tariffs on imports are also considered as a hindrance to smoother trade. In international politics, there is no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. As partnership between India and US would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity so both the governments must now try to complete the unfinished agreements regardless of the differences between them.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & India US relations essay in english

Introduction :

India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, education, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health. There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India and the US have thrown off the yoke of colonialism and have drafted the constitution that begins with the same three words : “ We the people”.
—– Barack Obama
Do you know when Christopher Columbus discovered America he actually thought it was India and called them Indians.

  • A partnership between the world’s oldest democracy and the world’s largest democracy is best for both worlds.
  • But India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs. Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-Sino war.
  • US didn’t support India in Bangladesh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test at Pokhran(Code-named: Smiling Buddha).

Convergence in Relations

  • Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement(COMCASA), is a military agreement that allows both the nations to share and completely rely on the encrypted communications and equipment.
  • A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
    Placed Pakistan on the grey-list of the Financial Action Task Force and played a vital role in countering China.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement(BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quad, participated in Malabar exercise.

Divergence in Relations

Trade Deal : Trade has been a major altercation between both countries and US referred India as “tariff king” that imposes “tremendously high” import duties.

US-Pakistan Equation : US has softened its position on Pakistan in the last few months, due to the role Pakistan can play in the Afghan deal (between the US and the Taliban). In return, Pakistan wants the US support.

Internal Issues in India : India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities. However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle.

Conclusion :

In international politics, there are no permanent friends and no permanent enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. India-US relation remains pivotal to reinforce the world order in the 21st century. As partnership would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity the two governments must now strive to complete the unfinished agreements, regardless of the differences and enhance the
US-India ties. 

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.

Conclusion :

Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents. There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

“The purpose of nuclear weapons is to deter. The mission of deterrence to make all parties in possession of nuclear weapons never ever use them” is a very significant statement of Rick Wilson. The nuclear doctrine of India is based on the principle that it will use a nuclear weapon only against retaliation purposes. Nuclear Doctrine based on three pillars which are “No First Use, “Credible Minimum Deterrent” and “Civilian Control”. India’s Nuclear doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent.

  • India became a nuclear power country without signing a non prolife-ration treaty. (1) No First Use : As per the Nuclear doctrine, India conforms to a No First Use Policy when it comes to nuclear weapons.
  • (2) Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nuclear forces, a vigorous command and control system and early warning capabilities.
  • The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivability will be central to India’s nuclear deterrent. The nuclear doctrine demands a highly effective military capability.
  • Nuclear policy in general, is how a country with a nuclear weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful military decision.
  • After independence, a group of Indian scientists led by Homi Bhabha convinced Pt Jawaharlal Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test code named “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II in 1998 for which India faced universal condemnation.
  • The USA said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike. Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons namely the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea.

Conclusion :

Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. The most important aspect of India’s nuclear doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nuclear disarmament. As India has the largest thorium reserves in the world and hence can exceed easily in this sphere. India only lacks in trained human resources and technology required to convert fuel to power and if achieved, then India will become one of the most prosperous nations of the world.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & India’s Nuclear policy essay in english

Introduction :

Our nuclear weapons are meant purely as a deterrent against nuclear adventure by an adversary. —Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons: the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea. India’s Journey from non-nuclear state to nuclear state was challenging. Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. However, India remained pro-nuclear disarmament.

Foreign Policy Experts saw a paradox in India’s Foreign Policy i.e., on one hand, India wanted to develop nuclear weapons and on another hand, India called for global disarmament.

India’s Nuclear-weapons journey

  • Shortly after independence, a group of Indian scientists led by physicist Homi Bhabha convinced Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test codenamed “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan under Indira Gandhi’s leadership. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II on May 11, 1998. India faced universal condemnation in the aftermath of the Pokhran II tests.
  • The United States said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision, the United Kingdom expressed its “displeasure,” and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • In 1999, India came out with an explicit nuclear doctrine emphasising “minimal deterrence, no first use and non-use against non-nuclear weapon states”.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike.
  • India must ensure that deterrence does not fail, and that there is a clear communication to the adversary of the certainty of harsh nuclear retaliation.
  • India’s nuclear doctrine should be periodically reviewed and updated, possibly every decade or so,taking into account technological developments and changes in the security environment.
  • Instead of focusing on adopting a first strike policy, India must work towards strengthening its counter strike and second strike capability.

Conclusion :

India’s third leg, its sea based nuclear deterrence, must be strengthened at the earliest. The Balakot strikes that followed the Pulwama attack demonstrate that the Narendra Modi government is not shy of taking cross-border military action. If another sub-conventional attack, say a terror attack, occurs on Indian soil anytime soon, these theories will likely be
tested. If Indian policymakers do indeed feel the need to review the nation’s nuclear doctrine,
they should be cognizant of the costs involved in so doing.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Long essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

The nucleur doctrine of India is based on the principle that India will only use a nucleur weapon in retaliation to a country’s attempt of attacking India, Its states or uses the weapon in peace and at the time of war. Nuclear Doctrine based on 3 pillars which are “No 1st Use, “Credible minimum deterrent” and “Civillian Control”. India’s Nucleur doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent. It is a consensus document and does not restrict the country from exercising its nucleur weapon option in any manner.

  • India became a nucleur power country without signing a non proliferation treaty which makes it the first country to have accomplished something like this.
  •  No 1st Use : As per the Nucleur doctrine, India conforms to a no 1st Use policy when it comes to nucleur weapons. The theories of no 1st use and deterrence go hand in hand.
    It is universally acknowledged that a nucleur war between 2 nucleur powers would only.
  • Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nucleur forces, a vigorous command and control system, effectual intelligence and early warning capabilities. The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivility will be central to India’s nucleur deterrent. The nucleur doctrine demands a highly effective millitary capability.
  • Nucleur Command Authority : On 4th June, 2003, India unveiled 3 tier NCA to manage Raj Sarkar India’s Nucleur Policy its army with a nucleur weapon.
  • Nucleur policy in general, is how a country with a nucleur weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful millitary decision.
  • NCA comprises political council headed by prime minister, executive council headed by national security advisor to PM and strategic forces command.
  • Strategic forces command (SFC) would be responsible for the administration of the nucleur force and will be tasked with the nucleur weapon.

Conclusion :

SFC is 2nd tri service command in India. The 1st one was set up in Andaman and nicobar islands in 2001.Establishment of NCA will add credibility to nucleur policies in India. The most important aspect of India’s nucleur doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nucleur disarmament. The 5 major nucleur nations are antipathic to relinquishing their monopoly over the production and deployment of Nucleur weapon while denying a similar priviledge to other countries.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & ISRO’s Space Mission

Introduction :

India is fast progressing in the field of space research. It is emerging as a big name in this field. The country is now capable of launching its own spacecraft. Now India has made landmark progress with the launch of Chandrayan for its moon mission. India started its space programme with the launch of first space satellite ‘Aryabhatta’ on April 19, 1975. This space satellite was named after the great Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century, Aryabhatta.

  • India’s space programme is primarily driven by the vision of great scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. He is considered as the Father of Indian Space Programme.
  • The launching of Chandrayan I in 2008 marked a milestone in the history of space technology of India.
  • The spacecraft was launched by PSLV C11 on 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Chandrayaan 2 was launched on July 22, 2019 & made use of the advanced Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III). The craft reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019.
  • Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments.
  • However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory and had lost communication. 

Conclusion :

As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram. India made successive progress in the field of space research. It has now become self-reliant in terms of launching vehicles and telecommunications. Now India offers telecommunication services to other countries as well. Now the country enjoys a respectful position in the countries of the world.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Chandrayaan 2 – ISRO’s Another Milestone

Introduction :

Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that will explore the Moon’s south polar region. It is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It consists of a lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. The main scientific objective is to study the variations in lunar surface composition, as well as the location and abundance of lunar water.

  • The mission was launched on 22 July 2019 by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III. The craft reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019.
  • Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks.
  • However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory and had lost communication. As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram.
  • Both ISRO and NASA are in the process of trying to restore communications through their respective Deep Space Networks.
  • The mission’s lander is called Vikram named after Vikram Sarabhai who is widely regarded as the founder of the Indian space programme.

Conclusion :

The mission’s rover is called Pragyan would have operated on solar power. The rover was to move on 6 wheels traversing 500 meters on the lunar surface, perform on-site analyses and send the data to the lander. Chandrayaan-2 orbiter has located the lander Vikram on the lunar surface and beamed its first picture back to the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Save Energy – Making the world Bright

Introduction :

Energy conservation refers to the efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy. The energy on Earth is not in unlimited supply. Energy can take plenty of time to regenerate. This certainly makes it essential to conserve energy. Energy conservation is achievable either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service usage. Energy conservation plays an important role in saving non-renewable energy resources. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources take many centuries to regenerate.

  • Moreover, humans consume energy at a faster rate than it can be produced. Therefore, energy conservation would lead to the preservation of these precious non-renewable sources of energy.
  • Energy conservation will reduce the expenses related to fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are very expensive. Therefore, consumers are required to pay higher prices for goods and services.
  • Energy conservation would certainly reduce the amount of fossil fuel being mined. This would reduce the costs of consumers.
  • Energy conservation would also strengthen the economy as consumers will have more disposable income to spend on goods and services.
  • Energy conservation is good for scientific research. This is because energy conservation gives researchers plenty of time to conduct researches.
  • These researchers will have more time to come up with various energy solutions and alternatives. Humans must ensure to have fossil fuels as long as possible.
  • This would give enough time to finding practical solutions. Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection.
  • Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection. This is because various energy sources are significantly harmful to the environment.
  • Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels considerably pollutes the atmosphere. Moreover, nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste. Hence, energy conservation will lead to environmental protection.
  • Energy conservation would also result in the good health of humans. The pollution released due to energy sources is harmful to the human body. The air pollution due to fossil fuels can cause various respiratory problems.
  • Another important way of energy conservation is by using energy-efficient products. Energy-efficient products are those that use lesser energy than their normal counterparts.

Conclusion :

One prominent example can be using an energy-efficient LED bulb rather than a normal light bulb. The sun and the winds are always part of our life. And they are abundantly available in many countries. Also, such energy is clean energy which does not emit carbon dioxide, the main culprit in global warming. Today there are many energy- efficient alternatives for all kinds of appliances. So we have the power to make better choices for reducing our consumption of energy. Mahatma Gandhi absolutely right said, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed”. Energy conservation is considered as a quick and economical way to solve the problem of power shortage.

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces & Artificial Intelligence A Threat To Mankind

Introduction :

Artificial Intelligence (AI) indicates the intelligence of machines that is totally different from the natural intelligence of humans and animals. With the advancement in technology now with Artificial Intelligence, machines perform different types of functions such as learning, planning, reasoning, decision making and problem-solving. In short we can say that the ability of a computer or a machine to operate and process information just like a human being is called Artificial Intelligence.

  • It can learn, analyze and adapt to new information. We should also aware of threats that may be caused by Artificial Intelligence. Today we are living in the era of machines.
  • We depend on different types of machines for our daily activities. For example we use AC, microwaves, cameras, computer, traffic lights, fridge etc. that work on Artificial Intelligence. As we are highly depends on AI based machines it may be disastrous for us.
  • AI is making humans lazy as it usually automate the most of our task. Humans tend to get addicted to these machines which can cause a problem to future generations too.
  • Most of the companies are looking to replace the minimum qualified individuals with AI robots which can do similar task with more efficiency.
  • There is no doubt that machines are much better and  work efficiently but they cannot replace the human connection that makes a team. Machines cannot develop a bond with humans which is an essential attribute for team management.
  • Machines can perform only those tasks which they are designed to do, anything out of that they tend to give irrelevant outputs which could be a major drawback.
  • In the hands of the wrong person, autonomous weapons that are designed to kill could easily cause mass destruction. Artificial intelligence will change the way conflicts are fought from autonomous drones, robotic swarms and nanorobot attacks.
  • Moreover, an AI arms race may lead to an AI war that also results in mass casualties. In addition to being concerned with a nuclear arms race, we’ll need to monitor the global autonomous weapons race too.
  • AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren’t designed according to our benefits then its a big problem as there is no emotion in AI based machines.
  • AI’s face recognition capabilities give us conveniences such as being able to unlock phones and gain access to our house without keys.

Conclusion :

AI’s ability to monitor the global information systems from surveillance data, cameras, and network communication has great potential for good and for bad based on our usage. Every new invention has some positive and negative aspects but we should use the positive sides of the invention to create a better world. Some people also say that Artificial intelligence can destroy human civilization if it goes into the wrong hands. But still, none of the AI applications made that can destroy humanity from the earth.

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Essay on Non Conventional Security Threats

Essay on Non Conventional Security Threats in India

Introduction :

“Non conventional security threats are the challenges to the survival and well being of people and states that arises primarily out of non military sources” is a famous statement by Professor MC Anthony. As we are moving towards a better lifestyle and technological advancement, we are facing a lot of non conventional security threats. These threats range from climate change, environmental degradation, resource depletion, illegal migration, food security, cyber crime to health related issues. India’s development has posed many challenges as it has raised the aspiration of people and availability of digital connectivity & cheap data has become a related threat. 

  • There are around 62% youth in India, if their aspirations are not met, it has the potential to cause social conflict, demonstrations and violence in the society.
  • People have realised the power of mass movements and that is something which is exploited from time to time. Crime against women is catching consciousness and there is a lot of resentment against the slow justice system in India.
  • There has been a tendency to use violence for political influence. Mobs have been taking the law into their hands to punish individuals with they think not following their way of life.
  • Due to the over population, there is a huge burden on limited food resources. India occupies 94th rank in global hunger index, which shows the gap of food supply.
  • Cyber domain is also posing lots of challenges of cyber security, data threats, fake identities and frauds. Ransomware continues to remain a major threat.
  • Climate change is another non conventional security threat. Heavy use of vehicles increasing the rate of pollution which leads to change in our climate cycle.
  • It results in melting of glaciers before time and uncertainty of weather. Social insecurity is also considered as a non conventional security threat. Different people have different types of customs & traditions, cultures, religions and languages.
  • When these aspects are in danger of any minority group then their identity is threatened. To tackle these issues government has taken many initiatives like creating National Cyber Security Agency (NCSA) for cyber crime, POSHAN Abhiyan for malnutrition, followed Kyoto Protocol to reduce CO2 to save environment, adopting Denmark model for water crisis and ‘Catch the Rain’ campaign for saving rain water etc.

Conclusion :

More emphasis should be taken on sustainable development and resource management programs. Proper health institutions and research centers must be established so that epidemic like Covid-19 can be detected earlier and measures should be taken in advance. It is time to stand together for non conventional security threats as these are more dangerous than any other threats. So people also work together because “good people don’t need laws to tell them to act responsibly.” said by Dalai Lama

Internal Security Challenges In India essay in english :

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essay on Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Social Media as Internal Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on farm bill 2020 pros and cons

Introduction :

The Farmers Bills 2020 is consist of three agricultural bills passed by the central government in September 2020. It includes the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, Farmers Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities Bill. These Bills will develop a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. This bill will also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • This agriculture Bill provides a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It will be beneficial for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land.
  • The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings but the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their crops directly to large buyers.
  • It will also give the farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply should also made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce.

Conclusion :

The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. The government should take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

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Covid-19 Second Wave Impacts & Solution Essay

Covid-19 Second Wave Impacts & Solution Essay

Introduction :

“Those who don’t learn from history are doomed to repeat it,” is a great statement of George Santayana, one of the great thinkers of the twentieth century. Covid-19 has proved this statement. Today, millions of people are suffering from the causes given by Covid-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown. Many people are suffering from stress and depression due to failure of business and economic recession. The second Covid-19 wave has hit India with great ferocity. Family members, friends and colleagues are infected, hospitals are flooded with patients.

  • There is shortage of beds and ventilators for Covid 19 in most of the hospitals. There are again curfews and lockdown in the cities. In India, the number of Covid-19 infections touched its peak in September 2020.
  • Again a sudden spike in the cases has seen from April, 2021. In the second wave, the virus is spreading with the double pace as compared to the first wave.
  • Covid-19 has exposed the vulnerabilities of healthcare system and the second wave has hit it hard and thus making the situation even worse.
  • In many states there are shortage of hospital beds, oxygen supply, medicines supply and even there is no space for morgues and crematorium.
  • It clearly demonstrate the shortage of healthcare infrastructure in terms of doctors, medical equipment, healthcare workers and even hospitals.
  • The vulnerable section of the society i.e. the unorganized sector mostly who are daily wage workers, have become the victim of the second wave again.
  • India is suffering from the neat recession in these days, however in the initial months of this year, there was seen minor positive growth in the economy.
  • In the initial phrase of outbreak, most of the schools and educational institutions were closed and students are regularly facing new challenges with digital learning in India.
  • Hoarding  of oxygen cylinders, poor implement-tation of new educational policy, insufficient health infrastructure and increasing rate of unemployment are the major challenges in India.
  • Strict laws should be made against hoarding and restricting any kind of health related equipment and medications. There should be more focus on preventive measures like social distancing, wearing of mask properly and obeying lockdown.

Conclusion :

The government has announced various measures to tackle the situation from food security to extra funds for healthcare. Mass vaccination is the only safe and reliable method to end the pandemic. As majority of healthcare and frontier workers in India have already vaccinated and now registrations are opened for rest of the public. The participation of public is the key to control the second wave and everyone should follow the guidelines provided by the government to cut the chain of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Essay on Covid 19 vaccine in english

Introduction :

The Government of India has approved the Covid-19 vaccines developed by Astra-Zeneca and Bharat Biotech named Covishield and Covaxin respectively. Seeing this our PM Modi has launched the COVID-19 vaccination drive on 16th January, 2021 which can save millions of lives every year. This is the world’s largest vaccination program covering the entire country. During the launch of this drive a total of 3006 sites in all States and UTs have been virtually connected.

  • Although India don’t need to vaccinate its entire population, it just have to vaccinate at least 30 to 40% of the people.
  • It is estimated that a minimum of 1 billion doses of Covid-19 vaccines will be required for full immunization.
  • The vaccine has introduced in phrased manner. In first phrase, the vaccine is provided to healthcare workers like doctors, nurses and other medical staff both in government and private sectors.
  • Because they treat and are in close contact with those who are infected with Covid-19. Then it will be provided to police, armed forces, municipal workers and other departmental staffs.
  • In third phase, people above 50 years of age and those patient who have diabetes, hypertension and organ transplant will get the vaccine. After that, the vaccine will be given to healthy adults, teenagers and children.

Conclusion :

The central government is incurring the cost for vaccinating the core healthcare and frontier workers. For further vaccination process, the government has also developed an application named CoWIN, which will help provide real time information of vaccine stocks, storage and individualized tracking of beneficiaries for COVID-19 vaccine. The Vaccination for Covid-19 is voluntary in India. It is a safe and effective way of protecting people against this disease. Vaccines reduce risks of getting diseases by working with our body’s immune system.

 

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COVID- 19 : Changing Social Norms in India :

Introduction :

The world is facing the biggest crisis in the form of coronavirus pandemic. Almost every country has been affected by the COVID-19. Over 115 million people had been affected by COVID-19 and about 2.54 million people had died worldwide.  And indirectly billions of people have been suffering from the impact of this pandemic. As vaccines are being available now but still, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as regularly washing of hands, social distancing and wearing of masks.

  • India has successfully controlled the transmission of COVID-19 by its well coordinated efforts.
  • India’s progress in pharmaceuticals and mass public awareness with the help of digital systems indeed helped in controlling the spread of this disease.
  • There are still many ways by which the COVID-19 can affect our economy, of which the disruption of supply chains is the major challenge.
  • Job loss is on the rise along with the slowdown in manufacturing and services activities in India.  
  • Millions of agricultural workers, regularly facing high levels of uncertainty, poverty, malnutrition and poor health, and suffer from a lack of safety and labour protection.
  • With low and irregular incomes and lack of social support, many of them are forced to continue working, often in unsafe conditions.
  • Further, when experiencing income losses, they may resort to negative coping strategies, such as distress sale of assets, taking loans or child labour. The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers in many ways.
  • Several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back.
  • Since then, the government has announced relief measures for them, and made arrangements like running special trains and buses to help them to return to their native places.
  • At the same time, many countries undertake new reforms to strengthen the digital economy and e-commerce not only to manage the Covid-19 pandemic but also to facilitate trade & commence.

Conclusion :

COVID-19 crisis also opens the doors of opportunities in India as we witness better healthcare both in management and facilities. New social norms have been introduced like social distancing, wearing masks, maintaining hygiene for protecting us against the Covid-19. People who are ill with Covid-19 need doses of new vaccine, which save their lives and speed up recovery. Healthcare professional should be appreciated as instead of a lot of difficulties they do their best to maintain the quality of healthcare services.

 

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Essay on Space Security Challenges in India

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

India is developing itself into a big technology giant along with the latest technology. India is also proving itself in space technology. Outer space has become a new area of  competition and conflicts between different countries. It is important for us to focus on our space security. With the growth in technological and operational capabilities and the potential for space domain, it is continuously becoming more and more complex area.

  • From seeing space through telescope to sending human being in space, we have come to long way. Over the last few decades, space technology has played an important role in connecting the world.
  • It is used in various sectors like television broadcasting, mobiles phone networks, satellite communications, GPS and meteorology etc.
  • Rapid change in space technology also comes with the danger of attack on it as it is also used for security purposes which raises the concerns.
  • There are many security issues which increases the analysis of space security. 1) The possibility of collision of satellite into the space is rising which leads to conflicts.
  • 2) There is a rapid increase in cyber threats to space assets. 3) There is an increase of space debris. 4) Today weaponisation of space has becomes a big threat to space security.
  • India need not to weaponise the space but at the same time should also not remain behind. Therefore, apart from auxiliary and defensive system, India has established a weaponized system under Mission Shakti.
  • India has tested its first Anti satellite (ASAT) in 2019 during the operation named Mission Shakti. Creation of Defence Space Agency (DSA) and a  space warfare exercise called IndSpaceEx also shows space advancement of India.
  • For protecting Indian satellites  from debris and other hazards, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has launched an early warning system project named NETRA.
  • Under NETRA project, ISRO will put up many observational facilities like telescopes, connected radars, data processing units, and a control center.
  • The United Kingdom (UK) has made a recent proposal called “Reducing Space Threats through Norms, Rules and Principles of Responsible Behaviors”. It is aimed at looking at problems in space through a bottom-up approach. 
  • Countries must reach to a common understanding of basic building blocks of a governance regime such as effective measures to improve safety, security and sustainability of space activities and implementation of transparency etc.

Conclusion :

The government need to invest in developing mutual interest. National Security today is under great stress and the role of technology is very important in the future wars. Today, National Security is not the responsibility of the Armed Forces alone. Space has the potential to provide an edge to our Armed Forces, which would bring a historical change in the National Security policy of India. 

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Technological Development in India

Introduction :

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information. New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.

  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems.
  • The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains. In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable.
  • The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society. Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science.

Conclusion :

When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Essay on India US relationships

Introduction :

“When diplomacy ends, war begins” is a popular statement of Adolf Hitler. It is seen that most of the wars begin due to toxic relationship between two or more nations. That is why the diplomatic relationship is strategically very important for every country.  India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, edu-cation, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health.

  • There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India is a developing country and have a huge market which is a big opportunity for all developed countries like USA.
  • US is also important for India in terms of resolving the issues regarding internal security and terrorism from neighbouring countries.
  • US is a major export hub of India and imports crude oil and hydrocarbons. USA is also a home of around 4 million Indians and we get huge amount of remittance from them.
  • We can also see lots of Indians who took various constitutional post in US government. India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs.
  • Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-China war. US didn’t support India in Bangla-desh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test which is known as Smiling Buddha, at Pokhran.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), also participated in Malabar exercise. A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue between India & US started which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities.
  • However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle. Along with these friendly exchanges, India-US relationship also experiences some toxic movements.

Conclusion :

US regularly point out human rights violation in Kashmir. India’s tariffs on imports are also considered as a hindrance to smoother trade. In international politics, there is no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. As partnership between India and US would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity so both the governments must now try to complete the unfinished agreements regardless of the differences between them.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs India US relations essay in english

Introduction :

India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, education, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health. There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India and the US have thrown off the yoke of colonialism and have drafted the constitution that begins with the same three words : “ We the people”.
—– Barack Obama
Do you know when Christopher Columbus discovered America he actually thought it was India and called them Indians.

  • A partnership between the world’s oldest democracy and the world’s largest democracy is best for both worlds.
  • But India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs. Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-Sino war.
  • US didn’t support India in Bangladesh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test at Pokhran(Code-named: Smiling Buddha).

Convergence in Relations

  • Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement(COMCASA), is a military agreement that allows both the nations to share and completely rely on the encrypted communications and equipment.
  • A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
    Placed Pakistan on the grey-list of the Financial Action Task Force and played a vital role in countering China.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement(BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quad, participated in Malabar exercise.

Divergence in Relations

Trade Deal : Trade has been a major altercation between both countries and US referred India as “tariff king” that imposes “tremendously high” import duties.

US-Pakistan Equation : US has softened its position on Pakistan in the last few months, due to the role Pakistan can play in the Afghan deal (between the US and the Taliban). In return, Pakistan wants the US support.

Internal Issues in India : India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities. However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle.

Conclusion :

In international politics, there are no permanent friends and no permanent enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. India-US relation remains pivotal to reinforce the world order in the 21st century. As partnership would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity the two governments must now strive to complete the unfinished agreements, regardless of the differences and enhance the
US-India ties. 

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.

Conclusion :

Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents. There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

“The purpose of nuclear weapons is to deter. The mission of deterrence to make all parties in possession of nuclear weapons never ever use them” is a very significant statement of Rick Wilson. The nuclear doctrine of India is based on the principle that it will use a nuclear weapon only against retaliation purposes. Nuclear Doctrine based on three pillars which are “No First Use, “Credible Minimum Deterrent” and “Civilian Control”. India’s Nuclear doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent.

  • India became a nuclear power country without signing a non prolife-ration treaty. (1) No First Use : As per the Nuclear doctrine, India conforms to a No First Use Policy when it comes to nuclear weapons.
  • (2) Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nuclear forces, a vigorous command and control system and early warning capabilities.
  • The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivability will be central to India’s nuclear deterrent. The nuclear doctrine demands a highly effective military capability.
  • Nuclear policy in general, is how a country with a nuclear weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful military decision.
  • After independence, a group of Indian scientists led by Homi Bhabha convinced Pt Jawaharlal Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test code named “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II in 1998 for which India faced universal condemnation.
  • The USA said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike. Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons namely the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea.

Conclusion :

Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. The most important aspect of India’s nuclear doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nuclear disarmament. As India has the largest thorium reserves in the world and hence can exceed easily in this sphere. India only lacks in trained human resources and technology required to convert fuel to power and if achieved, then India will become one of the most prosperous nations of the world.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs India’s Nuclear policy essay in english

Introduction :

Our nuclear weapons are meant purely as a deterrent against nuclear adventure by an adversary. —Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Nine countries currently have nuclear weapons: the US, UK, Russia, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea. India’s Journey from non-nuclear state to nuclear state was challenging. Acquisition of nuclear technology could help alleviate the country’s energy needs, sustain its economic development and to protect Indian territory from rivals. However, India remained pro-nuclear disarmament.

Foreign Policy Experts saw a paradox in India’s Foreign Policy i.e., on one hand, India wanted to develop nuclear weapons and on another hand, India called for global disarmament.

India’s Nuclear-weapons journey

  • Shortly after independence, a group of Indian scientists led by physicist Homi Bhabha convinced Nehru to invest in the development of nuclear energy in 1947.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test codenamed “Smiling Buddha” at Pokhran in Rajasthan under Indira Gandhi’s leadership. This test was announced to the world as a Peaceful test.
  • India tested five nuclear devices with code named “Operation Shakti” also known as Pokhran II on May 11, 1998. India faced universal condemnation in the aftermath of the Pokhran II tests.
  • The United States said it was “deeply disappointed” in India’s decision, the United Kingdom expressed its “displeasure,” and Germany called the tests “a slap in the face” of the countries.
  • In 1999, India came out with an explicit nuclear doctrine emphasising “minimal deterrence, no first use and non-use against non-nuclear weapon states”.
  • Today, the civilian Nuclear Command Authority chaired by the prime minister has sole authority to authorize a nuclear strike.
  • India must ensure that deterrence does not fail, and that there is a clear communication to the adversary of the certainty of harsh nuclear retaliation.
  • India’s nuclear doctrine should be periodically reviewed and updated, possibly every decade or so,taking into account technological developments and changes in the security environment.
  • Instead of focusing on adopting a first strike policy, India must work towards strengthening its counter strike and second strike capability.

Conclusion :

India’s third leg, its sea based nuclear deterrence, must be strengthened at the earliest. The Balakot strikes that followed the Pulwama attack demonstrate that the Narendra Modi government is not shy of taking cross-border military action. If another sub-conventional attack, say a terror attack, occurs on Indian soil anytime soon, these theories will likely be
tested. If Indian policymakers do indeed feel the need to review the nation’s nuclear doctrine,
they should be cognizant of the costs involved in so doing.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Long essay on India’s Nuclear policy

Introduction :

The nucleur doctrine of India is based on the principle that India will only use a nucleur weapon in retaliation to a country’s attempt of attacking India, Its states or uses the weapon in peace and at the time of war. Nuclear Doctrine based on 3 pillars which are “No 1st Use, “Credible minimum deterrent” and “Civillian Control”. India’s Nucleur doctrine is the most responsible doctrine which aims at providing the minimum credible deterrent. It is a consensus document and does not restrict the country from exercising its nucleur weapon option in any manner.

  • India became a nucleur power country without signing a non proliferation treaty which makes it the first country to have accomplished something like this.
  •  No 1st Use : As per the Nucleur doctrine, India conforms to a no 1st Use policy when it comes to nucleur weapons. The theories of no 1st use and deterrence go hand in hand.
    It is universally acknowledged that a nucleur war between 2 nucleur powers would only.
  • Credible minimum deterrent :  Its concept includes sufficient survivable and operationally prepared nucleur forces, a vigorous command and control system, effectual intelligence and early warning capabilities. The principles of credibility, effectiveness and survivility will be central to India’s nucleur deterrent. The nucleur doctrine demands a highly effective millitary capability.
  • Nucleur Command Authority : On 4th June, 2003, India unveiled 3 tier NCA to manage Raj Sarkar India’s Nucleur Policy its army with a nucleur weapon.
  • Nucleur policy in general, is how a country with a nucleur weapon lead to disastrous losses for both sides and would not amount to any meaningful millitary decision.
  • NCA comprises political council headed by prime minister, executive council headed by national security advisor to PM and strategic forces command.
  • Strategic forces command (SFC) would be responsible for the administration of the nucleur force and will be tasked with the nucleur weapon.

Conclusion :

SFC is 2nd tri service command in India. The 1st one was set up in Andaman and nicobar islands in 2001.Establishment of NCA will add credibility to nucleur policies in India. The most important aspect of India’s nucleur doctrine is that it is majorly linked to a continued commitment to total nucleur disarmament. The 5 major nucleur nations are antipathic to relinquishing their monopoly over the production and deployment of Nucleur weapon while denying a similar priviledge to other countries.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs ISRO’s Space Mission

Introduction :

India is fast progressing in the field of space research. It is emerging as a big name in this field. The country is now capable of launching its own spacecraft. Now India has made landmark progress with the launch of Chandrayan for its moon mission. India started its space programme with the launch of first space satellite ‘Aryabhatta’ on April 19, 1975. This space satellite was named after the great Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century, Aryabhatta.

  • India’s space programme is primarily driven by the vision of great scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. He is considered as the Father of Indian Space Programme.
  • The launching of Chandrayan I in 2008 marked a milestone in the history of space technology of India.
  • The spacecraft was launched by PSLV C11 on 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Chandrayaan 2 was launched on July 22, 2019 & made use of the advanced Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III). The craft reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019.
  • Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments.
  • However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory and had lost communication. 

Conclusion :

As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram. India made successive progress in the field of space research. It has now become self-reliant in terms of launching vehicles and telecommunications. Now India offers telecommunication services to other countries as well. Now the country enjoys a respectful position in the countries of the world.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Chandrayaan 2 – ISRO’s Another Milestone

Introduction :

Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that will explore the Moon’s south polar region. It is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It consists of a lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. The main scientific objective is to study the variations in lunar surface composition, as well as the location and abundance of lunar water.

  • The mission was launched on 22 July 2019 by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III. The craft reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019.
  • Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks.
  • However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory and had lost communication. As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram.
  • Both ISRO and NASA are in the process of trying to restore communications through their respective Deep Space Networks.
  • The mission’s lander is called Vikram named after Vikram Sarabhai who is widely regarded as the founder of the Indian space programme.

Conclusion :

The mission’s rover is called Pragyan would have operated on solar power. The rover was to move on 6 wheels traversing 500 meters on the lunar surface, perform on-site analyses and send the data to the lander. Chandrayaan-2 orbiter has located the lander Vikram on the lunar surface and beamed its first picture back to the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Save Energy – Making the world Bright

Introduction :

Energy conservation refers to the efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy. The energy on Earth is not in unlimited supply. Energy can take plenty of time to regenerate. This certainly makes it essential to conserve energy. Energy conservation is achievable either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service usage. Energy conservation plays an important role in saving non-renewable energy resources. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources take many centuries to regenerate.

  • Moreover, humans consume energy at a faster rate than it can be produced. Therefore, energy conservation would lead to the preservation of these precious non-renewable sources of energy.
  • Energy conservation will reduce the expenses related to fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are very expensive. Therefore, consumers are required to pay higher prices for goods and services.
  • Energy conservation would certainly reduce the amount of fossil fuel being mined. This would reduce the costs of consumers.
  • Energy conservation would also strengthen the economy as consumers will have more disposable income to spend on goods and services.
  • Energy conservation is good for scientific research. This is because energy conservation gives researchers plenty of time to conduct researches.
  • These researchers will have more time to come up with various energy solutions and alternatives. Humans must ensure to have fossil fuels as long as possible.
  • This would give enough time to finding practical solutions. Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection.
  • Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection. This is because various energy sources are significantly harmful to the environment.
  • Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels considerably pollutes the atmosphere. Moreover, nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste. Hence, energy conservation will lead to environmental protection.
  • Energy conservation would also result in the good health of humans. The pollution released due to energy sources is harmful to the human body. The air pollution due to fossil fuels can cause various respiratory problems.
  • Another important way of energy conservation is by using energy-efficient products. Energy-efficient products are those that use lesser energy than their normal counterparts.

Conclusion :

One prominent example can be using an energy-efficient LED bulb rather than a normal light bulb. The sun and the winds are always part of our life. And they are abundantly available in many countries. Also, such energy is clean energy which does not emit carbon dioxide, the main culprit in global warming. Today there are many energy- efficient alternatives for all kinds of appliances. So we have the power to make better choices for reducing our consumption of energy. Mahatma Gandhi absolutely right said, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed”. Energy conservation is considered as a quick and economical way to solve the problem of power shortage.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Artificial Intelligence A Threat To Mankind

Introduction :

Artificial Intelligence (AI) indicates the intelligence of machines that is totally different from the natural intelligence of humans and animals. With the advancement in technology now with Artificial Intelligence, machines perform different types of functions such as learning, planning, reasoning, decision making and problem-solving. In short we can say that the ability of a computer or a machine to operate and process information just like a human being is called Artificial Intelligence.

  • It can learn, analyze and adapt to new information. We should also aware of threats that may be caused by Artificial Intelligence. Today we are living in the era of machines.
  • We depend on different types of machines for our daily activities. For example we use AC, microwaves, cameras, computer, traffic lights, fridge etc. that work on Artificial Intelligence. As we are highly depends on AI based machines it may be disastrous for us.
  • AI is making humans lazy as it usually automate the most of our task. Humans tend to get addicted to these machines which can cause a problem to future generations too.
  • Most of the companies are looking to replace the minimum qualified individuals with AI robots which can do similar task with more efficiency.
  • There is no doubt that machines are much better and  work efficiently but they cannot replace the human connection that makes a team. Machines cannot develop a bond with humans which is an essential attribute for team management.
  • Machines can perform only those tasks which they are designed to do, anything out of that they tend to give irrelevant outputs which could be a major drawback.
  • In the hands of the wrong person, autonomous weapons that are designed to kill could easily cause mass destruction. Artificial intelligence will change the way conflicts are fought from autonomous drones, robotic swarms and nanorobot attacks.
  • Moreover, an AI arms race may lead to an AI war that also results in mass casualties. In addition to being concerned with a nuclear arms race, we’ll need to monitor the global autonomous weapons race too.
  • AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren’t designed according to our benefits then its a big problem as there is no emotion in AI based machines.
  • AI’s face recognition capabilities give us conveniences such as being able to unlock phones and gain access to our house without keys.

Conclusion :

AI’s ability to monitor the global information systems from surveillance data, cameras, and network communication has great potential for good and for bad based on our usage. Every new invention has some positive and negative aspects but we should use the positive sides of the invention to create a better world. Some people also say that Artificial intelligence can destroy human civilization if it goes into the wrong hands. But still, none of the AI applications made that can destroy humanity from the earth.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces in english

Introduction :

We often say that freedom is never free and that’s true because Armed Forces are protecting us regularly from external aggression and internal disturbances. Our armed forces have proved their capabilities in this regard. Modernization of armed forces is a continuous process based on eliminating threats, security challenges and technical issues. The military forces of republic of India consists of Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air force. The supreme commander of the Indian armed forces is the President of India.

  • Defense ministry manages the three organizations with changing times and warfare strategies. In the recent introduced budget, around Rs 4.78 lakh crores allocated to ministry of defense.
  • This allocation helps our armed forces to be modernized with the time. As the country emerges as the global power, it must build its military power capability to fight new challenges coming its way.
  • Since we have the 3rd largest army in the world but somewhere we lack in our defense security. We need faster procurement of advanced weapons in view of emerging threats to its security.
  • Some threats like cyber warfare, space warfare, negative use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) etc are need to be tacked through proper modernization techniques.
  • Our Prime Minister addressed on the effective implementation of the provisions of the union budget 2021-22 in the defense sector, urges the private players to come forward and take the responsibility of both designing and manufacturing of equipments.
  • For Proper modernization of armed forces, various deals have occurred like 36 Rafel Jets deal from France, S-400 rifle system from Russia, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) technology adoption from Israel and United States under defense procurement procedure.
  • It is the time when we should boost up these deals and complete the targets. In our armed forces, Navy has very significant capabilities gaps as per maritime capability perspective plan by 2027, India has approved around 200 ships but still need more to cover the targets.
  • Because China is the biggest threat in marine territories for our country. There are various initiatives launched by the government like Capital Acquisition Budget (CAB), it can enhance approximately 64% of its modernization funds in 2021-22.

Conclusion :

MSMEs and starting various startups as defense India startup challenge is one of them. Atmanirbahar bharat and Make in India schemes are very useful to do modernization of armed forces which is the need of the hour. Various organizations are helpful to tackle these challenges such as Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Since government has taken the steps to modernize or to improve the security system, still there is a need to boost the defense Public Sector Units and we have to manufacture our own weapons and equipment so that our country can become the superpower in the world.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs Modernization of Indian Armed Forces

Introduction :

We often say that freedom is never free and that’s true because Armed Forces are protecting us regularly from external aggression and internal disturbances. Our armed forces have proved their capabilities in this regard. Modernization of armed forces is a continuous process based on eliminating threats, security challenges and technical issues. In the recent introduced budget, around Rs 4.7 lakh crores allocated to ministry of defense. This allocation helps our armed forces to be modernized with the time.

  • India is the second largest importer of arms after Saudi Arabia. It affects our military capabilities during war situation.
  • Some threats like cyber warfare, space warfare, negative use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) etc. are need to be tacked through proper modernization techniques.
  • For Proper modernization of armed forces, various deals have occurred like 36 Rafel Jets deal from France, S-400 rifle system from Russia, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) technology adoption from Israel and United States under defense procurement procedure.
  • It is the time when we should boost up these deals and complete the targets. In our armed forces, Navy has very significant capabilities gaps as per maritime capability perspective plan by 2027, India has approved around 200 ships but still need more to cover the targets.
  • Because China is the biggest threat in marine territories for our country. There are various initiatives launched by the government like Capital Acquisition Budget (CAB), it can enhance approximately 64% of its modernization funds in 2021-22.
  • MSMEs and starting various startups as defense India startup challenge is one of them. Atmanirbahar bharat and Make in India schemes are very useful to do modernization of armed forces which is the need of the hour.

Conclusion :

Public Private Partnership (PPP) helps seven proposed projects which worths 2000 crores including major ports operations under Sagarmala Project. Apart from this various challenges hinder our path such as acquisition process of India is very tardy like red tapism, lack of proper industrial base, down grade capabilities of public manufacturing sector etc. Various organizations are helpful to tackle these challenges such as Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) etc. Proper roadmap should be required for upcoming 10 to 15 years regarding defense modernization proper implementation of policies can make India a superpower nation in the world.

Essay on Space Security Challenges in India Vs

Modernization of Indian Armed Forces essay in english

Introduction :

The military forces of republic of India consists of Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Airforce. The supreme commander of the Indian armed forces is the President of India. Defense ministry manages the three organizations with changing times and warfare strategies. The defense forces are at utmost need of being modernized to effectively counter the rising challenges along the border and insurgencies beyond the borders. As the country emerges as the global power, it must build its military power capable to fight new challenges coming its way.

  • Since we have the 3rd largest army in the world but somewhere we lack in our defense security. We need faster procurement of advanced weapons in view of emerging threats to its security.

Modernization of the Indian armed forces is very complex process and it focuses on several points-

1) System of command and control.

2) System and equipment that would better protect and provide the safe assistance to the troops.

3) Information system that involves the framework for surveillance of air and marine space.

  • As our PM addressed on the effective implementation of the provisions of the union budget 2021-22 in the defense sector, he urges the private players to come forward and take the responsibility of both designing and manufacturing of equipments.
  • In the current scenario India is the second largest importer of the defense procurement in the world after Soudi Arabia. India has its own advanced weapon system and equipments.

Conclusion :

Total amount of 4.78 crores has been allocated for ministry of defense in the budget with nearly 19% increase in capital outlay. Also Rs 2000 crores worth 7 projects have been proposed in Public Private Partnership in financial year 2021-22. Defense India startup challenges started by the defense ministry shall be lauded. Since government has taken the steps to modernize or to improve the security system, still there is a need to boost the defense Public Sector Units (PSUs) and we have to manufacture our own weapons and equipments. 

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Migrant workers during lockdown essay

Migrant workers during lockdown essay in english 

Introduction :

Migrant workers are the persons who migrate within their home country or outside it for work. Migrant workers do not have the intention to stay permanently in the place where they work. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 24, has caused immense distress to migrant workers around the country. Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. These workers during the coronavirus pandemic have faced multiple hardships.

  • With the closure of factories and workplaces due to the lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty.
  • Lakhs of these workers began walking back home, without means of transport due to the lockdown. In response, the Government took various measures to help them, and later arranged transport for them.
  • The major states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi and Kerala are trying to minimise the loss of labour and are prime states for ‘unlocking’ of economic activity.
  • The government has also launched an employment scheme named ‘Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan’ implementing on a mission mode in 125 days in 116 districts of six states – Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.

Conclusion :

The scheme was launched after lakhs of migrant workers returned to their home states following loss of employment in urban areas due to the nationwide lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19. The government has already announced schemes like ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ to enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country. But they also need cash for their day-to-day needs.

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Long essay on Migrant workers during lockdown essay Vs Covid-19 Pandemic in India

Introduction :

A migrant worker is a person who migrates within their home country or outside it for work. Migrant workers do not have the intention to stay permanently in the place where they work. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 24, has caused immense distress to migrant workers around the country. Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. Indian migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced multiple hardships. With the closure of factories and workplaces due to the lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty. 

  • Thousands of them, began walking back home, with no means of transport due to the lockdown. In response, the Government took various measures to help them, and later arranged transport for them.
  • The major states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi and Kerala are trying to minimise the loss of labour and are prime states for ‘unlocking’ of economic activity.
  • According to the 2011 Census, there are 41 million interstate migrants in India who migrate to other states due to the lack of work opportunities in their home state.
  • Poorer, less educated, and from socially disadvantaged communities, survival draws these migrants to the cities. Meagre pay, extended working hours, and unsafe work conditions characterise their exploited labour.
  • Covid-19 renders most of them jobless in cities with crushing rents and no access to food or water. Without employment, city life is so burdensome that many risk returning to the safety of their villages, in some cases even at the cost of their lives. 
  • The disproportionate impact of state policy also breaches the right to equality under Article 14 of the Constitution and imposes a corresponding duty on the government to mitigate negative effects.
  • The government has also launched an employment scheme named ‘Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan’ implementing on a mission mode in 125 days in 116 districts of six states – Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • The scheme was launched after lakhs of migrant workers returned to their home states following loss of employment in urban areas due to the nationwide lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19.

Conclusion :

In the long term, India should work towards reducing migrant workers’ vulnerability by amending labour laws. Such amendments should align migrant workers’ conditions with other unorganised sector workers, while also developing norms for food security, repatriation and wage safety in times of emergency. While emergency solutions are urgent, they must pave the way to address more fundamental issues in migrant worker-dominated sectors. The government has already announced schemes like ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ to enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country. But they also need cash for their day-to-day needs.

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Life During Covid 19 Pandemic

Introduction :

COVID-19 has affected our day to day life. The corona virus pandemic has already affected thousands of peoples who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems. This, being a new viral disease affecting people for the first time, vaccines are also not yet available.

  • Hence, the focus is on taking extensive precautions such as extensive hygiene, regularly washing of hands, avoidance of face to face interaction, social distancing, and wearing of masks etc.
  • For controlling the spread identification of this virus at an early stage is very important because it very rapidly spreads from person to person. Most of the countries have slowed down their manufacturing of the products.
  • This pandemic had affected various industries including the pharmaceuticals industry, power sector and tourism. This virus creates drastic effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as on the global economy.
  • There are restrictions of travelling from one country to another country.  A large numbers of cases are identified positive when tested during travelling, especially when they are taking international visits.

Conclusion :

The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers, several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back. For this, the govt has announced relief measures for migrants, and made arrangements to return to their native places. The Govts, health organizations and other authorities are continuously focusing on identifying the cases affected by the COVID-19. Healthcare professional face lot of difficulties in maintaining the quality of healthcare in these days.

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Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Long essay on Life in Covid-19 Pandemic

Introduction :

COVID-19 has affected our day to day life. This pandemic has affected thousands of peoples, who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems. This, being a new viral disease affecting people for the first time, vaccines are being available now but still, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as extensive hygiene, regularly washing of hands, avoidance of face to face interaction, social distancing, and wearing of masks etc.

  • Identification of the disease at an early stage is vital to control the spread of the virus because it very rapidly spreads from person to person.
  • Most of the countries have slowed down their manufacturing of the products. The pandemic has been affecting the entire food system.
  • Trade restrictions and confinement measures have been preventing farmers from accessing markets, including for buying inputs and selling their produce, and agricultural workers from harvesting crops, thus disrupting domestic and international food supply chains and reducing access to healthy, safe and diverse diets.
  • The pandemic has impacted jobs and placed millions of livelihoods at risk. As common man lose jobs, fall ill and die, the food security and nutrition of millions of women and men are under threat, with those in low-income countries, particularly the most marginalized populations, which include small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples, being hardest hit.
  • The various industries and sectors are affected by the cause of this disease including the pharmaceuticals industry, power sector and tourism.
  • Millions of agricultural workers waged and self-employed, regularly face high levels of working poverty, malnutrition and poor health, and suffer from a lack of safety and labour protection.
  • With low and irregular incomes and lack of social support, many of them are forced to continue working, often in unsafe conditions, thus exposing themselves and their families to additional risks.
  • Further, when experiencing income losses, they may resort to negative coping strategies, such as distress sale of assets, taking loans or child labour.
  • Migrant agricultural workers are particularly vulnerable, because they face risks in their transport, working and living conditions and struggle to access support measures put in place by governments.
  • This virus creates drastic effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as on the global economy.
  • There are restrictions of travelling from one country to another country. During travelling, numbers of cases are identified positive when tested, especially when they are taking international visits.

Conclusion :

The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers, several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back.  Since then, the government has announced relief measures for migrants, and made arrangements to return to their native places. All governments, health organizations and other authorities are continuously focusing on identifying the cases affected by the COVID-19. Healthcare professional face lot of difficulties in maintaining the quality of healthcare in these days.

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Mental Health – A growing Issue in India

Introduction :

Gandhi Ji once said, “It is the health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver”. This statement indicates the importance of health in our life. People normally focus on their physical healthy and ignore the fitness of mind. But the fact is that mental health is as important as physical health. We can control our life due to our highly developed brain. So, it becomes very important for us to keep our body and mind fit and healthy for better performance and result. There are many factors that have great impact on our fitness level such as depression, aggression, negative thinking, frustration and fear.

  • A mentally healthy person is always in a good mood and can easily manage situations of distress and depressions. Mental fitness denotes having a positivity in feeling and thinking that improves our ability to enjoy life.
  • It is a positive term and give up negative thoughts that come to our mind. The term mental fitness is being used by psychologists, schools, organizations and the general population to denote logical thinking and reasoning ability.
  • In the same way the mental illness is the instability of one’s health, which includes changes in emotion, thinking and behaviour. Mental sickness has become a growing issue in the 21st century.
  • Even mental illness is common these days & can affect anyone’s life. People are still not willing to accept the illness of mind because of stigma. They feel shame to acknowledge it and seek help from the doctors.
  • Mental health cannot be separated from physical health. They both are equally important for every person. Our society have to change its perception of mental illness. People have to remove the stigma attached to this illness.

Conclusion :

We should educate the people about the same. If the mental illness is not treated at the right time then the consequences can be dangerous.  Mental illness can be caused due to stress or other incidents. It could also arise from genetic factors, social disadvantage and poor physical health.  Mental illness is curable. We can overcome this illness with positive thinking and change in your lifestyle. Regular exercises such as morning walk, yoga, and meditation have proved to be great medicine for curing mental health. It is very important to have a good diet and enough sleep. We can prevent mental illness by taking care of ourself such as calming our mind by listening to music and taking care of our body. 

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs COVID- 19 : Changing The Future Of India essay in english :

Introduction :

The world is facing the biggest crisis in the form of coronavirus pandemic. Almost every country has been affected by the COVID-19. Over 115 million people had been affected by COVID-19 and about 2.54 million people had died worldwide.  And indirectly billions of people have been suffering from the impact of this pandemic. As vaccines are being available now but still, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as regularly washing of hands, social distancing and wearing of masks.

  • India has successfully controlled the transmission of COVID-19 by its well coordinated efforts.
  • India’s progress in pharmaceuticals and mass public awareness with the help of digital systems indeed helped in controlling the spread of this disease.
  • There are still many ways by which the COVID-19 can affect our economy, of which the disruption of supply chains is the major challenge.
  • Job loss is on the rise along with the slowdown in manufacturing and services activities in India.  
  • Millions of agricultural workers, regularly facing high levels of uncertainty, poverty, malnutrition and poor health, and suffer from a lack of safety and labour protection.
  • With low and irregular incomes and lack of social support, many of them are forced to continue working, often in unsafe conditions.
  • Further, when experiencing income losses, they may resort to negative coping strategies, such as distress sale of assets, taking loans or child labour. The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers in many ways.
  • Several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back.
  • Since then, the government has announced relief measures for them, and made arrangements like running special trains and buses to help them to return to their native places.
  • At the same time, many countries undertake new reforms to strengthen the digital economy and e-commerce not only to manage the Covid-19 pandemic but also to facilitate trade & commence.

Conclusion :

COVID-19 crisis also opens the doors of opportunities in India as we witness better healthcare both in management and facilities. New social norms have been introduced like social distancing, wearing masks, maintaining hygiene for protecting us against the Covid-19. People who are ill with Covid-19 need doses of new vaccine, which save their lives and speed up recovery. Healthcare professional should be appreciated as instead of a lot of difficulties they do their best to maintain the quality of healthcare services.

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Social Impact of COVID-19 In India : 

Introduction :

Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global public health concern and to combat the disease, the Government of India imposed lockdown in the country on March 24, 2020. The Government has claimed success in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic, stating that the number of cases would have been more if the nationwide lockdown had not been imposed.However, recently numbers of COVID-19 cases have increased drastically. The lockdown could also be a cause of weight gain during the COVID19 pandemic, because of poor physical activity and consumption of high calorie foods.

  • Weight gain and obesity could increase the severity of COVID-19 and may increase the risk of development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Social stress caused by lockdown resulting from travelling restrictions to disruption of cultural celebrations, leading to anxiety and fear among the population.
  • The impact of the pandemic is visible across the sectors globally, but its effect on marginalized sections, women and children has been immense in India.
  • As a result of the lockdown, there is increased possibility of malnutrition among the weaker section of the society.
  • The Food Corporation of India recently allotted 12.96 lakh metric tonnes of food grains under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojna (PMGKAY) as an initiative of the government in its fight against the COVID-19.
  • Impact of Covid-19 has been multiple and not only limited to society at large. From the perspective of the economy both rural and urban have been impacted adversely.
  • The issue of migrant workers was one of the most highlighted issue in this pandemic where millions of them become unemployed and left without money, food and shelter.
  • Everyone has seen the issues being faced by migrant workers. The migrant workers depend on daily earnings they barely have savings which they could spend during any emergency.

Conclusion :

The masses have stood by the government during this lockdown, and a great response is observed throughout the country. Yet there are certain exceptions which are a challenge. While nearly 95 per cent of the citizenry are co-operating, the rest are creating a threat to the efforts and measures to contain this pandemic and are responsible for the collapse of the whole system. The leaders should come up with solutions for the problems and not problems for the solutions. Long term planning and collective efforts of individuals, governments and health organizations is needed to fight against this virus.

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Impact of Coronavirus (Covid-19) on Indian Economy :

Introduction :

Corona virus is a kind of virus that affect the respiratory tract of human and other mammals. These are associated with common cold, pneumonia and other respiratory symptoms. Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world was forced to live inside their home. Up to 53% of businesses in the country have been affected due to corona virus outbreak.

  • Coronavirus outbreak was first reported at Wuhan in China on 31 December, 2019.  WHO is working closely with global experts, governments, and other health organisations to provide advice to the countries about precautionary and preventive measures. 
  • In terms of trade, China is the world’s largest exporter and second-largest importer. It accounts for 13% of world exports and 11% of world imports.  
  • It had impacted the Indian industry. India’s total electronic imports account for 45% of China. Around one-third of machinery that India purchases from the world come from China and around 90% of mobile phones come from China.
  • Therefore, we can say that due to the current outbreak of coronavirus, the import dependence on China will have a significant impact on the Indian industry.
  • A large number of farmers around the country are also facing uncertainty.
  • Various businesses such as hotels and airlines are cutting salaries and laying off employees. Major companies operating in India have temporarily suspended or reduced operations.
  • According to the survey, COVID-19 is having a ‘deep impact’ on Indian businesses, over the coming month’s jobs are at high risk because firms are looking for some reduction in manpower.
  • Further, it is added that already COVID-19 crisis has caused an unprecedented collapse in economic activities over the last few weeks. 
  • The present situation is having a “high to very high” level impact on their business according to almost 72 per cent respondents.
  • Further, 70 per cent of the surveyed firms are expecting a degrowth sales in the fiscal year 2020-21.
  • Due to weak domestic consumption and consumer sentiment, there can be a delay in investment which further add pressure on the growth.

Conclusion :

We can’t ignore that post-COVID-19, some economies are expected to adopt de-risking strategies and shift their manufacturing bases from China. World Bank and credit rating agencies have downgraded India’s growth for 2021, however, the International Monetary Fund projection for India for the financial year 2021-22 of 1.9% GDP growth is the highest among G-20 nations.

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Impact of Corona Virus (Covid-19) On Global Economy :

Introduction :

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus. It was first identified in Wuhan city of China in December 2019. WHO has declared Coronavirus as a public health emergency of international concern on 30th January. Due to COVID-19 population of the world is forced to live inside their home. It is just not just affecting the health of the people but also economies of all the countries of the world. WHO is working closely with global experts, governments, and other health organizations to provide advice to the countries about COVID-19. 

  • According to World Trade Organization (WTO), in terms of trade, China is the world’s largest exporter and second-largest importer of merchandise as of 2019. It accounts for 13% of world exports and 11% of world imports. 
  • Many industries of the world are depend on China for its raw material. Many factories in China are closed now, production has also stopped for the depended companies.
  • Due to slowdown in production, consumption has also declined and in this way affecting the economies of the world.
  • Tourism industry is also facing huge losses due to restriction of movement of people due to spread of coronavirus.
  • This pandemic has severe adverse effects on the employees, customers, supply chains and financial markets.
  • In brief, most probably it will cause a global economic recession. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainty of the end of this pandemic, both the length and scale of this contraction are not predictable.
  • Automobile industry is already in crisis due to the economic slowdown and now production is suffering due to disruption of supply of goods and services.
  • Global financial market is fluctuating due to the supply-chain interruptions from China. It takes a while for the world economy to recover from the contraction.
  • It seems that this pandemic will lead to a permanent shift in the world and its politics, especially in health, security, trade, employment, agriculture, manufacturing goods production and science policies.
  • Since this new world might provide great opportunities for some countries that did not dominate world production before, governments should develop new strategies to adjust the new world order without much delay.
  • For many emerging markets and developing countries, however, effective financial support and mitigation measures are particularly hard to achieve because a substantial share of employment is in informal sectors.
  • According to the report, economic activity among advanced economies is anticipated to shrink by seven per cent in 2020 as domestic demand and supply, trade and finance have been severely disrupted.

Conclusion :

The blow is hitting hardest in countries where the pandemic has been the most severe and where there is heavy reliance on global trade, tourism, commodity exports and external financing. Although it is difficult to determine the exact impact of coronavirus on the world’s economy yet it is clear the impact will be for a long time. Hope the vaccine is developed as soon as possible to prevent these losses.

Migrant workers during lockdown Vs Covid-19 Vaccine – The Need of the hour

Introduction :

The Government of India has approved the Covid-19 vaccines developed by Astra-Zeneca and Bharat Biotech named Covishield and Covaxin respectively. Seeing this our PM Modi has launched the COVID-19 vaccination drive on 16th January, 2021 which can save millions of lives every year. This is the world’s largest vaccination program covering the entire country. During the launch of this drive a total of 3006 sites in all States and UTs have been virtually connected. Although India don’t need to vaccinate its entire population, it just have to vaccinate at least 30 to 40% of the people. It is estimated that a minimum of 1 billion doses of Covid-19 vaccines will be required for full immunization.

  • The vaccine has introduced in phrased manner. In first phrase, the vaccine is provided to healthcare workers like doctors, nurses and other medical staff both in government and private sectors.
  • Because they treat and are in close contact with those who are infected with Covid-19. Then it will be provided to police, armed forces, municipal workers and other departmental staffs.
  • In third phase, people above 50 years of age and those patient who have diabetes, hypertension and organ transplant will get the vaccine. After that, the vaccine will be given to healthy adults, teenagers and children.
  • The central government is incurring the cost for vaccinating the core healthcare and frontier workers. For further vaccination process, the government has also developed an application named CoWIN, which will help provide real time information of vaccine stocks, storage and individualized tracking of beneficiaries for COVID-19 vaccine. 

Conclusion :

The COVID-19 virus primarily spreads when one person breathes in droplets that are produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes. Physical distancing refers to actions taken to stop or slow down the spread of a contagious disease. For an individual, it refers to maintaining enough distance between yourself and another person to avoid getting infected or infecting someone else. Wearing a cloth mask helps remind us not to touch your face and can further help reduce spread of the virus. The Vaccination for Covid-19 is voluntary in India. It is a safe and effective way of protecting people against this disease. Vaccines reduce risks of getting diseases by working with our body’s immune system.

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Essay on climate change Issues & Challenges for Ib Acio Tier 2

Essay on climate change Issues & Challenges for Ib Acio

Introduction :

Climate change is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last for a few decades. Change in the pattern of climate has become a global cause of concern. Researchers continually observe the pattern to understand the past, present as well as the future climatic conditions. A record of the climate has been generated and updated regularly based on the geological evidences. There are a large number of factors that have been contributing towards this change.

  • These factors include the variations in solar energy  on the Earth, volcano eruptions,  orbital changes and change in plate tectonics. Besides this, human activities have also led to the changes in the climatic conditions over the past few decades.
  • The new technology is also adding to the emission of carbon which is having a negative impact on the climate. Change in climatic conditions are having a negative impact on the water system too.
  • It also resulted in the melting of glacier and erratic rainfall patterns that are leading to environmental imbalance.
  • Men due to his need have done many activities that not only harm the environment but themselves too. Many plant and animal species have become extinct due to human activities.
  • Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel, industrial waste, different type of pollution and many more.
  • All these things damaging the climate and the ecosystem in a very bad way. Many species of animals and birds are on a verge of extinction due to hunting.
  • The ocean level is continuously rising, glaciers are melting, carban dioxide in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes.
  • It is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct in near future and there will be a huge loss to the environment too.
  • If we don’t do anything then a day in future will come when humans will also become extinct from the earth. But instead of neglecting towards these issues we should start acting on them then we can save the earth and our future.

Conclusion :

Though humans activities has caused great damage to our climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to restore what we have done until now which damage the environment drastically. As we discussed besides the natural forces, human activities have also contributed majorly to this change. Therefore, it is extremely important to take the climate change issue seriously and control activities that are contributing towards this problem.

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Essay on Climate Change Vs Cultural Diversity in India

Introduction :

Indian culture is diverse and consist of various customs, ideas and social beliefs. India has different cultures and communities that differ in their food habits, cloths, languages, and traditions. It is the oldest and famous among the other cultures of the world. Indian literature is also a combination of various communities, traditions, customs, and religions. The diversity of Indian culture is well known worldwide. Cultural diversity is also seen in Indian Philosophy, art, music, and even Literature.

  • India is a global hub of multi-cultural and multi-traditional festivals like Dussehra, Holi, Diwali, Christmas, Ramazan, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ganesh Chaturthi etc.
  • Each Indian festival tells its own cultural and national tale and is celebrated with different customs & traditions.
  • In India three National festivals are also celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm, these are the Republic Day, Independence Day, and Gandhi Jayanti.
  • In India, God lives in the heart of every person. Indians hold different prayers, beliefs, and values. In the Hindu tradition, everyone worships and respects Cows, Neem tree, Banyan tree, and Peepal tree.
  • In India rivers are also worshiped and have great religious significance and sentiments. Rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna Godavari, Bramhaputra, Narmada, and Tapti occasionally worshiped in India.
  • The Joint family system is the prevailing system in India. In most cases, the family members consist of parents, children, children’s spouses, and offspring.
  • All of these family members live together under a single roof and the eldest male member is the head of the family.
  • Arranged marriages are also a part of Indian culture. Most Indians have their marriages planned by their parents. In almost all marriages in India, the bride’s family gives dowry to bridegroom.
  • Weddings are certainly festive occasions in Indian culture. There is involvement of decorations, clothing, music, dance, rituals in Indian weddings.
  • India is a home of many sacred and religious places like the Amarnath temple, Badrinath, Haridwar, Vaishno Devi and Varanasi, which are located in the northern part of the country. However, in the southern region, Rameshwaram temple and Sabrimala temple have great significance.

Conclusion :

India celebrates a huge number of festivals. These festivals are very diverse because of multi-religious and multi-cultural societies in India. Indians greatly value festive occasions and the whole country joins in the celebrations irrespective of the differences. Thus, we can say that India is filled with traditions and modern culture. People have the freedom to practice any religion they want. This is why Indian culture is widespread across the world.

 

Essay on Climate Change Vs Save Energy – Making the world Bright

Introduction :

Energy conservation refers to the efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy. The energy on Earth is not in unlimited supply. Energy can take plenty of time to regenerate. This certainly makes it essential to conserve energy. Energy conservation is achievable either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service usage. Energy conservation plays an important role in saving non-renewable energy resources. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources take many centuries to regenerate. Moreover, humans consume energy at a faster rate than it can be produced.

  • Therefore, energy conservation would lead to the preservation of these precious non-renewable sources of energy. Energy conservation will reduce the expenses related to fossil fuels.
  • Fossil fuels are very expensive. Therefore, consumers are required to pay higher prices for goods and services.
  • Energy conservation would certainly reduce the amount of fossil fuel being mined. This would reduce the costs of consumers.
  • Energy conservation would also strengthen the economy as consumers will have more disposable income to spend on goods and services.
  • Energy conservation is good for scientific research. This is because energy conservation gives researchers plenty of time to conduct researches.
  • These researchers will have more time to come up with various energy solutions and alternatives. Humans must ensure to have fossil fuels as long as possible.
  • This would give enough time to finding practical solutions. Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection.
  • Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection. This is because various energy sources are significantly harmful to the environment. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels considerably pollutes the atmosphere.
  • Moreover, nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste. Hence, energy conservation will lead to environmental protection.
  • Energy conservation would also result in the good health of humans. The pollution released due to energy sources is harmful to the human body.
  • The air pollution due to fossil fuels can cause various respiratory problems. Another important way of energy conservation is by using energy-efficient products.
  • Energy-efficient products are those that use lesser energy than their normal counterparts. One prominent example can be using an energy-efficient LED bulb rather than a normal light bulb.
  • The sun and the winds are always part of our life. And they are abundantly available in many countries. Also, such energy is clean energy which does not emit carbon dioxide, the main culprit in global warming.

Conclusion :

Today there are many energy- efficient alternatives for all kinds of appliances. So we have the power to make better choices for reducing our consumption of energy. Mahatma Gandhi absolutely right said, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed”. Energy conservation is considered as a quick and economical way to solve the problem of power shortage.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Water Crisis in India 

Introduction :

India has many social problems and frequent water crisis in many States is one of them. Food and drinking water are quite essential for comfortable living. India suffers from water shortage for cultivation and drinking despite the fact that many big rivers, flow through some parts of India. In the south there are the Krishna, Godavari, Cauvery, Perilya. In the north there are Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi and other rivers. Much of the water goes to the sea unused. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.

  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. Houses built of thatch are submerged in the water.
  • The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish. When there is inadequate yield of crops there is famine. Rice, wheat, and sugar cane are scarce.
  • In fact there is scarcity of every type of grain. There are two extremes in India. The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood.
  • Nearly 40 per cent of water demand in urban India is met by ground water. So ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate of 2-3 metres per year.
  • India is one of the major food growers in the world. That produces tons of quantity of food to feed its population and export the surplus that is left.
  • In addition, producing this much food requires a lot of water too. The traditional method of irrigation wastes a lot of water due to evaporation, water conveyance, drainage, percolation, and the overuse of groundwater.
  • Besides, most of the areas in India use traditional irrigation techniques that stress the availability of water. Due to rapid construction that uses concrete and marbles do not let the rainwater to get absorbed in the soil.
  • But, if we install some mechanism in our houses that can hold the rainwater then we can recharge the groundwater.
  • But, the solution to this problem lies in the extensive irrigation techniques such as micro-irrigation in which we provide water to plants and crops using a sprinkler or drip irrigation.

Conclusion :

Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages in its 83.0 km long pipeline network. Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. Instead of increasing the supply of water to meet demand, a more viable method of addressing the water crisis is to manage consumption. There are plenty of technologies there that allow to recycle rainwater that will help in saving water.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Water Conservation 

Introduction : 

We are living in this dynamic world where everything is changing at a very fast rate. The human needs are not exception to it. As the population of this world is increasing the needs and necessities of the basic things are also increasing. Water is one of the basic necessities of life. We require plenty of water every day for drinking, cooking and washing. The chief sources of potable water are the surface and ground water.

  • Clean water is affecting the lives of people in India and other countries of the world in many ways, and the lack of clean water is becoming a major problem.
  • Water conservation is the only way to save water in the future to solve the problem of water scarcity.
  • Three-fourths of the Earth  is surrounded by water, whereas very few percent of water is available for human use Since 97% of the entire water in the ocean is salt water, which is not suitable for human use.
  • Only 3% of the entire water on the earth is worth use which is 70% in the form of ice layer and glacier and 1% drinking water Is available in the form of water.

Conclusion :

If gradually all of us will start saving water saving excess water will be possible. To save ourselves from the water wastage, we must be aware of the news of the people who are struggling daily for each drop of water for their living. To spread awareness, we should promote programs related to water conservation. We should encourage family members, children, friends, neighbors and co-workers to adopt this process to get positive results.

Essay on Climate Change Vs PLASTIC POLLUTION 

Introduction :

Plastic pollution has become a major threat to our environment in today’s times and it is likely to make things worse in future.  Plastic pollution is damaging our environment rapidly. Waste plastic material is hard to dispose and contributes to major pollution on earth. This has become a cause of global concern. The increasing use of plastic bags, utensils and furniture, the amount of plastic waste has also gone up and so has the plastic pollution.

  • Plastic waste is entering the water bodies such as rivers, seas and even oceans and is polluting our water drastically. This water is then supplied at our places.
  • No matter how much we filter this water it can never get back to its pure form. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals. Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags.
  • Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them. The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avoid it as soon as possible.
  • Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.
  • We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of using plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it.

Conclusion :

We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution these days. The government must also take strict measures to ensure these are not used. It is of utmost importance to spread awareness about the harmful effects of plastic waste on our environment.  This can be done by way of television and radio and social media. This should help people understand the seriousness of the issue.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Global Warming 

Introduction :

Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green-house effect created by green-house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately it would cause end of life on the earth. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, lack of food etc.

  • It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is the cause of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc.
  • Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth. Gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface.
  • The concentrations of greenhouse gases are not larger than oxygen and nitrogen, because neither has more than two atoms per molecule, and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms possess.
  • Flooding of fresh water marshlands, low-lying cities, and islands with marine water is one of the major effects of global warming.
  • The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
  • Due to melting of the ice peaks, there is loss of habitat near the poles. Now the polar bears are considered to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season because of declining ice packs. 
  • Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it. We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas.

Conclusion :

Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide. Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.

 

Essay on Climate Change Vs Delhi Pollution 

Introduction :

Pollution is one of the major issues causing concern not only in India but across the world. Delhi, the national capital of the country, is being tagged as one of the most heavily polluted capital cities in the world. It is the world’s worst city in terms of air pollution, with an unhealthy air quality index for the majority of the year. Thus, today, one of the biggest threats to the welfare of the people of Delhi.

  • There has been a huge rise in the vehicular population, in spite of the metro railways, aggravating traffic congestion and increasing air and noise pollution. 
  • There has also been a number of diesel vehicles plying on the roads, which are largely responsible for the air pollution.
  • Citizens need to start the public transport more and more to reduce the pollution level in the city. Govt. has ensured to increase the no. of buses and auto-rickshaws in the capital as well.
  • Stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana in northwest India has been cited as a major cause of air pollution in Delhi.
  • Particulate matter (PM) is basically a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets like acids, chemicals, gas, water, metals, soil dust particles, etc. the measurement of which gives an idea of the pollution of a city.
  • There are mobile enforcement teams deployed at various locations for monitoring polluting vehicles.
  • Citizens need to avoid all kinds of contact near construction sites. These sites release gases which makes the air very harmful for eyes and for the respiratory system.
  • The above measures are known by many of us yet the level of national capital remains at 11th in the ranking of WHO for the most polluted cities.
  • The practicing of the above measures is the need for hour and to live happier days with our loved one is we all demand.

Conclusion :

I whole heartedly appeal to every citizen to take steps to make pollution free capital, a pollution free India. With a view to reducing vehicular pollution, there has been a ban imposed on the plying of more than 15 years old commercial or transport vehicles. Steps are taken to transform garbage into compost by developing new sanitary land-fill sites. It’s not that the Government is not taking steps to control pollution in Delhi, But we need proper and efficient implementation of plans and programmes and policies launched by the Government to make it successful.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Earthquake Safety 

Introduction :

Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline. Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued.

  • Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake.
  • Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
  • The severity of the Earthquake depends upon the magnitude and distance from the epicenter. Also, the local geographical conditions play a role in determining the severity.
  • Ground rupture refers to the visible breaking of the Earth’s surface. Another significant effect of Earthquake is landslides. Landslides occur due to slope instability.
  • This slope instability happens because of Earthquake. Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction. This happens when water-saturated granular material loses its strength.
  • Therefore, it transforms from solid to a liquid. Consequently, rigid structures sink into the liquefied deposits. Earthquakes can result in fires.
  • This happens because Earthquake damages the electric power and gas lines. Above all, it becomes extremely difficult to stop a fire once it begins.
  • There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake. Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake.

Conclusion :

 If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops.  If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well.

Essay on Climate Change Vs Noise Pollution 

Introduction :

Noise pollution is a form of pollution which has become a threat for the society nowadays. Noise pollution is when the level of noise increases more than the normal level. The world health organization says that any sound less than 70 decibel is not hazardous to the living organisms. The excessive amount of noise out in the environment makes it unsafe to live in. The unpleasant sounds and noise can cause an imbalance in nature.

  • As the world is turning to technology for their comfort, at the same time, harming us. The industries no matter how big or small contribution to noise pollution. 
  • Similarly, the increasing use of automobiles is a major cause of noise pollution. Not only automobiles but other transport vehicles like airplanes, buses, bikes, trucks and more also are a part of it.
  • Social events like marriages, parties, and religious functions in places like clubs, pubs, temples, halls etc. create a lot of nuisance in the residential areas.
  • In addition, the construction activities like mining, the building of flyovers, bridges and more also produce great noise. Noise pollution causes a number of hearing problems.
  • High levels of noise damage the Eardrums and sometimes even cause loss of hearing. Noise pollution primarily affects a person’s hearing, leading to hearing impairment to even permanent loss of hearing.
  • It causes an increase in blood pressure, hypertension, fatigue, and cardiovascular diseases. Noise pollution also disturbs a person’s state of mind causing disturbed sleep patterns, stress, aggressive behavior, decreased concentration, and poor quality of life.
  • Noise disturbance is extremely dangerous to elderly people and pregnant women. Not only humans but noise pollution also impacts wildlife too.
  • Pets become aggressive or afraid when they hear a loud noise. Noise pollution can impact their listening skills and cause changes in their behavior, starting with a pet at home.

Conclusion :

It leads to changes in their hearing due to which their communication also becomes affected. They are unable to hear properly during migration as they require sound to find their way. Noise pollution also affects crop production. We must make people aware of the impact of noise pollution and also encourage them to adopt ways that do not contribute to noise pollution. If everyone starts doing the same on an individual level, we will surely be able to reduce noise pollution.

Earthquake safety essay in english 250 words :

Introduction :

Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline. Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued.

  • Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake.
  • Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
  • There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake. Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake.

Conclusion :

If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops. If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well.

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Long Essay on Earthquake safety essay in english

Introduction :

Earthquakes happen without warning and we actually don’t know when the next major earthquake will happen, but we can take action now to prepare to survive it and minimize impact. Preparedness starts with a plan. Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline.

  • Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued. Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made.
  • Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake. Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake.
  • Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes. The severity of the Earthquake depends upon the magnitude and distance from the epicenter.
  • Also, the local geographical conditions play a role in determining the severity. Ground rupture refers to the visible breaking of the Earth’s surface.
  • Another significant effect of Earthquake is landslides. Landslides occur due to slope instability. This slope instability happens because of Earthquake. Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction.
  • This happens when water-saturated granular material loses its strength. Therefore, it transforms from solid to a liquid. Consequently, rigid structures sink into the liquefied deposits.
  • Earthquakes can result in fires. This happens because Earthquake damages the electric power and gas lines. Above all, it becomes extremely difficult to stop a fire once it begins.
  • There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake. Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake.

Conclusion :

 If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops.  If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well.

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Essay on healthcare in india issues and challenges

Essay on Healthcare in India – Major Issues & Challenges

Introduction :

“Health is like money, we will never have a true idea of its value until we lost” is a very significant statement of Josh Billings. According to Webster dictionary, efforts made to maintain or restore physical, mental or emotional well-being especially by trained professionals are known as healthcare services. As per Lancet India ranked 145th among 195 countries in healthcare access & quality”. This index is a mirror that reflects the dire situation of India’s outdated healthcare services in India. The COVID-19 outbreak pushed the limits of the healthcare industry.

  • In an attempt to fill the gaps in the sector, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced health and well-being to be one of the six pillars of Union Budget 2021 and also allocated Rs 2,83,846 lakh crore for the healthcare and wellness sector.
  • Marking the importance of Health, World Health Day is celebrated on April 7 every year by the World health organization (WHO) to create awareness among people about health and cleanliness Issues.
  • India’s healthcare scenario has seen both positive and negative achievements. The country has been successful in eradicating polio, reducing epidemics caused by tropical diseases and controlled HIV to a large extent.
  • However, it still faces a huge economic burden due to NCDs (Non Communicable Diseases), struggles to balance
    accessibility, affordability and quality of healthcare.
  • Expenditure on public health funding has been consistently low in India approximately 1.3% of GDP. Private healthcare is expensive and unavailable which leaves public healthcare facilities as the only available option but it has limited scope.
  • Recent news that reported deaths of COVID-19 patients due to lack of hospital beds and oxygen supplies indicate the worse situation of common people amid the pandemic.
  • The availability of government beds is abysmally low in India about 0.55 beds per 1000 population. No single authority responsible for public health that monitors and enforce compliance of the health standards.

Conclusion :

Government of India (GOI) created National Health Agency under NITI Aayog to act as nodal agency for surveillance, information gathering, enforcement of health statistics and maintain health database. The government has already launched Ayushman Bharat Yojna (PM-JAY) and National Medical commission Act, 2019 for poor people and economically weaker section of the society. To strengthen healthcare delivery, policy makers and pharma companies need to devise strategies that can change the present situation. Health is wealth and shouldn’t be treated as a destination. One should understand that preservation of health is better than the cure of a disease.

Healthcare in India – Major Issues & Challenges essay

Introduction :

“Health is like money, we will never have a true idea of its value until we lost” –Josh Billings. Health refers to the physical and mental state of a human being. To stay healthy is not an option but a necessity of life. Still, many people often take Health for granted. The COVID-19 outbreak pushed the limits of the healthcare industry in India. In an attempt to fill the gaps in the sector, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced health and well-being to be one of the six pillars of Union Budget 2021 and also allocated Rs 2,83,846 lakh crore for the healthcare and wellness sector.

  • Marking the importance of Health, World Health Day is celebrated on April 7 every year by the World health organisation(WHO) to create awareness among people about health and cleanliness.
  • Issues India’s healthcare scenario has seen both positive and negative achievements. The country has been successful in eradicating polio, reducing epidemics caused by tropical diseases and controlled HIV to a large extent.
  • However, it still faces a huge economic burden due to NCDs (Non Communicable Diseases), struggles to balance
    accessibility, affordability and quality and is unable to hike public health budgets.
  • Expenditure on public health funding has been consistently low in India(approximately 1.3% of GDP). Massive rural healthcare availability gap despite the 71% of the country being predominantly rural.
  • Private healthcare is expensive and unavailable which leaves public healthcare facilities as the only available option but it has limited scope.
  • Therefore rural communities rely on untrained health workers who remain as the only option of medical support.
  • Our healthcare system evolved in a very disorganised manner, in a way that the private sector and the health systems have grown by default and not by design.

Issues and Challenges 

● The availability of government beds is abysmally low in India(0.55 beds per 1000 population), and an epidemic like coronavirus can very quickly complicate the problem even further.

● Sheer number of skilled doctors hinders efficacy of the desired quality of health services.

● No single authority responsible for public health that monitors and enforce compliance of the health standards.

Conclusion :

One of the clearest lessons the pandemic has taught us is the consequences of neglecting our health systems. Henceforth to strengthen healthcare delivery and improve business prospects, policy makers, and pharma companies need to devise
strategies that transform a spark into a sustainable fire. Health is Wealth and shouldn’t be treated as a destination. One should understand that preservation of health is easier than the cure of a disease

Healthcare in India – Major issues and challenges essay in english

Introduction :

According to Webster dictionary, efforts made to maintain or restore physical, mental, or emotional well-being especially by trained and licensed professionals are known as healthcare services. ”India ranked 145th among 195 countries in healthcare access, quality” : Lancet. This index is a mirror that reflects the dire situation of India’s outdated healthcare services.

Challenges before Nationa Healthcare System(NHS):

Lack of effective primary healthcare services (PHS) foremost need for any country that has villege population as a big share and these PHS are confined mainly to maternary and child care.

 Non- professionnal and semiskilled healthcare providers are becoming as avoidable gap to say that the people get adequate and complete services.

 Only 1.3% of GDP was allocated to Healthcare services which indicates inadiquate funding.

 There is no single authority that is empowered to authorize , survellience and information dissemation all over india.

 Recent poignant news articles that reported deaths of COVID-19 patients due to lack of hospital beds and oxygen supplies indicate the situation of common indian amidst a pandemic.

 Awareness about Non communicable diseases and preventive measures before any epidemic is nearly on the ground level for many of us.

What measures we can suggest to get out this peril?

 PHS needed to tranformed into health wellness centres to equip them with all first class service at affordable prices.
 Corporate social responsibility fund must be utilised to avail high-end medical care.
 Swasth bharath jan andolan in the lines of swatch bharath must be promoted.
 Without power and finance dissemation, co-operative federalism has no meaning, that is center and state government must work in tendom.
 India needs atleast 2.5% of GDP for healthcare : Nationa Health Policy , 2017.

Conclusion :

Government of India(GOI) created National Health Agency under NITI Aayog to act as nodal agency for survellience, information gathering , enforcement of health statastics and maintain health database. The passing of amendments to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in India recently is a step forward in recogninizing the health rights of woman. The once in a century pandemic reminded us the need for robust Medical Infrastructural Network. GOI launched PM jan arogya yojana, National Medical commission act, 2019and PM janaushadhi Pariyojana in the hope that no one should be left behind on basis his economical standards because, “ Universal coverage, not medical technology , is the foundation of any health care system.” — Richard Lamm

Healthcare in India Vs Essay on Bioterrorism – A Threat To Global Security

Introduction :

Bioterrorism is a type of terrorism which involves intentional release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock and to terrorize the civilian population. These agents are generally found in nature and are altered or mutated in laboratory to be used as a weapon for mass destruction. This type of terrorism can easily be disseminated to cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual damage. It can be spread through air, water or food.

  • During World War-I and II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale programs to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus Anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.
  • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories.
  • These are (1) Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax. (2) Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever (3) Category C : Low-priority agents.
  • These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus. For restricting the development and use of biological weapons, a convention was signed at Geneva, popularly known as ‘Geneva Protocol 1925’.
  • But this convention was failed to address the production, storage, testing, and transfer of these weapons. After seeing the upcoming crisis, Biological Weapon Convention (BWC) came into force on March 26, 1975.
  • At present it has 183 member states. India is also a member state of this convention. BWC is formed to restrict the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological weapons.
  • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty which bans the entire categories of weapons of mass destruction. The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial steps for appropriate response against it. Co-operation with friendly nations and the robust surveillance system have to maintain and construction of clinical labs should be done to fight against these issues in India.

Healthcare in India Vs Descriptive Essay on Bioterrorism – A Threat To Global Security

Introduction :

“Innovation is a good thing. The human condition – put aside bioterrorism and a few footnotes – is improving because of innovation.” — Bill Gates — Were you aware that intelligence agencies proclaimed that the Novel-coronavirus
might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China?. This was conspired when researchers couldn’t figure out how bat viruses could mutate to attack humans.

  • Bioterrorism is the release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins deliberately to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.
  • Deadly pathogens are the ‘next big thing’ in terror and it’s going to be a defense problem. Bioterrorism aims to create casualties, terror, societal disruption.
  • The goal of the terrorists,non-state actors is to make their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
  • During World War-I,II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale program to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.

Why are bioweapons considered as perfect weapons of terror ?

  • Can be spread through air, water,food,aerosol sprays or by mail on infected
    envelopes.
  • Lethal pathogens are readily accessible.
  • Highly difficult to detect.

Classification of Biological Agents :

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories. These are:
● Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax.
● Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever
● Category C : Low-priority agents. These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus.

During the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s (SCO’s) first military medicine conference, Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh said that bioterrorism is a real threat in today’s time and the Armed Forces medical services should be at the forefront of combating the menace.

The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear(CBRN) attacks. As time goes, the weapons have been shifted from swords to malicious biological weapons. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial for appropriate response against it. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 is a necessity of time to deal with bioterrorism firmly.

Healthcare in India Vs Internal Security of India in english

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Healthcare in India Vs Essay on Naxalism

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Healthcare in India Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Social Media as Internal Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Essay on Bioterrorism Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

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Essays

Essay on Freedom of speech

Essay on Freedom of speech – Issues & Challenges to India

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought” is a prominent statement of SC judge AM Kennedy. The constitution of India guarantees everyone the freedom of speech irrespective of caste, creed, gender or religion. Freedom of speech allows the people to express themselves, and share their views and opinions. As a result, the public and the media can comment on any political activity and also express their dissent towards anything that they think is not appropriate.

  • Different countries have different restrictions on their freedom of speech. Some countries do not allow this fundamental right at all for example North Korea.
  • There, the media or the public are not allowed to speak against the government. It is a punishable offence to criticize the government or the political parties there.
  • The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian democracy.
  • Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of democracy.
  • The freedom of speech of a country can apparently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country. A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democratic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent or criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This can be very dangerous for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking.
  • All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice. A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy.
  • But a bad one will blindside its critics and makes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens. At the same time, freedom of speech can’t be absolute.
  • No one can cause violence, hatred and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

The government should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people. That’s why the constitution mentions in Article 19 (2), the conditions under which the Freedom of speech can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the socially accepted norms and put the dignity of the state at stake.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Issues & Challenges

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought.” — SC judge Anthony M .Kennedy. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian constitution guarantees the citizens of the India , the right to freedom of speech and expression. There are some facets of Freedom of speech and expressions (FOSE). Some of these are freedom of press, commercial advertisements, government has no monopoly over Electronic media, Right to information and Publishing one’s opinions on digital society etc.

Why FOSE sometimes is considered as challenge to Public order?

Public order is defined as a state of prevailing of peace and tranquility in the society any act that affects the law and order or may lead to disturbance of harmony of society is considered as an issue in the interest of public order.

What did make the FOSE a buzz word recently?

– Supreme court of India upheld the petition that challenged the Internet shutdown in many places like Uttarpradesh, Assam specifically in Jammu and Kashmir in 2019 and 2020 after the promulgation of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.
– High court of Tripura also supported the freedom of expression of public officers on social media platforms.
– Power of the day again and again used sedition charges those who criticized the policies of government publically.

Challenges to India because of FOSE?

 In the scope of Security of the state any act that aggravate or encourage commission of violent crimes is considered as a violation of Indian penal code(IPC).
 Under Foreign Relation Act (FRA), 1932 any malicious propaganda that has intention to vitiate friendly relation with other nation is punishable , this does not include the country namely Pakistan.
 Though it is not clearly elaborated in IPC any speech that jeopardize the decency and morality is regarded as punishable offence.

Conclusion :

Unrestricted allegations against government of the day is spreading like a wild fire which needs continuous scrutiny and at the same time maintaining constitutional rights of the issues in public interest. The same constitution mentions, namely Article 19 (2), conditions under which the FOSE can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the barriers of socially well accepted norms and that put the dignity and reputation of the state at a stake. It would augur well if we use the rights within the perimeter put by Indian constitution with well sate of mind and discretion.

Long essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

India constitution guarantees every Indian the freedom of speech  irrespective of gender (sex), caste, creed or religion. This is a fundamental freedom which is guaranteed and that defines the values of democracy in any nation. The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions & thoughts and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian democracy. Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of our democracy.

  • The kind of freedom of speech we find in many democratic countries like UK, USA, France or Germany is not seen in authoritarian governments like Malayasia, China or Syria and is failed democracies Pakisthan or Rwanda.
  • These governance systems are failed due to lack of freedom of speech in their countries. The freedom of speech of a country can apparently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country.
  • A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democratic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly some governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent of criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This is a dangerous precedent for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can rest assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking and the same way of opinion on a given topic.
  • The difference of opinions and respect we have for each other in a policy-making body is what makes us a true democracy. All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice.
  • A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy but a bad one will blindside its critics and takes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens.
  • The sedition law, under section 124A of Indian Penal Code, says that if a person by words either by written or spoken brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or a person can be fined or jailed or both.
  • This law is never used in its spirit. British used to use this law to silence the freedom fighters of India and now the ruling parties of India use this to stifle the dissenters and is harming the democratic values of the country.
  • Inspite of various laws that protect the people of India in rightly fully exercising their freedom of expression in India. But while the laws stay, its implementation that are proving to be a big challenge for the authorities in India.
  • At the same time, freedom of speech and expression can’t be absolute. No one can cause violence, hatred, bigotry and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech.
  • This will harm the very reason why freedom of speech is allowed in the first place. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

When article 370 was abrogated in Kashmir, freedom of speech was stifled, not because the government wanted to stifle democratic values but to prevent the spread of fake news, put a curb on terrorism and any sorts of preventing communal tensions in the area. Governments around the world should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Abrogation of Article 370 and 35a

Introduction :

The article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After passing a statutory resolution on scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 was abrogated by Indian Government on 5th August 2019 and Rajya Sabha had passed a Reorganization Bill 2019 which had effectively bifurcated the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

  • As per the Article 370, the provisions of the constitution which apply to other states do not apply to Jammu and Kashmir until and unless the state legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmir separately passes such provision except provisions related to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications.
  • The residents of the state of Jammu & Kashmir had a separate law and provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties & these were not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • After abrogation of article 370, Jammu and Kashmir is no longer enjoy special status and the laws of Indian Constitution are applicable to all residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh including provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. 
  • Article 35A has been abrogated and now Indian tricolour is National Flag for J&K and Ladhak also. Right to Information and Right to Education are now applicable to J&K & Ladhak union territories.
  • The Panchayats are now enjoying the same powers as in other states. With abrogation of Article 370, tenure of J&K state Assembly is now be of five years as in other parts of state which till now had a special status with a 6-year tenure.
  • The Union Territories (UTs) now have a Chief Minister and a Lt Governor and all financial bills will need to cleared by Lt Governor.
  • Indian Penal Code (IPC) had replaced Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) to deal with criminal matters. With addition of two new UTs, total number of union territories are now 8 i.e. J&K, Ladakh, Delhi, Puducherry, Diu and Daman & Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Conclusion :

Post the repeal of the Article 370, doors to private investment in J&K are opened, which helps in increasing the potential for development there. Increased investments also leads to increased job creation and further betterment of socio-economic infrastructure in the state. The Government is now able to provide better medical, education facilities to citizens of J&K and have better position to curb terrorism. The Opening of buying of lands bring in investments from private individuals and multinational companies and also give a boost to the local economy.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs National Register of Citizens (NRC) Issues in India

Introduction :

The National Register of Citizens (NRC), is the list of Indian citizens in Assam. National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses in a serial order and indicating names of persons staying therein. It is being updated to weed out illegal immigration from Bangladesh and neighbouring regions.

  • Recently Assam released the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which included 1.9 crore names out of a total applicant pool of 3.29 crore.
  • The political leaders have assured that everyone will be given a fair and patient hearing to prove their citizenship.
  • The Supreme Court recently issued a notice to the centre and the Election Commission of India on a plea seeking that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) be updated to include Tripura.
  • The final draft of the NRC in Assam was released, excluding four million residents of the state.
  • An updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
  • It will provide a verified dataset to carry out meaningful debates and implement calibrated policy measures.
  • Though the draft provides a window for re-verification, due to large number of people being excluded from the list, it will be very difficult to physically verify all of them.
  • This draft of the NRC is however not final and people can still appeal against the non-inclusion of their names in the NRC.

Conclusion :

Several religious and linguistic minority groups are also opposing the NRC as discriminatory and undemocratic. The main purpose of NRC is to separate illegal immigrants from legitimate residents of Assam.  The immediate consequence of it is that several lakh individuals will lose their right to vote. The claims of those left out in the NRC must be heard carefully. There is a need for a robust mechanism of legal support for the four million who have to prove their citizenship to India with their limited means.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India 

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India 

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Social Media as Internal Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs climate change Issues & Challenges

Introduction :

Climate change is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last for a few decades. Change in the pattern of climate has become a global cause of concern. Researchers continually observe the pattern to understand the past, present as well as the future climatic conditions. A record of the climate has been generated and updated regularly based on the geological evidences. There are a large number of factors that have been contributing towards this change.

  • These factors include the variations in solar energy  on the Earth, volcano eruptions,  orbital changes and change in plate tectonics. Besides this, human activities have also led to the changes in the climatic conditions over the past few decades.
  • The new technology is also adding to the emission of carbon which is having a negative impact on the climate. Change in climatic conditions are having a negative impact on the water system too.
  • It also resulted in the melting of glacier and erratic rainfall patterns that are leading to environmental imbalance.
  • Men due to his need have done many activities that not only harm the environment but themselves too. Many plant and animal species have become extinct due to human activities.
  • Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel, industrial waste, different type of pollution and many more.
  • All these things damaging the climate and the ecosystem in a very bad way. Many species of animals and birds are on a verge of extinction due to hunting.
  • The ocean level is continuously rising, glaciers are melting, carban dioxide in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes.
  • It is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct in near future and there will be a huge loss to the environment too.
  • If we don’t do anything then a day in future will come when humans will also become extinct from the earth. But instead of neglecting towards these issues we should start acting on them then we can save the earth and our future.

Conclusion :

Though humans activities has caused great damage to our climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to restore what we have done until now which damage the environment drastically. As we discussed besides the natural forces, human activities have also contributed majorly to this change. Therefore, it is extremely important to take the climate change issue seriously and control activities that are contributing towards this problem.

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Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Cultural Diversity in India

Introduction :

Indian culture is diverse and consist of various customs, ideas and social beliefs. India has different cultures and communities that differ in their food habits, cloths, languages, and traditions. It is the oldest and famous among the other cultures of the world. Indian literature is also a combination of various communities, traditions, customs, and religions. The diversity of Indian culture is well known worldwide. Cultural diversity is also seen in Indian Philosophy, art, music, and even Literature.

  • India is a global hub of multi-cultural and multi-traditional festivals like Dussehra, Holi, Diwali, Christmas, Ramazan, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ganesh Chaturthi etc.
  • Each Indian festival tells its own cultural and national tale and is celebrated with different customs & traditions.
  • In India three National festivals are also celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm, these are the Republic Day, Independence Day, and Gandhi Jayanti.
  • In India, God lives in the heart of every person. Indians hold different prayers, beliefs, and values. In the Hindu tradition, everyone worships and respects Cows, Neem tree, Banyan tree, and Peepal tree.
  • In India rivers are also worshiped and have great religious significance and sentiments. Rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna Godavari, Bramhaputra, Narmada, and Tapti occasionally worshiped in India.
  • The Joint family system is the prevailing system in India. In most cases, the family members consist of parents, children, children’s spouses, and offspring.
  • All of these family members live together under a single roof and the eldest male member is the head of the family.
  • Arranged marriages are also a part of Indian culture. Most Indians have their marriages planned by their parents. In almost all marriages in India, the bride’s family gives dowry to bridegroom.
  • Weddings are certainly festive occasions in Indian culture. There is involvement of decorations, clothing, music, dance, rituals in Indian weddings.
  • India is a home of many sacred and religious places like the Amarnath temple, Badrinath, Haridwar, Vaishno Devi and Varanasi, which are located in the northern part of the country. However, in the southern region, Rameshwaram temple and Sabrimala temple have great significance.

Conclusion :

India celebrates a huge number of festivals. These festivals are very diverse because of multi-religious and multi-cultural societies in India. Indians greatly value festive occasions and the whole country joins in the celebrations irrespective of the differences. Thus, we can say that India is filled with traditions and modern culture. People have the freedom to practice any religion they want. This is why Indian culture is widespread across the world.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Save Energy – Making the world Bright

Introduction :

Energy conservation refers to the efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy. The energy on Earth is not in unlimited supply. Energy can take plenty of time to regenerate. This certainly makes it essential to conserve energy. Energy conservation is achievable either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service usage. Energy conservation plays an important role in saving non-renewable energy resources. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources take many centuries to regenerate. Moreover, humans consume energy at a faster rate than it can be produced.

  • Therefore, energy conservation would lead to the preservation of these precious non-renewable sources of energy. Energy conservation will reduce the expenses related to fossil fuels.
  • Fossil fuels are very expensive. Therefore, consumers are required to pay higher prices for goods and services.
  • Energy conservation would certainly reduce the amount of fossil fuel being mined. This would reduce the costs of consumers.
  • Energy conservation would also strengthen the economy as consumers will have more disposable income to spend on goods and services.
  • Energy conservation is good for scientific research. This is because energy conservation gives researchers plenty of time to conduct researches.
  • These researchers will have more time to come up with various energy solutions and alternatives. Humans must ensure to have fossil fuels as long as possible.
  • This would give enough time to finding practical solutions. Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection.
  • Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection. This is because various energy sources are significantly harmful to the environment. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels considerably pollutes the atmosphere.
  • Moreover, nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste. Hence, energy conservation will lead to environmental protection.
  • Energy conservation would also result in the good health of humans. The pollution released due to energy sources is harmful to the human body.
  • The air pollution due to fossil fuels can cause various respiratory problems. Another important way of energy conservation is by using energy-efficient products.
  • Energy-efficient products are those that use lesser energy than their normal counterparts. One prominent example can be using an energy-efficient LED bulb rather than a normal light bulb.
  • The sun and the winds are always part of our life. And they are abundantly available in many countries. Also, such energy is clean energy which does not emit carbon dioxide, the main culprit in global warming.

Conclusion :

Today there are many energy- efficient alternatives for all kinds of appliances. So we have the power to make better choices for reducing our consumption of energy. Mahatma Gandhi absolutely right said, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed”. Energy conservation is considered as a quick and economical way to solve the problem of power shortage.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Water Crisis in India 

Introduction :

India has many social problems and frequent water crisis in many States is one of them. Food and drinking water are quite essential for comfortable living. India suffers from water shortage for cultivation and drinking despite the fact that many big rivers, flow through some parts of India. In the south there are the Krishna, Godavari, Cauvery, Perilya. In the north there are Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi and other rivers. Much of the water goes to the sea unused. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.

  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. Houses built of thatch are submerged in the water.
  • The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish. When there is inadequate yield of crops there is famine. Rice, wheat, and sugar cane are scarce.
  • In fact there is scarcity of every type of grain. There are two extremes in India. The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood.
  • Nearly 40 per cent of water demand in urban India is met by ground water. So ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate of 2-3 metres per year.
  • India is one of the major food growers in the world. That produces tons of quantity of food to feed its population and export the surplus that is left.
  • In addition, producing this much food requires a lot of water too. The traditional method of irrigation wastes a lot of water due to evaporation, water conveyance, drainage, percolation, and the overuse of groundwater.
  • Besides, most of the areas in India use traditional irrigation techniques that stress the availability of water. Due to rapid construction that uses concrete and marbles do not let the rainwater to get absorbed in the soil.
  • But, if we install some mechanism in our houses that can hold the rainwater then we can recharge the groundwater.
  • But, the solution to this problem lies in the extensive irrigation techniques such as micro-irrigation in which we provide water to plants and crops using a sprinkler or drip irrigation.

Conclusion :

Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages in its 83.0 km long pipeline network. Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. Instead of increasing the supply of water to meet demand, a more viable method of addressing the water crisis is to manage consumption. There are plenty of technologies there that allow to recycle rainwater that will help in saving water.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Water Conservation 

Introduction : 

We are living in this dynamic world where everything is changing at a very fast rate. The human needs are not exception to it. As the population of this world is increasing the needs and necessities of the basic things are also increasing. Water is one of the basic necessities of life. We require plenty of water every day for drinking, cooking and washing. The chief sources of potable water are the surface and ground water.

  • Clean water is affecting the lives of people in India and other countries of the world in many ways, and the lack of clean water is becoming a major problem.
  • Water conservation is the only way to save water in the future to solve the problem of water scarcity.
  • Three-fourths of the Earth  is surrounded by water, whereas very few percent of water is available for human use Since 97% of the entire water in the ocean is salt water, which is not suitable for human use.
  • Only 3% of the entire water on the earth is worth use which is 70% in the form of ice layer and glacier and 1% drinking water Is available in the form of water.

Conclusion :

If gradually all of us will start saving water saving excess water will be possible. To save ourselves from the water wastage, we must be aware of the news of the people who are struggling daily for each drop of water for their living. To spread awareness, we should promote programs related to water conservation. We should encourage family members, children, friends, neighbors and co-workers to adopt this process to get positive results.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs PLASTIC POLLUTION 

Introduction :

Plastic pollution has become a major threat to our environment in today’s times and it is likely to make things worse in future.  Plastic pollution is damaging our environment rapidly. Waste plastic material is hard to dispose and contributes to major pollution on earth. This has become a cause of global concern. The increasing use of plastic bags, utensils and furniture, the amount of plastic waste has also gone up and so has the plastic pollution.

  • Plastic waste is entering the water bodies such as rivers, seas and even oceans and is polluting our water drastically. This water is then supplied at our places.
  • No matter how much we filter this water it can never get back to its pure form. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals. Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags.
  • Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them. The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avoid it as soon as possible.
  • Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.
  • We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of using plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it.

Conclusion :

We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution these days. The government must also take strict measures to ensure these are not used. It is of utmost importance to spread awareness about the harmful effects of plastic waste on our environment.  This can be done by way of television and radio and social media. This should help people understand the seriousness of the issue.

Essay on Freedom of speech Vs Global Warming 

Introduction :

Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green-house effect created by green-house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately it would cause end of life on the earth. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, lack of food etc.

  • It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is the cause of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc.
  • Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth. Gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface.
  • The concentrations of greenhouse gases are not larger than oxygen and nitrogen, because neither has more than two atoms per molecule, and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms possess.
  • Flooding of fresh water marshlands, low-lying cities, and islands with marine water is one of the major effects of global warming.
  • The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
  • Due to melting of the ice peaks, there is loss of habitat near the poles. Now the polar bears are considered to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season because of declining ice packs. 
  • Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it. We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas.

Conclusion :

Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide. Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.

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Essay on farm bill 2020 pros and cons

Essay on farm bill 2020 pros and cons

Introduction :

The Farmers Bills 2020 is consist of three agricultural bills passed by the central government in September 2020. It includes the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, Farmers Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities Bill. These Bills will develop a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. This bill will also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • This agriculture Bill provides a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It will be beneficial for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land.
  • The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings but the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their crops directly to large buyers.
  • It will also give the farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply should also made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce.

Conclusion :

The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. The government should take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

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Essay on india china relations

Essay on India China relations Issues & Clashes

Introduction :

“We can choose our friends, but not our neighbours”. This statement of our Ex Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee is quite significant. India is one of the fastest growing developing countries in the world, is on friendly terms with most of the countries. But the relations between India and China have become toxic in recent time. India is fighting not only with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic but also with its source country. India and China are close neighbours linked by mountains and rivers.

  • In the 1950’s a term was used to describe the relationship between India and China “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai” which means India and China are brothers.
  • However, over the years relations between India and China have become tense mostly related to boundaries. Be it One Belt One Road initiative or the Doka La controversy.
  • India and China share common boundaries with Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan. The two countries have fought a war, in 1962, where India lost.
  • The main cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions.
  • After the war, the de facto borders stabilised along the Line of Actual Control (LAC). LAC is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the Sino-Indian border dispute.
  • But LAC is only a concept, there are no official records delineating the actual LAC unlike LOC. India and China disagree over where the LAC lies. Often periodic patrols were performed by both sides.
  • Latest such disputes over the unsettled borders where both teeter to ward off a border clash are 1) Pangong Lake Intrusion 2) Galwan Valley Intrusion 3) Situation in hot spring kongka pass.
  • Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a plan of China. India argues that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a part of BRI initiative which violates its sovereignty.
  • Because it passes through the part of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) that belongs to India. Even India’s neighbour’s forge closer ties to China as part of this initiative.
  • To counter the rise of China, India is tying with strategic players such as the US, Japan, Australia with whom it is doing Quad, 2+2 dialogue, Malabar exercise.

Conclusion :

On 2nd September 2020, India banned 118 chinese apps like PUBG, TikTok, ShareIt, UCBrowser and Weibo citing threat to national security and the privacy of Indian citizens. Through Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, India is trying to replace chinese products with domestic products in the possible sectors. Further, it needs to boost up its economic relations with other countries too. Because We are defined not by our borders but by our bonds.

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes in english

Introduction :

“India doesn’t have one problem with China, we have a whole lot of problems pending with China. “ ——-Narendra Modi. India is fighting not only with the deadly COVID-19 virus but also with the source country ever since the pandemic. China and India are close neighbours linked by mountains and rivers. In the 1950’s a term was used to describe the relationship between India and China “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai” which means India and China are brothers. However, over the years relations between India and China have become tense mostly related to boundaries. Be it One Belt One Road initiative or the Doka La controversy. India and China share common boundaries with Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan.

Current India-China skirmishes :

Border Conflicts:

  • The two countries have fought a war, in 1962, where India lost. The main cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions.
  • After the war, the de facto borders stabilised along the Line of Actual Control(LAC). LAC is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the Sino-Indian border dispute.
  • But LAC is only a concept – there are no official records delineating the actual LAC unlike LOC. India and China disagree
    over where the LAC lies.
  • Often periodic patrols were performed by both sides, and mostly crisscrossed. Latest such disputes over the unsettled borders where both teeter to ward off a border clash are 1. Pangong Lake Intrusion 2. Galwan Valley Intrusion 3.
    Situation in hot spring kongka pass.

Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) :

  • BRI is a plan of China. India argues that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor(CPEC) is a part of BRI initiative which violates its sovereignty because it passes through the part of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) that belongs to India.
  • Even India’s neighbour’s forge closer ties to China as part of this initiative. To counter the rise of China, India is tying with strategic players such as the US, Japan, Australia with whom it is doing Quad, 2+2 dialogue, Malabar exercise.
  • On 2nd September 2020, India banned 118 chinese apps like PUBG,TikTok,ShareIt, UCBrowser, and Weibo citing threat to national security and the privacy of Indian citizens.

Conclusion :

The New York Times reported that the October 2020 power outage in Mumbai could have been triggered by a Chinese cyber attack quoting a report by the American cybersecurity company Recorded Future. Through Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, India is trying to replace chinese products with domestic products in the possible sectors. Further, it needs to boost up its economic relations with other countries too. Because We are defined not by our borders but by our bonds.

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Internal Security of India in english

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Bioterrorism – Internal threat to India

Introduction :

“Innovation is a good thing. The human condition – put aside bioterrorism and a few footnotes – is improving because of innovation.” — Bill Gates — Were you aware that intelligence agencies proclaimed that the Novel-coronavirus
might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China?. This was conspired when researchers couldn’t figure out how bat viruses could mutate to attack humans.

  • Bioterrorism is the release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins deliberately to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.
  • Deadly pathogens are the ‘next big thing’ in terror and it’s going to be a defense problem. Bioterrorism aims to create casualties, terror, societal disruption.
  • The goal of the terrorists,non-state actors is to make their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
  • During World War-I,II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale program to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.

Why are bioweapons considered as perfect weapons of terror ?

  • Can be spread through air, water,food,aerosol sprays or by mail on infected
    envelopes.
  • Lethal pathogens are readily accessible.
  • Highly difficult to detect.

Classification of Biological Agents :

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories. These are:
● Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax.
● Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever
● Category C : Low-priority agents. These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus.

During the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s (SCO’s) first military medicine conference, Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh said that bioterrorism is a real threat in today’s time and the Armed Forces medical services should be at the forefront of combating the menace.

The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear(CBRN) attacks. As time goes, the weapons have been shifted from swords to malicious biological weapons. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial for appropriate response against it. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 is a necessity of time to deal with bioterrorism firmly.

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Social Media as Internal Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Essay on India China Issues & Clashes Vs Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

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