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Essay on Drug Trafficking

Essay on Drug Trafficking – A Threat To National Security

Introduction :

“Drugs takes you to hell disguised as heaven” is a well known statement by Jim Morrison. Drug trafficking is a global illicit trade involving the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subjected to drug prohibition. India has been enduring the menace of drug trafficking for four decades. Although, India has been a traditional consumer of opium and cannabis derivatives. Various media reports indicate that drug consumption and trafficking showing an increase trend. Being closer to the Golden crescent and Golden triangle, India has been vulnerable to trafficking of narcotics and drug.

  • The international day against drug abuse and illicit trafficking is observed annually on June 26th. According to a research published in a prominent newspaper.
  • It is said that a person takes drugs to get that initial high but as he continue to take it for a few days, then the body get addicted to it and demands more and more.
  • And makes it very hard for the person to quit drugs. Also, India has a huge young population with a good disposable income, so our youth easily get attracted towards this menace. Thus, harming the future of our country.
  • United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is continuously monitoring and researching global illicit drug markets to understand their dynamics.
  • The trends and patterns of drug trafficking demonstrates that there is gradual shift from traditional natural drugs towards synthetic drugs and psychotropic substances.
  • The breach of the International borders of the country by drug trafficking implies that the same routes can be used for smuggling in weapons as well as injecting the terrorists in the country.
  • In fact, it has been established that the arms and explosives used in 1993 serial bombs in Mumbai were transported through trafficking routes.
  • Right regional, state and national analyzed methods are needed to root out the drugs marketing. Maritime trafficking has also to be prevented via Myanmar and Andaman sea routes.
  • Stringent methods and laws such as ‘The prevention of illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances Act, 1985 have to be institutionalized deeply so that proper checks and balances are maintained.

Conclusion :

As drug trafficking and addiction can harm national security and degrade resources of nation. With advent of covid-19 the intensity may rise to higher scale. The government need encourage more rehabilitation centre and cooperating with voluntary organizations in the endeavor to prevent the abuse of narcotics and synthetic drugs. Since, drug trafficking has serious ramification on the country’s security, it is high time India should pay more attention to the problem and formulates robust measures to overcome the loopholes in its strategy for prevention of drug trafficking.

Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir

Introduction :

“Security is a process, not a product.” is a very famous quote by Bruce Schneier. Almost everyday, we hear the news about the Jammu and Kashmir militancy. Militancy is a kind of aggressive activism or combativeness in support of a particular cause. The Kashmir Valley has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since independence. Over the period both the countries have tried to resolve the issues but of no effect. In 1947, at the time of independence the state was ruled by hindu king Hari Singh, whereas the state

  • Comprised 77% muslims. The northern Kashmir part is dominated by Muslims, Jammu is dominated by Hindus and the region of ladakh is dominated by Buddhists and Shia Muslims.
  • This situation makes this state culturally and linguistically diverse. During the partition, Hari Singh did not accede to either Pakistan or India. As a result, Pakistan sent troops to acquire the territory.
  • However, Hari Singh then signed the Instrument of Accession to India to protect its state. Amidst the skirmish, Pakistan acquired large north western part of Jammu & Kashmir which is referred as
  • Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) in India and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. This is the time of starting the hostility between India and Pakistan. After the defeat in war of 1947, 1965 and 1971, Pakistan has resorted to the tactics of low intensity war.
  • Infiltration through the Pakistan border led to establishment of new terrorist organization like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaise-e-Mohammed and many more.
  • The Kashmiri Pandits were forced to leave their land, their houses and livelihood and move to other parts of India. Also they displayed the power of militancy, they started to brainwash the youth in J&K.
  • Pakistan did the terror funding and trained the youth against India. These organizations were responsible for many attacks in India and insurgency and disturbance in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Apart from this, Pakistan frequently raised human rights alarm in United Nation and other international organizations against India.
  • One of the severe effect of militancy in J&K is youth radicalisation. As more than 65% population in India is less than 35 year age. So militancy groups have target on youth to misguide them.

Conclusion :

One of the best step taken by government was demonetization to stop terror funding. Operation All-Out which is an anti militancy operation launched by government to flush out insurgents from Kashmir. The government has been working on various infrastructure projects like rail links, education and health facilities, tourism to lead the region on the path of development. More diplomatic channels as well as military strategies need to be opened up to end this issue and in this way Kashmir can become the Crown of India forever.

Essay on Abrogation of Article 370 and 35a

Introduction :

The article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After passing a statutory resolution on scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 was abrogated by Indian Government on 5th August 2019 and Rajya Sabha had passed a Reorganization Bill 2019 which had effectively bifurcated the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

  • As per the Article 370, the provisions of the constitution which apply to other states do not apply to Jammu and Kashmir until and unless the state legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmir separately passes such provision except provisions related to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications.
  • The residents of the state of Jammu & Kashmir had a separate law and provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties & these were not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • After abrogation of article 370, Jammu and Kashmir is no longer enjoy special status and the laws of Indian Constitution are applicable to all residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh including provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. 
  • Article 35A has been abrogated and now Indian tricolour is National Flag for J&K and Ladhak also. Right to Information and Right to Education are now applicable to J&K & Ladhak union territories.
  • The Panchayats are now enjoying the same powers as in other states. With abrogation of Article 370, tenure of J&K state Assembly is now be of five years as in other parts of state which till now had a special status with a 6-year tenure.
  • The Union Territories (UTs) now have a Chief Minister and a Lt Governor and all financial bills will need to cleared by Lt Governor.
  • Indian Penal Code (IPC) had replaced Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) to deal with criminal matters. With addition of two new UTs, total number of union territories are now 8 i.e. J&K, Ladakh, Delhi, Puducherry, Diu and Daman & Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Conclusion :

Post the repeal of the Article 370, doors to private investment in J&K are opened, which helps in increasing the potential for development there. Increased investments also leads to increased job creation and further betterment of socio-economic infrastructure in the state. The Government is now able to provide better medical, education facilities to citizens of J&K and have better position to curb terrorism. The Opening of buying of lands bring in investments from private individuals and multinational companies and also give a boost to the local economy.

Essay on Drug Trafficking Vs National Register of Citizens (NRC) Issues in India

Introduction :

The National Register of Citizens (NRC), is the list of Indian citizens in Assam. National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses in a serial order and indicating names of persons staying therein. It is being updated to weed out illegal immigration from Bangladesh and neighbouring regions.

  • Recently Assam released the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which included 1.9 crore names out of a total applicant pool of 3.29 crore.
  • The political leaders have assured that everyone will be given a fair and patient hearing to prove their citizenship.
  • The Supreme Court recently issued a notice to the centre and the Election Commission of India on a plea seeking that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) be updated to include Tripura.
  • The final draft of the NRC in Assam was released, excluding four million residents of the state.
  • An updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
  • It will provide a verified dataset to carry out meaningful debates and implement calibrated policy measures.
  • Though the draft provides a window for re-verification, due to large number of people being excluded from the list, it will be very difficult to physically verify all of them.
  • This draft of the NRC is however not final and people can still appeal against the non-inclusion of their names in the NRC.

Conclusion :

Several religious and linguistic minority groups are also opposing the NRC as discriminatory and undemocratic. The main purpose of NRC is to separate illegal immigrants from legitimate residents of Assam.  The immediate consequence of it is that several lakh individuals will lose their right to vote. The claims of those left out in the NRC must be heard carefully. There is a need for a robust mechanism of legal support for the four million who have to prove their citizenship to India with their limited means.

Essay on Drug Trafficking Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Fake News as a security Issue in India Vs Essay on Drug Trafficking

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India (Essay on Drug Trafficking)

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Social Media as Internal Security issue In India (Essay on Drug Trafficking)

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India (Essay on Drug Trafficking)

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought.” — SC judge Anthony M .Kennedy. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian constitution guarantees the citizens of the India , the right to freedom of speech and expression. There are some facets of Freedom of speech and expressions (FOSE). Some of these are freedom of press, commercial advertisements, government has no monopoly over Electronic media, Right to information and Publishing one’s opinions on digital society etc.

Why FOSE sometimes is considered as challenge to Public order?

Public order is defined as a state of prevailing of peace and tranquility in the society any act that affects the law and order or may lead to disturbance of harmony of society is considered as an issue in the interest of public order.

What did make the FOSE a buzz word recently?

– Supreme court of India upheld the petition that challenged the Internet shutdown in many places like Uttarpradesh, Assam specifically in Jammu and Kashmir in 2019 and 2020 after the promulgation of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.
– High court of Tripura also supported the freedom of expression of public officers on social media platforms.
– Power of the day again and again used sedition charges those who criticized the policies of government publically.

Challenges to India because of FOSE?

 In the scope of Security of the state any act that aggravate or encourage commission of violent crimes is considered as a violation of Indian penal code(IPC).
 Under Foreign Relation Act (FRA), 1932 any malicious propaganda that has intention to vitiate friendly relation with other nation is punishable , this does not include the country namely Pakistan.
 Though it is not clearly elaborated in IPC any speech that jeopardize the decency and morality is regarded as punishable offence.

Conclusion :

Unrestricted allegations against government of the day is spreading like a wild fire which needs continuous scrutiny and at the same time maintaining constitutional rights of the issues in public interest. The same constitution mentions, namely Article 19 (2), conditions under which the FOSE can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the barriers of socially well accepted norms and that put the dignity and reputation of the state at a stake. It would augur well if we use the rights within the perimeter put by Indian constitution with well sate of mind and discretion.

Long essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

India constitution guarantees every Indian the freedom of speech  irrespective of gender (sex), caste, creed or religion. This is a fundamental freedom which is guaranteed and that defines the values of democracy in any nation. The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions & thoughts and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian  democracy. Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of our democracy.

  • The kind of freedom of speech we find in many democratic countries like UK, USA, France or Germany is not seen in authoritarian governments like Malayasia, China or Syria and is failed democracies Pakisthan or Rwanda.
  • These governance systems are failed due to lack of freedom of speech in their countries. The freedom of speech of a country can apprently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country.
  • A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democritic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly some governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent of criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This is a dangerous precedent for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can rest assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking and the same way of opinion on a given topic.
  • The difference of opinions and respect we have for each other in a policy-making body is what makes us a true democracy. All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice.
  • A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy but a bad one will blindside its critics and takes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens.
  • The sedition law, under section 124A of Indian Penal Code, says that if a person by words either by written or spoken brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or a person can be fined or jailed or both.
  • This law is never used in its spirit. British used to use this law to silence the freedom fighters of India and now the ruling parties of India use this to stifle the dissenters and is harming the democratic values of the country.
  • Inspite of various laws that protect the people of India in rightly fully exercising their freedom of expression in India. But while the laws stay, its implementation that are proving to be a big challenge for the authorities in India.
  • At the same time, freedom of speech and expression can’t be absolute. No one can cause violence, hatred, bigotry and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech.
  • This will harm the very reason why freedom of speech is allowed in the first place. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

When article 370 was abrogated in Kashmir, freedom of speech was stifled, not because the government wanted to stifle democratic values but to prevent the spread of fake news, put a curb on terrorism and any sorts of preventing communal tensions in the area. Governments around the world should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people.

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Essay on communal violence in india

Essay on communal violence in India

Introduction :

India has been a land of unity in diversity with people from different religions, social, linguistic and cultural backgrounds living together in harmony. The word ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumhakam’ emerged from our great religious book ‘Upanishad’ which means the world is one family. Our incredible history, remarkable culture and marvelous civilization provide a unique image among the other countries in the world. Instead of these qualities, we have to face some inhuman incidents sometimes like communal violence, racial violence, terrorism etc.

  • These activities have deteriorated our secular and peaceful system. Communalism has emerged as a big threat to India. It means a strong attachment to one’s own community.
  • In popular discourse in India, it is understood as unhealthy attachment to one’s own religion. It promotes orthodox belief, intolerance and hatred among other religions and thus divides the society.
  • Recently, New Delhi has witnessed one of the worst communal violence in the history based on the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) and National Register of Citizen (NRC).
  • Other examples include Mob lynching and Babri Masjid killings are very heart-wrenching incidents. Communal tensions and riots have been incessantly increasing since independence.
  • Whenever these incidents take place for whatever reasons, minority interests get threatened. This is mainly due to the reason that one feels his religion is being neglected than the other.
  • Moreover, political parties prompts the people according to their interests which promotes communal gulf between the communities.
  • Media, sometimes spreads rumours which results in further tensions. Uneven developments, poverty and unemployment aggravates insecurity in the mind of the common men which make them vulnerable to political manipulation.
  • Communal violence has not only caused social impacts but also economic loss to the country. In order to curb it, proper check on social media instigating differences among people and news taking sides is required.

Apart from this, there should be a peace committee in vulnerable areas. There is a need of minority welfare schemes to be implemented efficiently that can address the challenges and discrimination faced by them. Strong legal action along with the policy of zero tolerance towards the violence will help. Value based education should be promoted which help people to understand the difference between right or wrong. As ‘unity in diversity’ has been a strength of India, therefore it is necessary to uphold the same concept for long lasting peace and development of our nation.

Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir

Introduction :

“Security is a process, not a product.” is a very famous quote by Bruce Schneier. Almost everyday, we hear the news about the Jammu and Kashmir militancy. Militancy is a kind of aggressive activism or combativeness in support of a particular cause. The Kashmir Valley has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since independence. Over the period both the countries have tried to resolve the issues but of no effect. In 1947, at the time of independence the state was ruled by hindu king Hari Singh, whereas the state

  • Comprised 77% muslims. The northern Kashmir part is dominated by Muslims, Jammu is dominated by Hindus and the region of ladakh is dominated by Buddhists and Shia Muslims.
  • This situation makes this state culturally and linguistically diverse. During the partition, Hari Singh did not accede to either Pakistan or India. As a result, Pakistan sent troops to acquire the territory.
  • However, Hari Singh then signed the Instrument of Accession to India to protect its state. Amidst the skirmish, Pakistan acquired large north western part of Jammu & Kashmir which is referred as
  • Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) in India and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. This is the time of starting the hostility between India and Pakistan. After the defeat in war of 1947, 1965 and 1971, Pakistan has resorted to the tactics of low intensity war.
  • Infiltration through the Pakistan border led to establishment of new terrorist organization like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaise-e-Mohammed and many more.
  • The Kashmiri Pandits were forced to leave their land, their houses and livelihood and move to other parts of India. Also they displayed the power of militancy, they started to brainwash the youth in J&K.
  • Pakistan did the terror funding and trained the youth against India. These organizations were responsible for many attacks in India and insurgency and disturbance in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Apart from this, Pakistan frequently raised human rights alarm in United Nation and other international organizations against India.
  • One of the severe effect of militancy in J&K is youth radicalisation. As more than 65% population in India is less than 35 year age. So militancy groups have target on youth to misguide them.

Conclusion :

One of the best step taken by government was demonetization to stop terror funding. Operation All-Out which is an anti militancy operation launched by government to flush out insurgents from Kashmir. The government has been working on various infrastructure projects like rail links, education and health facilities, tourism to lead the region on the path of development. More diplomatic channels as well as military strategies need to be opened up to end this issue and in this way Kashmir can become the Crown of India forever.

Essay on Abrogation of Article 370 and 35a

Introduction :

The article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After passing a statutory resolution on scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 was abrogated by Indian Government on 5th August 2019 and Rajya Sabha had passed a Reorganization Bill 2019 which had effectively bifurcated the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

  • As per the Article 370, the provisions of the constitution which apply to other states do not apply to Jammu and Kashmir until and unless the state legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmir separately passes such provision except provisions related to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications.
  • The residents of the state of Jammu & Kashmir had a separate law and provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties & these were not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • After abrogation of article 370, Jammu and Kashmir is no longer enjoy special status and the laws of Indian Constitution are applicable to all residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh including provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. 
  • Article 35A has been abrogated and now Indian tricolour is National Flag for J&K and Ladhak also. Right to Information and Right to Education are now applicable to J&K & Ladhak union territories.
  • The Panchayats are now enjoying the same powers as in other states. With abrogation of Article 370, tenure of J&K state Assembly is now be of five years as in other parts of state which till now had a special status with a 6-year tenure.
  • The Union Territories (UTs) now have a Chief Minister and a Lt Governor and all financial bills will need to cleared by Lt Governor.
  • Indian Penal Code (IPC) had replaced Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) to deal with criminal matters. With addition of two new UTs, total number of union territories are now 8 i.e. J&K, Ladakh, Delhi, Puducherry, Diu and Daman & Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Conclusion :

Post the repeal of the Article 370, doors to private investment in J&K are opened, which helps in increasing the potential for development there. Increased investments also leads to increased job creation and further betterment of socio-economic infrastructure in the state. The Government is now able to provide better medical, education facilities to citizens of J&K and have better position to curb terrorism. The Opening of buying of lands bring in investments from private individuals and multinational companies and also give a boost to the local economy.

Essay on communal violence in india Vs National Register of Citizens (NRC) Issues in India

Introduction :

The National Register of Citizens (NRC), is the list of Indian citizens in Assam. National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses in a serial order and indicating names of persons staying therein. It is being updated to weed out illegal immigration from Bangladesh and neighbouring regions.

  • Recently Assam released the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which included 1.9 crore names out of a total applicant pool of 3.29 crore.
  • The political leaders have assured that everyone will be given a fair and patient hearing to prove their citizenship.
  • The Supreme Court recently issued a notice to the centre and the Election Commission of India on a plea seeking that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) be updated to include Tripura.
  • The final draft of the NRC in Assam was released, excluding four million residents of the state.
  • An updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
  • It will provide a verified dataset to carry out meaningful debates and implement calibrated policy measures.
  • Though the draft provides a window for re-verification, due to large number of people being excluded from the list, it will be very difficult to physically verify all of them.
  • This draft of the NRC is however not final and people can still appeal against the non-inclusion of their names in the NRC.

Conclusion :

Several religious and linguistic minority groups are also opposing the NRC as discriminatory and undemocratic. The main purpose of NRC is to separate illegal immigrants from legitimate residents of Assam.  The immediate consequence of it is that several lakh individuals will lose their right to vote. The claims of those left out in the NRC must be heard carefully. There is a need for a robust mechanism of legal support for the four million who have to prove their citizenship to India with their limited means.

Essay on communal violence in india Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Fake News as a security Issue in India Vs Essay on communal violence in india

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India (Essay on communal violence in india)

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Social Media as Internal Security issue In India (Essay on communal violence in india)

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India (Essay on communal violence in india)

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought.” — SC judge Anthony M .Kennedy. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian constitution guarantees the citizens of the India , the right to freedom of speech and expression. There are some facets of Freedom of speech and expressions (FOSE). Some of these are freedom of press, commercial advertisements, government has no monopoly over Electronic media, Right to information and Publishing one’s opinions on digital society etc.

Why FOSE sometimes is considered as challenge to Public order?

Public order is defined as a state of prevailing of peace and tranquility in the society any act that affects the law and order or may lead to disturbance of harmony of society is considered as an issue in the interest of public order.

What did make the FOSE a buzz word recently?

– Supreme court of India upheld the petition that challenged the Internet shutdown in many places like Uttarpradesh, Assam specifically in Jammu and Kashmir in 2019 and 2020 after the promulgation of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.
– High court of Tripura also supported the freedom of expression of public officers on social media platforms.
– Power of the day again and again used sedition charges those who criticized the policies of government publically.

Challenges to India because of FOSE?

 In the scope of Security of the state any act that aggravate or encourage commission of violent crimes is considered as a violation of Indian penal code(IPC).
 Under Foreign Relation Act (FRA), 1932 any malicious propaganda that has intention to vitiate friendly relation with other nation is punishable , this does not include the country namely Pakistan.
 Though it is not clearly elaborated in IPC any speech that jeopardize the decency and morality is regarded as punishable offence.

Conclusion :

Unrestricted allegations against government of the day is spreading like a wild fire which needs continuous scrutiny and at the same time maintaining constitutional rights of the issues in public interest. The same constitution mentions, namely Article 19 (2), conditions under which the FOSE can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the barriers of socially well accepted norms and that put the dignity and reputation of the state at a stake. It would augur well if we use the rights within the perimeter put by Indian constitution with well sate of mind and discretion.

Long essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

India constitution guarantees every Indian the freedom of speech  irrespective of gender (sex), caste, creed or religion. This is a fundamental freedom which is guaranteed and that defines the values of democracy in any nation. The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions & thoughts and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian  democracy. Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of our democracy.

  • The kind of freedom of speech we find in many democratic countries like UK, USA, France or Germany is not seen in authoritarian governments like Malayasia, China or Syria and is failed democracies Pakisthan or Rwanda.
  • These governance systems are failed due to lack of freedom of speech in their countries. The freedom of speech of a country can apprently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country.
  • A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democritic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly some governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent of criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This is a dangerous precedent for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can rest assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking and the same way of opinion on a given topic.
  • The difference of opinions and respect we have for each other in a policy-making body is what makes us a true democracy. All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice.
  • A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy but a bad one will blindside its critics and takes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens.
  • The sedition law, under section 124A of Indian Penal Code, says that if a person by words either by written or spoken brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or a person can be fined or jailed or both.
  • This law is never used in its spirit. British used to use this law to silence the freedom fighters of India and now the ruling parties of India use this to stifle the dissenters and is harming the democratic values of the country.
  • Inspite of various laws that protect the people of India in rightly fully exercising their freedom of expression in India. But while the laws stay, its implementation that are proving to be a big challenge for the authorities in India.
  • At the same time, freedom of speech and expression can’t be absolute. No one can cause violence, hatred, bigotry and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech.
  • This will harm the very reason why freedom of speech is allowed in the first place. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

When article 370 was abrogated in Kashmir, freedom of speech was stifled, not because the government wanted to stifle democratic values but to prevent the spread of fake news, put a curb on terrorism and any sorts of preventing communal tensions in the area. Governments around the world should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people.

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Essay on Strategy For New India at 75

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75

Introduction :

New India @ 75 is a path breaking initiative which envisions how India should be in her 75th year of Independence and seeks to bring together all stakeholders including the industry, government, institutions, community groups and individuals to translate the vision into a reality. ‘Strategy for New India’ by NITI Aayog replaced five year plans with an aim to accelerate economic growth to 9 to 10% and to achieve UN sustainable development goals. The 41 Chapters under the documents have been merged under four sessions – Drivers, infrastructure, inclusion and governance.

  • India is on its way to celebrate its 75th independence day on 15th August 2022. The past 75 years took India from a poverty stricken, uneducated country to become one of the greatest pioneers in space technology & pharmaceuticals.
  • However, even after 75 years some issues are left out of fixing or are being handled in a careless manner. India is set to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2025 but its per capita income is among world’s lowest.
  • Half of the population is working in agriculture and allied activities but the income of farmers is extremely low to a point that they are forced to commit suicides.
  • India is 3rd largest economy in the world but its tax to GDP ratio is just half of the OECD countries. In addition to that, Infrastructure will play a huge role.
  • We are in dire need of private railways, Buses with IT enabled services to make our country a truly digital India. Also, India needs to include all its citizens into healthcare services via Ayushman Bharat Scheme, educating them via Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, and provide them shelter via PM Awas Yojna.
  • Moreover, to make the above targets, we need strong and effective governance. The focus is to improve the policy environment so that the contribution of private investors and stakeholders can be diverted to mainstream to achieve the goals set out for new India 2022.
  • Alarming features such as Mining, River valley projects, infrastructure projects, tourism and agriculture are included in this strategy.
  • With all this we have to limit environmental damage, there is an urgent need to conserve non-forest ecosystems such as grassland, wetlands, mountains and deserts.
  • We need to learn from the many alternatives initiatives for food, water, energy etc, which shows the ways to more just and sustainable livelihoods and ways of living.

Conclusion :

Being one of the most populous country of the world, it is a little bit tough but not impossible to change. We need proper utilization of human capital in the direction of all round development of our country. Jan Bhagidari, balanced development, public private partnership lies at the core of the strategy for New India initiative. If the above problems are addressed and vision of ‘strategy for new India @ 75’ is fulfilled, India can truly evolve as a superpower.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs development at the cost of environment degradetion

Introduction :

“Environment is no one’s property to destroy, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect.” These words of Mohith Agadi reflects the irrational utilization of resources for development  activities without considering the environment. Development is a process that leads to positive change in physical, environmental, economic and social aspects of our life. Day by day the issue of environment is increasing as we are degrading our environment in the name of economic growth.

  • As a result we are facing serious repercussions like climate change, global warming, flood, cyclones and ozone layer depletion etc.
  • According to the world bank report higher level of economic growth imposed Rs 3.75 trillion worth of environment damage cost.
  • Rapid industrialization and urbanization are inevitable to bring economic development, to increase the per capita income and ease of living.
  • But these activities have caused negative environmental consequences such as pollution, disasters, forced migration, imbalanced weather phenomena etc.
  • More urbanization and higher industrial setups are being encroached on the forest land. Now-a-days micro plastics are contaminating the water resources very badly.
  • Subsequent use of private vehicle by each family member had supplemented their contribution to pollution.
  • According to environment performance index released by world economic forum, India ranks 168th out of 180 countries, which was the worst in the south Asian countries.
  • Water scarcity and extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of floods and droughts could further strain the economy which is already reeling under pressure due to Covid-19.
  • Government has taken many initiatives to conserve the environment such as Biological diversity Act, 2002, Project Tiger 1972, World summit on sustainable development, Rio de janerio summit 1992, Project elephant 1992 etc.
  • At ground level, efforts made by people can further succeed these programmes. Moreover there should be the maximum recycling and reuse of water, improvement in energy efficient machines is the most effective measure in industries.

Conclusion :

Balancing economic development and environmental sustainable is the need of the hour, to bring this sustainable development in mainstream, united nations launched the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Countries must switch their development plans to the sustainable plans. Thus balancing economic development and environment protection requires a refocusing of economic activity not towards producing less but producing differently.

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Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Positive Effects of Coronavirus on Environment

Introduction :

Covid-19 virus has become worldwide disease and almost all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus. As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.

  • Today, when the production of almost everything is slowed down and factories are not as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke is also reduced which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • This indicates that air has become more pure and we can breathe in pure air. With the increase in number of flights, not only the air traffic increases but the quality of air also getting worse, but now the scenario is changed.
  • To reduce the risk of coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home. This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses.

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. The coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind however, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty again.

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Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Save Water – Saving the future generations

Introduction :

Water is the primary requirement for all the living beings. Human beings and all other animals cannot survive for a day without water. Plants also need water in order to grow and survive as well. Water is used in cleaning our clothes and utensils, wash, cultivating crops, cooking food items, and many other activities. We know that almost three-fourths part of the earth is water but all this water is not suitable for use, only 2% of those water is usable and so it is very necessary to save water. 

  • With the increasing population the water available is inadequate to meet the needs of the people. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.
  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish.
  • There are two extremes in India. The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood. Wastage of water needs to be controlled. 
  • We should identify the water wastage facts and try to save water as much as possible. Currently, the biggest problem related to global warming is a huge water depreciation on Earth.
  • This is mainly caused due to misuse of water happening at various places. In the current scenario, it is important to understand the formula for the conversation of water and thereby save water.
  • Because pure water resources are the primary sources for all our necessities. And when it becomes depreciated, it can lead to huge catastrophic conditions for human beings. 
  • There are many regions in the world that are facing extreme water scarcity due to decline of groundwater and scanty rainfalls. Also, in some areas, the groundwater is contaminated or it has been overused.
  • Thus, these factors have to lead to drought situations and in these areas it has lead to water scarcity. Furthermore, urbanization and industrialization have added to the problems where groundwater has been overused to fulfill the increasing demands of the population.
  • According to the WHO report, 1 out of people does not have access to safe drinking water. Seeing this, the water crisis in the future does seem inevitable.

Conclusion :

Also, it calls for an immediate action plan in order to conserve water so that precious resource can be saved for today as well for future generations. The ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate. Another factor is water leakage. Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages and Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. People who live in those areas where there is plenty of water available should understand the value of water and thus save water. People should understand the importance of water and thus wastage of water should be controlled.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Short Essay on Plastic ban in english for students :

Introduction :

Plastic, polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped by the application of heat and pressure. Plastic Bags are used for various purposes. The most common use of these bags is to carry grocery items. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable.

  • They have become a major cause of land pollution. Used plastic bags stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution.
  • Many countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • We must understand that these have been banned for our good. Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants.

Conclusion :

The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market. The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Thus, plastic bags are ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic bags. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

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Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Long essay on Plastic Ban for students

Introduction :

Plastic, polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped by the application of heat and pressure. Plastic Bags are used for various purposes. The most common use of these bags is to carry grocery items. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable. They have become a major cause of land pollution. Used plastic bags stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution.

  • Many countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • We must understand that these have been banned for our good. Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants. Plastic bags have become the main cause of land pollution today.
  • The plastic bags entering into the water bodies are a major cause of water pollution. Hence we can conclude that these are deteriorating our environment in every possible way.
  • The production of plastic bags releases toxic chemicals. These are the main cause of serious illness. The polluted environment is a major reason for various diseases which are spreading easily in human beings.
  • Waste plastic bags are the main reason for trapping the drains and sewers, especially during rains. This can result in a flood-like situation and disrupt the normal life of people.
  • The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Thus, plastic bags are ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health.
  • Although the Indian government has imposed a ban on the usage of plastic bags in many states. But people are still carrying these bags.

Conclusion :

Shopkeepers stop providing plastic bags for few days only in the beginning. It is time when we all must contribute our bit to make this ban a success. Thus we the educated lot of society must take it as our responsibility to stop using plastic bags. In this way, we can support the government in this campaign. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic bags. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Short Essay on Plastic pollution in english 250 words : 

Introduction :

Plastic is used for various purposes. The most common use of it is to carry grocery items in the form of bags. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable. Plastic stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution. This is the reason why many countries have banned the use of plastic in the form of bags. These countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags.

  • The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states. We must understand that these have been banned for our good.
  • Every individual must take it has his responsibility to stop the use of plastic to make our environment cleaner. Plastic cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases and illnesses in them.
  • Likewise, the marine creatures also tend to mistake the plastic pieces for food and eat them. People who have sea food can get infected if they have fishes suffering from illness.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants. Plastic bags are mostly made of polypropylene which is produced from petroleum and natural gas.
  • These are both non-renewable fossil fuels and their extraction creates greenhouse gases that are the leading cause of global warming.

Conclusion :

The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market. The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Plastic is ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic. It is not that difficult to keep a cloth bag with us while going the market. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

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Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Long Essay on Plastic pollution in english in 400 words

Introduction :

Plastic pollution has become a major threat to our environment in today’s times and it is likely to make things worse in future.  Plastic pollution is damaging our environment rapidly. Waste plastic material is hard to dispose and contributes to major pollution on earth. This has become a cause of global concern. The increasing use of plastic bags, utensils and furniture, the amount of plastic waste has also gone up and so has the plastic pollution.

  • Plastic waste is entering the water bodies such as rivers, seas and even oceans and is polluting our water drastically. This water is then supplied at our places.
  • No matter how much we filter this water it can never get back to its pure form. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals. Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags.
  • Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them. The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avoid it as soon as possible.
  • Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.
  • We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of using plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it.

Conclusion :

We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution these days. The government must also take strict measures to ensure these are not used. It is of utmost importance to spread awareness about the harmful effects of plastic waste on our environment.  This can be done by way of television and radio and social media. This should help people understand the seriousness of the issue.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so.
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.
  • Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.

Conclusion :

If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation. India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Clean India Movement – A step towards cleanliness

Introduction :

The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi had said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence” during his time before the independence of India. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people of India a lot about the cleanliness and sanitation as well as its implementation in the daily lives. After many years of independence of India, a most effective campaign of cleanliness is launched to call people for their active participation and complete the mission of cleanliness. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a Swachh Bharat Mission is launched.

  • In order to fulfill the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and make India an ideal country all over the world, the Prime Minister of India has initiated a campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2nd of October 2014).
  • People can make India clean in a number of ways. First of all, carrying a small poly-bag is a must. Most noteworthy, a recycled paper bag is the best.
  • Indians must certainly use it to throw trash in dustbins. Indians probably throw trash on the street because they dislike carrying it.
  • However, a recycled paper bag makes it easier to carry waste. Hence, Indians can carry this bag to the dustbin for waste disposal.
  • Segregating wastes is also very important. It is something which many Indians ignore. Most noteworthy, the segregation of waste at home should be in 3 separate bins.
  • These 3 bins are Biodegradable, Recyclable and Others. The waste management department should help in implementing this system.
  • Another notable way to clean India is the compost pit. Compost pit helps in the preparation of compost. To create compost pit at home, some items are required.
  • These items are kitchen wastes, leaves, grass, etc. Consequently, the microorganisms convert this organic matter into compost. Through this campaign the government of India would solve the sanitation problems by enhancing the waste management techniques.
  • Clean India movement is completely associated with the economic strength of the country. Community cleanliness drive is yet another brilliant way of making India clean.
  • It has a psychological benefit. This is because it is easier to do a thing when others are doing it. The birth date of the Mahatma Gandhi is targeted in both, the launch and completion of the mission.

Conclusion :

The basic goals behind launching the Swachh Bharat Mission are to make the country full of sanitation facilities as well as eliminate all the unhealthy practices of people in daily routines. Clean India would bring more tourists and enhance its economic condition. The Prime Minister of India has requested to every Indian to devote their 100 hours per year for the cleanliness in India which is very sufficient to make this country a clean country by 2019.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Making India Clean & Healthy

Introduction :

Mahatma Gandhi had said before the independence of India that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people a lot about the cleanliness. To fulfil his dream Swachh Bharat Abhiyan initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd of October in 2014 on the 145th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. Its primary goal is to make India open defecation-free by October 2, 2019, through the construction of at least 12 crore toilets across rural and urban households.

  • As of February 1, 2019, the government claims 9.2 crore toilets built in rural areas. Based on toilet construction, the govt has declared 28 states and UTs as Open Defecation Free.
  • But independent surveys show open defecation continues even in areas that the government has declared Open Defecation Free.
  • It is also found that 23% of people who own a toilet continue to defecate in the open, including people in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, which have been declared open defecation- free states. 
  • The Mission’s objectives also include creating sustainable solid and liquid waste management systems, promoting social inclusion by improving sanitation for women and marginalized communities, and eradicating manual scavenging.
  • Side by side of the main Swachh Bharat Mission, the Indian government also launched the Clean India: Clean Schools campaign.
  • The aim of the campaign was to ensure separate toilets for boys and girls in schools, appropriate sanitary facilities for menstruating students, hand washing station that can cater to at least 10 students at the same time, availability of soaps etc.
  • Our school has all the sanitation equipment necessary to facilitate Clean India, Clean Schools campaign. We have hygienically secure toilets with handwashing facilities.
  • Our female classmates feel comfortable coming to school because of the measures taken to make the girls’ toilet modern and friendly. Our teachers make it a point to emphasise the benefits of personal hygiene.

Conclusion :

In its National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2017-18 (NARSS), the government claimed 77% rural households had access to toilets, of which 93.4% used them regularly. It also claimed 95.6% of the surveyed villages that had been declared ODF were indeed free of open defecation. In urban areas, the government’s target was to build 67 lakh urban toilets by October 2019. It claims it has already built 60 lakh household toilets by October 2018.

Essay on Strategy For New India at 75 Vs Delhi Pollution – Growing Issue In India

Introduction : 

Pollution is one of the major issues causing concern not only in India but across the world. Delhi, the national capital of the country, is being tagged as one of the most heavily polluted capital cities in the world. It is the world’s worst city in terms of air pollution, with an unhealthy air quality index for the majority of the year. Thus, today, one of the biggest threats to the welfare of the people of Delhi. There has been a huge rise in the vehicular population, in spite of the metro railways, aggravating traffic congestion and increasing air and noise pollution. 

  • There has also been a number of diesel vehicles plying on the roads, which are largely responsible for the air pollution. Citizens need to start the public transport more and more to reduce the pollution level in the city.
  • Government has ensured to increase the no. of buses and auto-rickshaws in the capital as well. Stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana in northwest India has been cited as a major cause of air pollution in Delhi
  • Particulate matter (PM) is basically a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets like acids, chemicals, gas, water, metals, soil dust particles, etc. the measurement of which gives an idea of the pollution of a city.
  • There are mobile enforcement teams deployed at various locations for monitoring polluting vehicles. Citizens need to avoid all kinds of contact near construction sites.
  • These sites release gases which makes the air very harmful for eyes and for the respiratory system. The above measures are known by many of us yet the level of national capital remains at 11th in the ranking of WHO for the most polluted cities.
  • The practicing of the above measures is the need for hour and to live happier days with our loved one is we all demand. I whole heartedly appeal to every citizen to take steps to make pollution free capital, a pollution free India.

Conclusion :

 With a view to reducing vehicular pollution, there has been a ban imposed on the plying of more than 15 years old commercial or transport vehicles. Steps are taken to transform garbage into compost by developing new sanitary land-fill sites. It’s not that the Government is not taking steps to control pollution in Delhi, But we need proper and efficient implementation of plans and programmes and policies launched by the Government to make it successful.

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Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)

Introduction :

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) is a strategic dialogue between United States (USA), Japan, Australia and India. This dialogue was initiated in 2007 by prime minister Shinzo Abe of Japan. QUAD formation is a significant move to combat China’s assertiveness. Quad is also know as ‘Mini NATO’ or ‘Asian’ in Indo Pacific region. Quad group’s intent is to keep the critical sea routes in the Indo Pacific free of any influence especially of China. The quad group works to tackle common challenges of terrorism and proliferation.

  • Recently the four countries participated in Malabar Exercise, 2020 started in 1992 as a naval exercise between India and US and later saw participation of Japan and Australia.
  • The Quad grouping is significantly important for India. It has deepen India’s ties with US, Australia and Japan with benefits in diplomatic leverage and sharing of burden in defense.
  • Working with USA and its allies, India can get benefits in shaping of USA policies in Afghanistan Pakistan according to our need.
  • Japan being a country with fastest technology can provide India with various such techniques which can help to establish various Industries and therefore, more employment opportunities can be generated.
  • USA too being proficient in space research will provide benefits in the development of India by collaborating between NASA and ISRO on different space projects. India has been regular participant of Quad military exercise.
  • India’s strategic needs with quad is to keep check on China’s expansionist policy and keep a hold in Indian ocean. It also directly impact on economic relationship with China.
  • China being the largest trading partner of India with 77 billion dollars two way trade, also 95% active pharmaceutical ingredients and electronics comes from China.
  • Quad nations cannot provide military support to each other in case of conflict with third party i.e. India & China conflict. The Quad nations must evolve a clear strategy to advance security and economic interests.
  • The Quad nations need to better explain Indo Pacific vision with objective of advancing economic and security interests of ASEAN nations to counter China effectively.
  • Quad can be used for any search and rescue operation in Indo Pacific region. One of the basic goals of Quad is to ensure free and safe navigation of trade routes in the region by combined naval power of all the nations.

Conclusion :

Moreover, India can build collective action in humanitarian assistance and disaster management, monitoring shipping for anti piracy operations and infrastructure assistance to vulnerable sectors. India should also develop comprehensive vision to engage its strategic partners and further expand Quad. In order to secure its national and regional interests, India should focus more on maritime sphere and should molt its ‘neighbor-hood first policy’ to maintain stability and peace in the region.

India US relations essay | Essay on India US relationships

Introduction :

“When diplomacy ends, war begins” is a popular statement of Adolf Hitler. It is seen that most of the wars begin due to toxic relationship between two or more nations. That is why the diplomatic relationship is strategically very important for every country.  India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, edu-cation, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health.

  • There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India is a developing country and have a huge market which is a big opportunity for all developed countries like USA.
  • US is also important for India in terms of resolving the issues regarding internal security and terrorism from neighbouring countries.
  • US is a major export hub of India and imports crude oil and hydrocarbons. USA is also a home of around 4 million Indians and we get huge amount of remittance from them.
  • We can also see lots of Indians who took various constitutional post in US government. India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs.
  • Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-China war. US didn’t support India in Bangla-desh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test which is known as Smiling Buddha, at Pokhran.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), also participated in Malabar exercise. A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue between India & US started which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities.
  • However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle. Along with these friendly exchanges, India-US relationship also experiences some toxic movements.

Conclusion :

US regularly point out human rights violation in Kashmir. India’s tariffs on imports are also considered as a hindrance to smoother trade. In international politics, there is no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. As partnership between India and US would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity so both the governments must now try to complete the unfinished agreements regardless of the differences between them.

India US relations essay in english

Introduction :

India US relations have become multi-faceted and covering cooperation in many areas as of trade, defense and security, education, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology, environment, and health. There is regular contacts at political and official levels on bilateral, regional and global issues. India and the US have thrown off the yoke of colonialism and have drafted the constitution that begins with the same three words : “ We the people”.
—– Barack Obama
Do you know when Christopher Columbus discovered America he actually thought it was India and called them Indians.

  • A partnership between the world’s oldest democracy and the world’s largest democracy is best for both worlds.
  • But India and US relations weren’t that productive and saw many ups and downs. Following Independence US took the side of Pakistan, in 1962 US assisted India in Indo-Sino war.
  • US didn’t support India in Bangladesh Liberation war 1971, US condemned India when it performed its first nuclear test at Pokhran(Code-named: Smiling Buddha).

Convergence in Relations

  • Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement(COMCASA), is a military agreement that allows both the nations to share and completely rely on the encrypted communications and equipment.
  • A new ‘2+2’ foreign and defence ministers dialogue which focuses on bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interests.
    Placed Pakistan on the grey-list of the Financial Action Task Force and played a vital role in countering China.
  • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement(BECA) accredit both the countries to share geospatial information on maps and satellites for defence purposes.
  • The US has partnered with India for Quad, participated in Malabar exercise.

Divergence in Relations

Trade Deal : Trade has been a major altercation between both countries and US referred India as “tariff king” that imposes “tremendously high” import duties.

US-Pakistan Equation : US has softened its position on Pakistan in the last few months, due to the role Pakistan can play in the Afghan deal (between the US and the Taliban). In return, Pakistan wants the US support.

Internal Issues in India : India-US strong strategic partnership is also based on an idea of “shared values” of democracy, rule of law, religious freedom and protection of minorities. However, the revocation of Article 370, the new citizenship law and the NRC is testing this “shared values” principle.

Conclusion :

In international politics, there are no permanent friends and no permanent enemies, only permanent interests. In such a scenario India must continue to pursue its foreign policy. India-US relation remains pivotal to reinforce the world order in the 21st century. As partnership would bring gains to both sides in terms of GDP, employment, and productivity the two governments must now strive to complete the unfinished agreements, regardless of the differences and enhance the
US-India ties. 

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware.
  • It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer. As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.

Conclusion :

Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents. There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs WhatsApp New Privacy Policy & Its Impact

Introduction :

Social media is a boon for human civilization because it has brought the whole world together at one place where individuals can share their views and ideas and such interactions are beneficial for the people as it helps in increasing social skills. In today’s world, technology has made our life easier because with the help of technology we can learn new things and meet new people. WhatsApp is one of the most important social applications which plays a major role in our daily life.

  • WhatsApp is facing a lot of criticism for its new privacy policy which says that it may share information of any of its users with Facebook and its partner companies. 
  • Since then there has been a huge rise in the dounloads of its alternative apps including Signal. In response to global criticism, WhatsApp head Will Cathcart explained , with end-to-end encryption, they cannot see the users private chats or calls and neither can Facebook.
  • WhatsApp has also given users time till 8th of February 2021  to accept the new terms and conditions. WhatsApp says it is collecting new information from users device such as Battery level, app version, browser information, mobile network, IP address and phone number etc.
  • It also states that the data in some cases will be transferred to the US or other parts where Facebook’s affiliate companies are based.
  • Privacy policies of different countries of the world have put different types of restrictions on business. 
  • EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides much more control to the users on their personal information shared on the online platforms such as WhatsApp privacy policy.
  • While in the EU also, WhatsApp privacy policy talks about sharing information with Facebook, but users have an additional right “Managing and Retaining our personal Information”.
  • They can not only restrict or object to a certain type of information used by the platform but also can withdraw their consent to WhatsApp for processing of data.

Conclusion :

This new update has increased a lot of concern over the privacy of the people that use this application. Indian users are more vulnerable as there is no any data protection law in India. If India had a data protection law, WhatsApp would not have been able to launch this new policy update. It is high time that the government should initiate some digital awareness programs to make the public aware of the importance of digital privacy and also enforce new laws about the same.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Climate Change – Danger to the whole world 

Introduction :

Climate change is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last for a few decades. Change in the pattern of the climate on the Earth has become a global cause of concern. Researchers continually observe the pattern to understand the past, present as well as the future climatic conditions. A record of the climate has been accumulated and is updated regularly based on the geological evidences.

  • There are a number of factors that have contributed towards weather change. These include the variations in solar energy received on the Earth, eruption of volcanoes, orbital changes and plate tectonics.
  • Besides, a number of human activities have also led to the changes in the climatic conditions, particularly over the past few decades.
  • The change that has taken place in the recent past is also referred to as outcome of global warming.
  • The new age technology is adding to the emission of carbon on the planet which in turn is having a negative impact on the climate.
  • Changes in the climatic conditions are also having a negative impact on the water system. It has resulted in the melting of glaciers and erratic rainfall patterns that in turn are leading to environmental imbalance.
  • Man due to his need and greed has done many activities that not only harm the environment but himself too. Many plant and animal species go extinct due to human activity.
  • Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel, industrial waste, a different type of pollution and many more.
  • All these things damage the climate and ecosystem very badly. And many species of animals and birds got extinct or on a verge of extinction due to hunting. These climatic changes have a negative impact on the environment.
  • The ocean level is rising, glaciers are melting, CO2 in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes.
  • Apart from that, it is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct. And there will be a heavy loss to the environment
  • If we do not do anything and things continue to go on like right now then a day in future will come when humans will become extinct from the surface of the earth.
  • But instead of neglecting these problems we start acting on then we can save the earth and our future.

Conclusion :

Although humans mistake has caused great damage to the climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to undo what we have done until now to damage the environment. As we discussed besides the natural forces, human activities have also contributed majorly to this change. It is important to take the climate change issue seriously and control human activities that are contributing towards this change.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster.
  • It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country.
  • This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness. Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.
  • If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation.

Conclusion :

India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Right to Privacy – Necessity of Present Time

Introduction :

The needs of human beings start from the most primary needs such as food, clothing and shelter to secondary needs such as education, work and recreation and further on to wants such as entertainment, good food, leisure travel, etc. The question that must be asked is where does privacy fit into all these needs and wants? A basic degree of privacy is a primary need in any civilized society. As the degree of privacy increases, it evolves into a secondary need and further to a want.

  • Right to Privacy refers to respecting and ensuring the privacy of the individual. The Supreme Court has cut straight to the heart of the issue in the Aadhaar petitions.
  • On behalf of all Indian citizens, it asks the current government to address the most basic questions in a democracy governed by the law: what are the privacy rights of its citizens and are they protected equally, with the same justice for the rich and the poor alike?
  • The right to privacy suggests that it is completely the choice of an individual that which parts of his life he chooses to disclose to the society. Nobody has the right to interfere in someone’s life without his permission.
  • Every individual has his private family and professional life and only he has the sole right to disclose it to others. Technological developments have greatly impacted the privacy of the people.
  • Security and anti-terrorism are the hot topics for global governments that consider the privacy of individuals as a hindrance in their missions to fight terrorism.
  • As a result, intelligence services are granted full rights to breach the security and privacy of the people thus ultimately prying into the life of people.
  • Aadhar initiative requires collection of personal data from residents of India, and this has resulted in controversy regarding its potential to be missed.
  • This is so because it requires collection of biometric details like iris scanning and finger prints which are essentially crucial details and could be misused.
  • Cyber space is a vulnerable space and is prone to threat & cyber security architecture is also not very strong in India.

Conclusion :

However, Aadhar in itself is a well-intentioned program so as to plug leakages and ensure financial inclusion. This will lead to better targeting of subsidies. With the use of the internet, in this age, social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are driving new forms of social interaction and the availability has raised privacy concerns. Towards this the government must strengthen cyber security system and assure by means of legislation that private details would be maintained private against violation of right to privacy.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Virtual Currency – The Future of Currency

Introduction : 

Bitcoin is a digital currency that is widely known for its creator’s anonymity. It is a kind of virtual currency which was launched as an open source software in 2009. Its creator whose identity to this day remains unknown, goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Since its inception, virtual currency, has grown in both its popularity and its use. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator.

  • Bitcoin is often referred to as a “virtual currency” or “cryptocurrency.” All transfers of bitcoin are verified and recorded on a public ledger known as the block chain.
  • It is an electronic or digital currency that works on a peer-to-peer basis. Like currency notes, it can be sent from one person to another.
  • The beauty of this cryptocurrency is that if you receive a bitcoin from another, you can be as sure of the payment as you would on receiving physical currency notes, with the same anonymity ascribed to it.
  • This anonymity is lacking in other forms of digital payment such as online banking or e-wallets. You can send bitcoins digitally to anyone who has a bitcoin address anywhere in the globe.
  • One person could have multiple addresses for different purposes. Receivers can get to spend them within minutes of receiving the coins.

Conclusion :

It is to be noted that cryptocurrency transactions are settled immediately without any third-party approvals. With recognition at universal level, cryptocurrencies can be accessed by everyone. As India moves to digitize much of its financial services and parts of its consumer market, cryptocurrencies offer a new, dynamic addition to the Digital India project.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Technological Development in India

 Introduction : 

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information. New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.

  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems.
  • The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains.
  • In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable. The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society.

Conclusion :

Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science. When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

Essay on Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) Vs Global Warming – Growing danger to the world

Introduction :

Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green-house effect created by green-house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately it would cause end of life on the earth. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, lack of food etc.

  • It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is the cause of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc.
  • Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth.
  • Gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface.
  • The concentrations of greenhouse gases are not larger than oxygen and nitrogen, because neither has more than two atoms per molecule, and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms possess.
  • Flooding of fresh water marshlands, low-lying cities, and islands with marine water is one of the major effects of global warming.
  • The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
  • Due to melting of the ice peaks, there is loss of habitat near the poles. Now the polar bears are considered to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season because of declining ice packs. 
  • Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it.
  • We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas. Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide.

Conclusion :

Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.

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Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir

Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir

Introduction :

“Security is a process, not a product.” is a very famous quote by Bruce Schneier. Almost everyday, we hear the news about the Jammu and Kashmir militancy. Militancy is a kind of aggressive activism or combativeness in support of a particular cause. The Kashmir Valley has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since independence. Over the period both the countries have tried to resolve the issues but of no effect. In 1947, at the time of independence the state was ruled by hindu king Hari Singh, whereas the state

  • Comprised 77% muslims. The northern Kashmir part is dominated by Muslims, Jammu is dominated by Hindus and the region of ladakh is dominated by Buddhists and Shia Muslims.
  • This situation makes this state culturally and linguistically diverse. During the partition, Hari Singh did not accede to either Pakistan or India. As a result, Pakistan sent troops to acquire the territory.
  • However, Hari Singh then signed the Instrument of Accession to India to protect its state. Amidst the skirmish, Pakistan acquired large north western part of Jammu & Kashmir which is referred as
  • Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) in India and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. This is the time of starting the hostility between India and Pakistan. After the defeat in war of 1947, 1965 and 1971, Pakistan has resorted to the tactics of low intensity war.
  • Infiltration through the Pakistan border led to establishment of new terrorist organization like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaise-e-Mohammed and many more.
  • The Kashmiri Pandits were forced to leave their land, their houses and livelihood and move to other parts of India. Also they displayed the power of militancy, they started to brainwash the youth in J&K.
  • Pakistan did the terror funding and trained the youth against India. These organizations were responsible for many attacks in India and insurgency and disturbance in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Apart from this, Pakistan frequently raised human rights alarm in United Nation and other international organizations against India.
  • One of the severe effect of militancy in J&K is youth radicalisation. As more than 65% population in India is less than 35 year age. So militancy groups have target on youth to misguide them.

Conclusion :

One of the best step taken by government was demonetization to stop terror funding. Operation All-Out which is an anti militancy operation launched by government to flush out insurgents from Kashmir. The government has been working on various infrastructure projects like rail links, education and health facilities, tourism to lead the region on the path of development. More diplomatic channels as well as military strategies need to be opened up to end this issue and in this way Kashmir can become the Crown of India forever.

Essay on Abrogation of Article 370 and 35a

Introduction :

The article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution deals with the provision of certain special powers to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It grants a ‘temporary’ autonomous status to the state of Jammu & Kashmir. After passing a statutory resolution on scrapping special status to Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 was abrogated by Indian Government on 5th August 2019 and Rajya Sabha had passed a Reorganization Bill 2019 which had effectively bifurcated the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

  • As per the Article 370, the provisions of the constitution which apply to other states do not apply to Jammu and Kashmir until and unless the state legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmir separately passes such provision except provisions related to defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications.
  • The residents of the state of Jammu & Kashmir had a separate law and provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties & these were not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • After abrogation of article 370, Jammu and Kashmir is no longer enjoy special status and the laws of Indian Constitution are applicable to all residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh including provisions related to Citizenship, Ownership of property, Fundamental rights, Directive Principle of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. 
  • Article 35A has been abrogated and now Indian tricolour is National Flag for J&K and Ladhak also. Right to Information and Right to Education are now applicable to J&K & Ladhak union territories.
  • The Panchayats are now enjoying the same powers as in other states. With abrogation of Article 370, tenure of J&K state Assembly is now be of five years as in other parts of state which till now had a special status with a 6-year tenure.
  • The Union Territories (UTs) now have a Chief Minister and a Lt Governor and all financial bills will need to cleared by Lt Governor.
  • Indian Penal Code (IPC) had replaced Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) to deal with criminal matters. With addition of two new UTs, total number of union territories are now 8 i.e. J&K, Ladakh, Delhi, Puducherry, Diu and Daman & Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Conclusion :

Post the repeal of the Article 370, doors to private investment in J&K are opened, which helps in increasing the potential for development there. Increased investments also leads to increased job creation and further betterment of socio-economic infrastructure in the state. The Government is now able to provide better medical, education facilities to citizens of J&K and have better position to curb terrorism. The Opening of buying of lands bring in investments from private individuals and multinational companies and also give a boost to the local economy.

Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir Vs National Register of Citizens (NRC) Issues in India

Introduction :

The National Register of Citizens (NRC), is the list of Indian citizens in Assam. National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses in a serial order and indicating names of persons staying therein. It is being updated to weed out illegal immigration from Bangladesh and neighbouring regions.

  • Recently Assam released the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which included 1.9 crore names out of a total applicant pool of 3.29 crore.
  • The political leaders have assured that everyone will be given a fair and patient hearing to prove their citizenship.
  • The Supreme Court recently issued a notice to the centre and the Election Commission of India on a plea seeking that the National Register of Citizens (NRC) be updated to include Tripura.
  • The final draft of the NRC in Assam was released, excluding four million residents of the state.
  • An updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
  • It will provide a verified dataset to carry out meaningful debates and implement calibrated policy measures.
  • Though the draft provides a window for re-verification, due to large number of people being excluded from the list, it will be very difficult to physically verify all of them.
  • This draft of the NRC is however not final and people can still appeal against the non-inclusion of their names in the NRC.

Conclusion :

Several religious and linguistic minority groups are also opposing the NRC as discriminatory and undemocratic. The main purpose of NRC is to separate illegal immigrants from legitimate residents of Assam.  The immediate consequence of it is that several lakh individuals will lose their right to vote. The claims of those left out in the NRC must be heard carefully. There is a need for a robust mechanism of legal support for the four million who have to prove their citizenship to India with their limited means.

Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Fake News as a security Issue in India Vs Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India (Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir)

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Social Media as Internal Security issue In India (Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir)

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India (Essay on Militancy In Jammu & Kashmir)

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

“The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is beginning of thought.” — SC judge Anthony M .Kennedy. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian constitution guarantees the citizens of the India , the right to freedom of speech and expression. There are some facets of Freedom of speech and expressions (FOSE). Some of these are freedom of press, commercial advertisements, government has no monopoly over Electronic media, Right to information and Publishing one’s opinions on digital society etc.

Why FOSE sometimes is considered as challenge to Public order?

Public order is defined as a state of prevailing of peace and tranquility in the society any act that affects the law and order or may lead to disturbance of harmony of society is considered as an issue in the interest of public order.

What did make the FOSE a buzz word recently?

– Supreme court of India upheld the petition that challenged the Internet shutdown in many places like Uttarpradesh, Assam specifically in Jammu and Kashmir in 2019 and 2020 after the promulgation of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.
– High court of Tripura also supported the freedom of expression of public officers on social media platforms.
– Power of the day again and again used sedition charges those who criticized the policies of government publically.

Challenges to India because of FOSE?

 In the scope of Security of the state any act that aggravate or encourage commission of violent crimes is considered as a violation of Indian penal code(IPC).
 Under Foreign Relation Act (FRA), 1932 any malicious propaganda that has intention to vitiate friendly relation with other nation is punishable , this does not include the country namely Pakistan.
 Though it is not clearly elaborated in IPC any speech that jeopardize the decency and morality is regarded as punishable offence.

Conclusion :

Unrestricted allegations against government of the day is spreading like a wild fire which needs continuous scrutiny and at the same time maintaining constitutional rights of the issues in public interest. The same constitution mentions, namely Article 19 (2), conditions under which the FOSE can be regulated and curtailed if those acts breach the barriers of socially well accepted norms and that put the dignity and reputation of the state at a stake. It would augur well if we use the rights within the perimeter put by Indian constitution with well sate of mind and discretion.

Long essay on Freedom of speech – Challenges to India

Introduction :

India constitution guarantees every Indian the freedom of speech  irrespective of gender (sex), caste, creed or religion. This is a fundamental freedom which is guaranteed and that defines the values of democracy in any nation. The freedom to practice of religion, the freedom to express love and affection, the freedom to express our opinions & thoughts and dissenting views without hurting sentiments and causing violence is an essential part of Indian  democracy. Freedom of speech is not about our fundamental rights, it is actually a fundamental duty that every citizen should rightfully obey in order to save the essence of our democracy.

  • The kind of freedom of speech we find in many democratic countries like UK, USA, France or Germany is not seen in authoritarian governments like Malayasia, China or Syria and is failed democracies Pakisthan or Rwanda.
  • These governance systems are failed due to lack of freedom of speech in their countries. The freedom of speech of a country can apprently be measured in terms of the freedom of the press of that country.
  • A strong media reflects a strong, liberal and a healthy democritic system with an appetite to take criticisms and dissent in a positive manner.
  • Mostly some governments are very hostile towards any form of dissent of criticism coming towards them and they try to stifle the voices that would have against them.
  • This is a dangerous precedent for any country for example, in India, there are more than 135 crore people and we can rest assured that not every person will have the same way of thinking and the same way of opinion on a given topic.
  • The difference of opinions and respect we have for each other in a policy-making body is what makes us a true democracy. All sides and perspective of the topic have to be considered before making a choice.
  • A good democracy will involve all its members before formulating a policy but a bad one will blindside its critics and takes unilateral and authoritarian policies and force them to their citizens.
  • The sedition law, under section 124A of Indian Penal Code, says that if a person by words either by written or spoken brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or a person can be fined or jailed or both.
  • This law is never used in its spirit. British used to use this law to silence the freedom fighters of India and now the ruling parties of India use this to stifle the dissenters and is harming the democratic values of the country.
  • Inspite of various laws that protect the people of India in rightly fully exercising their freedom of expression in India. But while the laws stay, its implementation that are proving to be a big challenge for the authorities in India.
  • At the same time, freedom of speech and expression can’t be absolute. No one can cause violence, hatred, bigotry and tensions in the society in the name of freedom of speech.
  • This will harm the very reason why freedom of speech is allowed in the first place. Freedom of speech should not lead to anarchy and chaos in a country.

Conclusion :

When article 370 was abrogated in Kashmir, freedom of speech was stifled, not because the government wanted to stifle democratic values but to prevent the spread of fake news, put a curb on terrorism and any sorts of preventing communal tensions in the area. Governments around the world should maintain a balance between freedom of speech and maintaining law and order. To protect freedom of speech we can’t compromise on the law and order of a state and in the same way in order to maintain law and order we should not curtail the freedom of speech of the people.

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Essay on Is India Ready For Covid 19 third Wave

Essay on Is India Ready For Covid 19 third Wave

Introduction :

“We think we are done with the pandemic, but the pandemic is not done with us.” Said by Gitanjali Pai which goes well with Covid-19 third wave. The way we are treating covid-19, it would not take long to spread covid-19 third wave. As it is much more than a health crisis, it is an economic, psychological and social crisis. The year of 2020 proved to be a nightmare for the entire world. The SARS-Cov-2 virus entered in our country in January, 2020 and in March 2020, the government has declared lockdown in India. Somehow, we managed to come out of the covid-19 first wave.

  • It again strike our nation in its mutant form and thus covid-19 second wave emerged. Now, epidemiologists and various scientist predicted that covid-19 third wave is going to hit our nation in October, 2021.
  • Our nation get shattered by Covid’s second wave. Lack of oxygen supply, hospital beds, medical care and medicines claimed lives of lakhs of people till now.
  • To tackle this deadly virus, we have to work on the following 5 sectors i.e. 1) Vaccination 2) Coordination with private health care sector 3) Inclusion of medical staff 4) Mass awareness and 5) Mass production of Vaccine.
  • In the budget 2021, the government allocated Rs 2.23 lakh crores to the health care sector, which was 137% increase in funds as compared to 2020, but still the second wave of the corona virus was seriously devastating.
  • The nation is however, no way prepared for the covid’s third wave. India lost 2.6 trillion USD from 2020 to 2021, and any longer lockdown or restrictions can be financially harsh for people and especially for the poor.
  • People may die of hunger and poverty instead of corona virus. In case, the nation decides not to impose any lockdown against the third wave, may be even more destructive.
  • It is because of the fact that the problems of oxygen cylinders, requirement of enough beds, side effects of the drugs etc.
  • have not been solved yet. Instead, in may 2021, we experienced a sudden surge in the cases of Black fungus which seriously affects the eye and the nervous system.
  • This disease was a side effect of being on ventilated beds for long or using oxygen concentrator in which tap water is used. There may be even more side effects if the covid’s third wave hits India any sooner.

Conclusion :

People should follow the covid-19 guidelines and government also need to take effective steps against the people breaking these guidelines. Hence, we can say that India is very less prepared for the covid-19 third wave. However, we must trust the technology and the doctors to fight against the upcoming wave. We should also use mark and sanitizer for avoiding covid-19 infection. With increased medical staff, vaccines and medical facilities like oxygen, medicines we can definitely handle the third wave of covid-19 efficiently and effectively.

Essay on Healthcare in India – Major Issues & Challenges

Introduction :

“Health is like money, we will never have a true idea of its value until we lost” is a very significant statement of Josh Billings. According to Webster dictionary, efforts made to maintain or restore physical, mental or emotional well-being especially by trained professionals are known as healthcare services. As per Lancet India ranked 145th among 195 countries in healthcare access & quality”. This index is a mirror that reflects the dire situation of India’s outdated healthcare services in India. The COVID-19 outbreak pushed the limits of the healthcare industry.

  • In an attempt to fill the gaps in the sector, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced health and well-being to be one of the six pillars of Union Budget 2021 and also allocated Rs 2,83,846 lakh crore for the healthcare and wellness sector.
  • Marking the importance of Health, World Health Day is celebrated on April 7 every year by the World health organization (WHO) to create awareness among people about health and cleanliness Issues.
  • India’s healthcare scenario has seen both positive and negative achievements. The country has been successful in eradicating polio, reducing epidemics caused by tropical diseases and controlled HIV to a large extent.
  • However, it still faces a huge economic burden due to NCDs (Non Communicable Diseases), struggles to balance
    accessibility, affordability and quality of healthcare.
  • Expenditure on public health funding has been consistently low in India approximately 1.3% of GDP. Private healthcare is expensive and unavailable which leaves public healthcare facilities as the only available option but it has limited scope.
  • Recent news that reported deaths of COVID-19 patients due to lack of hospital beds and oxygen supplies indicate the worse situation of common people amid the pandemic.
  • The availability of government beds is abysmally low in India about 0.55 beds per 1000 population. No single authority responsible for public health that monitors and enforce compliance of the health standards.

Conclusion :

Government of India (GOI) created National Health Agency under NITI Aayog to act as nodal agency for surveillance, information gathering, enforcement of health statistics and maintain health database. The government has already launched Ayushman Bharat Yojna (PM-JAY) and National Medical commission Act, 2019 for poor people and economically weaker section of the society. To strengthen healthcare delivery, policy makers and pharma companies need to devise strategies that can change the present situation. Health is wealth and shouldn’t be treated as a destination. One should understand that preservation of health is better than the cure of a disease.

Healthcare in India – Major Issues & Challenges essay

Introduction :

“Health is like money, we will never have a true idea of its value until we lost” –Josh Billings. Health refers to the physical and mental state of a human being. To stay healthy is not an option but a necessity of life. Still, many people often take Health for granted. The COVID-19 outbreak pushed the limits of the healthcare industry in India. In an attempt to fill the gaps in the sector, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced health and well-being to be one of the six pillars of Union Budget 2021 and also allocated Rs 2,83,846 lakh crore for the healthcare and wellness sector.

  • Marking the importance of Health, World Health Day is celebrated on April 7 every year by the World health organisation(WHO) to create awareness among people about health and cleanliness.
  • Issues India’s healthcare scenario has seen both positive and negative achievements. The country has been successful in eradicating polio, reducing epidemics caused by tropical diseases and controlled HIV to a large extent.
  • However, it still faces a huge economic burden due to NCDs (Non Communicable Diseases), struggles to balance
    accessibility, affordability and quality and is unable to hike public health budgets.
  • Expenditure on public health funding has been consistently low in India(approximately 1.3% of GDP). Massive rural healthcare availability gap despite the 71% of the country being predominantly rural.
  • Private healthcare is expensive and unavailable which leaves public healthcare facilities as the only available option but it has limited scope.
  • Therefore rural communities rely on untrained health workers who remain as the only option of medical support.
  • Our healthcare system evolved in a very disorganised manner, in a way that the private sector and the health systems have grown by default and not by design.

Issues and Challenges 

● The availability of government beds is abysmally low in India(0.55 beds per 1000 population), and an epidemic like coronavirus can very quickly complicate the problem even further.

● Sheer number of skilled doctors hinders efficacy of the desired quality of health services.

● No single authority responsible for public health that monitors and enforce compliance of the health standards.

Conclusion :

One of the clearest lessons the pandemic has taught us is the consequences of neglecting our health systems. Henceforth to strengthen healthcare delivery and improve business prospects, policy makers, and pharma companies need to devise
strategies that transform a spark into a sustainable fire. Health is Wealth and shouldn’t be treated as a destination. One should understand that preservation of health is easier than the cure of a disease

Healthcare in India – Major issues and challenges essay in english

Introduction :

According to Webster dictionary, efforts made to maintain or restore physical, mental, or emotional well-being especially by trained and licensed professionals are known as healthcare services. ”India ranked 145th among 195 countries in healthcare access, quality” : Lancet. This index is a mirror that reflects the dire situation of India’s outdated healthcare services.

Challenges before Nationa Healthcare System(NHS):

Lack of effective primary healthcare services (PHS) foremost need for any country that has villege population as a big share and these PHS are confined mainly to maternary and child care.

 Non- professionnal and semiskilled healthcare providers are becoming as avoidable gap to say that the people get adequate and complete services.

 Only 1.3% of GDP was allocated to Healthcare services which indicates inadiquate funding.

 There is no single authority that is empowered to authorize , survellience and information dissemation all over india.

 Recent poignant news articles that reported deaths of COVID-19 patients due to lack of hospital beds and oxygen supplies indicate the situation of common indian amidst a pandemic.

 Awareness about Non communicable diseases and preventive measures before any epidemic is nearly on the ground level for many of us.

What measures we can suggest to get out this peril?

 PHS needed to tranformed into health wellness centres to equip them with all first class service at affordable prices.
 Corporate social responsibility fund must be utilised to avail high-end medical care.
 Swasth bharath jan andolan in the lines of swatch bharath must be promoted.
 Without power and finance dissemation, co-operative federalism has no meaning, that is center and state government must work in tendom.
 India needs atleast 2.5% of GDP for healthcare : Nationa Health Policy , 2017.

Conclusion :

Government of India(GOI) created National Health Agency under NITI Aayog to act as nodal agency for survellience, information gathering , enforcement of health statastics and maintain health database. The passing of amendments to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in India recently is a step forward in recogninizing the health rights of woman. The once in a century pandemic reminded us the need for robust Medical Infrastructural Network. GOI launched PM jan arogya yojana, National Medical commission act, 2019and PM janaushadhi Pariyojana in the hope that no one should be left behind on basis his economical standards because, “ Universal coverage, not medical technology , is the foundation of any health care system.” — Richard Lamm

Essay on Is India Ready For Covid 19 third Wave Vs Essay on Bioterrorism – A Threat To Global Security

Introduction :

Bioterrorism is a type of terrorism which involves intentional release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock and to terrorize the civilian population. These agents are generally found in nature and are altered or mutated in laboratory to be used as a weapon for mass destruction. This type of terrorism can easily be disseminated to cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual damage. It can be spread through air, water or food.

  • During World War-I and II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale programs to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus Anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.
  • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories.
  • These are (1) Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax. (2) Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever (3) Category C : Low-priority agents.
  • These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus. For restricting the development and use of biological weapons, a convention was signed at Geneva, popularly known as ‘Geneva Protocol 1925’.
  • But this convention was failed to address the production, storage, testing, and transfer of these weapons. After seeing the upcoming crisis, Biological Weapon Convention (BWC) came into force on March 26, 1975.
  • At present it has 183 member states. India is also a member state of this convention. BWC is formed to restrict the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological weapons.
  • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty which bans the entire categories of weapons of mass destruction. The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial steps for appropriate response against it. Co-operation with friendly nations and the robust surveillance system have to maintain and construction of clinical labs should be done to fight against these issues in India.

Essay on Is India Ready For Covid 19 third Wave Vs Descriptive Essay on Bioterrorism – A Threat To Global Security

Introduction :

“Innovation is a good thing. The human condition – put aside bioterrorism and a few footnotes – is improving because of innovation.” — Bill Gates — Were you aware that intelligence agencies proclaimed that the Novel-coronavirus
might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China?. This was conspired when researchers couldn’t figure out how bat viruses could mutate to attack humans.

  • Bioterrorism is the release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins deliberately to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.
  • Deadly pathogens are the ‘next big thing’ in terror and it’s going to be a defense problem. Bioterrorism aims to create casualties, terror, societal disruption.
  • The goal of the terrorists,non-state actors is to make their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
  • During World War-I,II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale program to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.

Why are bioweapons considered as perfect weapons of terror ?

  • Can be spread through air, water,food,aerosol sprays or by mail on infected
    envelopes.
  • Lethal pathogens are readily accessible.
  • Highly difficult to detect.

Classification of Biological Agents :

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories. These are:
● Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax.
● Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever
● Category C : Low-priority agents. These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus.

During the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s (SCO’s) first military medicine conference, Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh said that bioterrorism is a real threat in today’s time and the Armed Forces medical services should be at the forefront of combating the menace.

The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear(CBRN) attacks. As time goes, the weapons have been shifted from swords to malicious biological weapons. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial for appropriate response against it. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 is a necessity of time to deal with bioterrorism firmly.

Essay on Is India Ready For Covid 19 third Wave Vs Internal Security of India in english

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Essay on Covid 19 vaccine in english

Introduction :

The Government of India has approved the Covid-19 vaccines developed by Astra-Zeneca and Bharat Biotech named Covishield and Covaxin respectively. Seeing this our PM Modi has launched the COVID-19 vaccination drive on 16th January, 2021 which can save millions of lives every year. This is the world’s largest vaccination program covering the entire country. During the launch of this drive a total of 3006 sites in all States and UTs have been virtually connected.

  • Although India don’t need to vaccinate its entire population, it just have to vaccinate at least 30 to 40% of the people.
  • It is estimated that a minimum of 1 billion doses of Covid-19 vaccines will be required for full immunization.
  • The vaccine has introduced in phrased manner. In first phrase, the vaccine is provided to healthcare workers like doctors, nurses and other medical staff both in government and private sectors.
  • Because they treat and are in close contact with those who are infected with Covid-19. Then it will be provided to police, armed forces, municipal workers and other departmental staffs.
  • In third phase, people above 50 years of age and those patient who have diabetes, hypertension and organ transplant will get the vaccine. After that, the vaccine will be given to healthy adults, teenagers and children.

Conclusion :

The central government is incurring the cost for vaccinating the core healthcare and frontier workers. For further vaccination process, the government has also developed an application named CoWIN, which will help provide real time information of vaccine stocks, storage and individualized tracking of beneficiaries for COVID-19 vaccine. The Vaccination for Covid-19 is voluntary in India. It is a safe and effective way of protecting people against this disease. Vaccines reduce risks of getting diseases by working with our body’s immune system.

 

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COVID- 19 : Changing Social Norms in India :

Introduction :

The world is facing the biggest crisis in the form of coronavirus pandemic. Almost every country has been affected by the COVID-19. Over 115 million people had been affected by COVID-19 and about 2.54 million people had died worldwide.  And indirectly billions of people have been suffering from the impact of this pandemic. As vaccines are being available now but still, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as regularly washing of hands, social distancing and wearing of masks.

  • India has successfully controlled the transmission of COVID-19 by its well coordinated efforts.
  • India’s progress in pharmaceuticals and mass public awareness with the help of digital systems indeed helped in controlling the spread of this disease.
  • There are still many ways by which the COVID-19 can affect our economy, of which the disruption of supply chains is the major challenge.
  • Job loss is on the rise along with the slowdown in manufacturing and services activities in India.  
  • Millions of agricultural workers, regularly facing high levels of uncertainty, poverty, malnutrition and poor health, and suffer from a lack of safety and labour protection.
  • With low and irregular incomes and lack of social support, many of them are forced to continue working, often in unsafe conditions.
  • Further, when experiencing income losses, they may resort to negative coping strategies, such as distress sale of assets, taking loans or child labour. The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers in many ways.
  • Several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back.
  • Since then, the government has announced relief measures for them, and made arrangements like running special trains and buses to help them to return to their native places.
  • At the same time, many countries undertake new reforms to strengthen the digital economy and e-commerce not only to manage the Covid-19 pandemic but also to facilitate trade & commence.

Conclusion :

COVID-19 crisis also opens the doors of opportunities in India as we witness better healthcare both in management and facilities. New social norms have been introduced like social distancing, wearing masks, maintaining hygiene for protecting us against the Covid-19. People who are ill with Covid-19 need doses of new vaccine, which save their lives and speed up recovery. Healthcare professional should be appreciated as instead of a lot of difficulties they do their best to maintain the quality of healthcare services.

 

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Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma

Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma

Introduction :

Maoist also known as Naxalites are a group of terrorists who have been enrooted in eastern part of India for almost five decades. Naxalism originated from the village Naxalbari of West Bengal in 1967. It was initiated as a movement against local landlords by tribals under the leadership of Kanu Sanyal and Charu Majumdar. In 2000, Naxalism gave birth to another organization named People’s Liberation Guerilla Army (PLGA) which was held responsible for the recent Maoist Attack in Sukma district of Chhatisgarh.

  • There are almost 30 districts which are affected by Maoist or Left Wing Extremism (LWE). In 2018 Ministry of Home Affairs has redrawn the red corridor region which are affected by left wing activists.
  • Naxalism is not merely a problem of law and order. It is a problem of underdeveloped village that fails to provide basic amenities like health, education, livelihood to peasants and tribal communities.
  • Red corridor area i.e. area of Odisha, West Bengal, Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh are ironically most rich states in mineral resources.
  • But these areas are also most underdeveloped in terms of basic amenities. Relentless mining and construction activities in these regions, deprive forest dwellers and tribals from their source of livelihood.
  • It causes resentment among them and can be seen as Naxalism. There are many reasons of which the Maoist have taken a widespread advantage.
  • One main reason is the lack of road and telecommunication infrastructure in these remote areas and thus Maoist are being able to use the terrain. Uneven terrain have thus made this region a safer place to hide for the Maoists.
  • Other factors of increase in Maoism is the poverty and underdevelopment in these areas. The resource exploitation pose a great threat to the livelihood of the tribals due to which these people become easy targets for Maoists.
  • Lack of basic facilities like education, sanitation, food lead to these socially backward tribals to form the major support base for the Maoists.

Conclusion :

To fight naxalism and uproot it completely from Indian soil, government took several initiatives like Greyhounds to fight these insurgents, operation Green Hunt, aspirational district program, SAMADHAN etc. Naxalism can be fought by education and awareness among poor people. It will help them understand their rights and will also make them recognize the fact about the government. Through a holistic approach, LWE can be successfully tackled. The forth pillar, media along with society should also build pressure on Maoists to refrain violence.

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Essay on Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma Vs Internal Security of India in english

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma Vs Bioterrorism – Internal threat to India

Introduction :

“Innovation is a good thing. The human condition – put aside bioterrorism and a few footnotes – is improving because of innovation.” — Bill Gates — Were you aware that intelligence agencies proclaimed that the Novel-coronavirus
might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China?. This was conspired when researchers couldn’t figure out how bat viruses could mutate to attack humans.

  • Bioterrorism is the release of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins deliberately to cause illness or death among humans, plants, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.
  • Deadly pathogens are the ‘next big thing’ in terror and it’s going to be a defense problem. Bioterrorism aims to create casualties, terror, societal disruption.
  • The goal of the terrorists,non-state actors is to make their civilian targets feel as if their government cannot protect them.
  • During World War-I,II Japan and Germany embarked on a large scale program to develop biological weapons using fatal mustard gas.
  • Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.

Why are bioweapons considered as perfect weapons of terror ?

  • Can be spread through air, water,food,aerosol sprays or by mail on infected
    envelopes.
  • Lethal pathogens are readily accessible.
  • Highly difficult to detect.

Classification of Biological Agents :

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) ranks the biological agents and diseases that have the potential to be used as weapons into three categories. These are:
● Category A: High-priority agents. Example: Plague, Ebola virus, Anthrax.
● Category B : Moderate-priority agents having low mortality rate. Example: Brucellosis, Q fever
● Category C : Low-priority agents. These are emerging pathogens. Example: Hantavirus, Nipah Virus, SARS, Yellow fever virus.

During the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s (SCO’s) first military medicine conference, Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh said that bioterrorism is a real threat in today’s time and the Armed Forces medical services should be at the forefront of combating the menace.

The UN Secretary General said he sees an increasing risk of bioterrorism attacks aimed at creating a pandemic similar to that of coronavirus.

Conclusion :

In India, National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is a specialised force constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) to deal with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear(CBRN) attacks. As time goes, the weapons have been shifted from swords to malicious biological weapons. Since bioterrorism attacks are unpredictable, early detection, containment, treatment and communication are crucial for appropriate response against it. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 is a necessity of time to deal with bioterrorism firmly.

Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma Vs Social Media as Internal Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Essay on Maoist Attack In Sukma Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

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Essay on North East insurgency of India

Essay on North East insurgency of India

Introduction :

India is one of the seventh largest country in the world with wide culture and tradition. North east India is the most volatile and insurgency affected place in our country after Kashmir. It is the eastern most part of India covering seven states also known as Seven Sisters. It include Assam, Arunanchal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim linked to mainland India through Siliguri corridor which is also known as ‘Chicken Neck’. These states shares borders with our neighbouring countries such as China, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Nepal.

  • It has been observed that to overcome the problem of insurgency, government is trying to alienate the population that’s why the people from North East area always has the feeling of insecurity.
  • Unemployment, inter tribal conflicts, illegal migration from neighbouring states, resource conflicts are major issues prevalent in north east states of India.
  • The difference in races between India and its northeast region leads to feeling of alienation in the minds of the people.
  • Poor governance, lack of development and apthetic attitude from Central government, all these conflicts results in rise of various insurgent groups in northeastern states.
  • Several fatalities have been reported from northeast including both civilians and security forces. In the oil rich Assam, destructions are caused by insurgents alleging that India is exploiting its natural resources.
  • These groups hinders in the development of projects such as rail project, dams, roads etc. Tourism is suffered a lot due to instability in these areas.
  • Education in these areas is also adversely affected as these areas are prone to continuous strikes and military operations. Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region is responsible for proper planning, execution and launching of various schemes and projects in order to ensure development.
  • Inner line permit is used to restrict entry of outsiders in these regions. Infrastructure should be developed in order to upgrade communication and connectivity in these areas.

Conclusion :

Strict laws and policies should be imposed to minimize insurgency. Proper schools and education system should be established and education should be provided to such insurgent groups. Coordination should be made between Centre and these states governments. Although with the peace accords and efforts of government, the number of fatalities due to insurgency have been decreased. Proper coordination, decentralization, investment, encouragement to small industries are some steps the government can follow to meet up the challenges. Insurgency has been a threat to our internal security, hence it should be tacked with a right strategy.

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India :

Introduction :

India is the seventh largest country in the world. It has land frontier of 15200 km and a coastline of 7516.6 km. It is a land of beauty consisting of hilly regions, mountains, lakes, forest, deserts, historical monuments and world heritage sites. It is a country of diverse culture, languages, customs & traditions. Despite these diversities, people live here in harmony with each other. But along with these qualities, one of the biggest problems here is the problem of unauthorized infiltration. Unauthorized infiltration can be defined as the invasion of the people in a country by entering the borders of that country in a clandestine way.

  • This has necessitated to keep a check on the land and coastal security management. India has a threat from land and coastal boundaries of which 26/11 Mumbai attack is a well known incident.
  • The unauthorized infiltration creates various problems for any nation like drug smuggling, human trafficking, arms smuggling etc. There are many other internal and external threats to national security of India.
  • It can result in increase in terrorist activities in the country like spying, bombing, fetching sensitive information etc.
  • Although we share border with 7 countries including Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Myanmar, still we face sporadic attacks or violation of cease fire from two countries i.e. Pakistan and China.
  • However in order to deal with these violations Indian government set up a distinct department know as “Department of Border Management Force” under Ministry of Home Affairs” and “One Border One Force” like Border Security Force, Shashastra Seema Bal, Indo-Tieban Border etc.
  • Proper border fencing along the border of Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal that can help in better border and security management.
  • Coordination among various agencies such as customs, armed forces, intelligence agencies is required to strengthen the border guarding and management.
  • Coastal radars and electronic surveillance further can maintain strict security measures. Government can promote use of space technology in improving border management.

Conclusion :

An effective surveillance mechanism has to be developed at coastal areas too. A holistic and robust mechanism is required to deal with these problems. The vulnerable areas affected with infiltration should be given priority by our security agencies and local people living in these areas should be made aware about its dangers and consequences. Thus for better security management, a combination of properly trained manpower and affordable and tested technology is likely to yield better results and minimize the latest security threats emerging in our country.

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Emerging Threats To India’s Internal Security

Introduction :

Internal security is one of the core focus areas in India. In this technology driven society, the security challenges become more compound and complex. A lot of threats ranging from domestic challenges to external scenarios impact internal security in India. From independence, India has tackled home grown insurgencies, external rebellions, militancy and terrorism. By using a mix of economic, political, military and kinetic approaches, it has been able to deal with these emerging issues threatening the integrity and sovereignty of the country with great success.

  • However, these challenges continue to evolve themselves in newer forms. In dealing with the new emerging internal security challenges which remain the most critical, agencies of the state including Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) and police machinery have to remain relevant and effective against the new evolving scenario.  
  • The rapidly changing internal dynamics of the country needs to be constantly monitored at all levels and aspects.
  • Our country has to overcome the challenges of unemployment, poverty, socio-economic divides, communal and sectarian violence, organised crime, drug-trafficking, labour, students’ unrest and political violence.
  • Internal security issues tend to grow out of the fissures of the society. The legitimate aspirations of our youth, along with global & local problems of environmental degradation and ill effects of climate change which shows the rising frequency of disasters are all critical in the evolving security scenario.
  • Our PM has on numerous occasions highlighted that the core strength of the nation lies in diversity of our varied cultures, beliefs and practices.
  • The most critical element is technology. It is altering the security landscape at present time.
  • Lightning changes and advancement in hardware, software, miniaturisation in robotics paired with networked communications have fully changed our daily life. These changes have fuelled competition between state and non-state actors.
  • A new dimension of risk to personal and national security is being seen in these days. The weaponization of social media, Disinforma-tion, attacks on critical infrastructure of the country all indicate towards a hybrid warfare scenario.

Conclusion :

War is no more an effective instrument to achieve the goals. Wars are more transparent and now with other means like covert operations, proxy-war, sabotage and subversion with a mix of technology has become much more difficult to handle. The enemy is invisible in cyberspace and social media which remain borderless in operation. The new risks that present themselves as biological threats are shaping the next generation of warfare. With the changing nature of threats, our approach to deal with should also change as per the situation. The government and security agencies should also be prepared to tackle these issues with changing strategies. 

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs

Non Conventional Security Threats in India

Introduction :

“Non conventional security threats are the challenges to the survival and well being of people and states that arises primarily out of non military sources” is a famous statement by Professor MC Anthony. As we are moving towards a better lifestyle and technological advancement, we are facing a lot of non conventional security threats. These threats range from climate change, environmental degradation, resource depletion, illegal migration, food security, cyber crime to health related issues. India’s development has posed many challenges as it has raised the aspiration of people and availability of digital connectivity & cheap data has become a related threat. 

  • There are around 62% youth in India, if their aspirations are not met, it has the potential to cause social conflict, demonstrations and violence in the society.
  • People have realised the power of mass movements and that is something which is exploited from time to time. Crime against women is catching consciousness and there is a lot of resentment against the slow justice system in India.
  • There has been a tendency to use violence for political influence. Mobs have been taking the law into their hands to punish individuals with they think not following their way of life.
  • Due to the over population, there is a huge burden on limited food resources. India occupies 94th rank in global hunger index, which shows the gap of food supply.
  • Cyber domain is also posing lots of challenges of cyber security, data threats, fake identities and frauds. Ransomware continues to remain a major threat.
  • Climate change is another non conventional security threat. Heavy use of vehicles increasing the rate of pollution which leads to change in our climate cycle.
  • It results in melting of glaciers before time and uncertainty of weather. Social insecurity is also considered as a non conventional security threat. Different people have different types of customs & traditions, cultures, religions and languages.
  • When these aspects are in danger of any minority group then their identity is threatened. To tackle these issues government has taken many initiatives like creating National Cyber Security Agency (NCSA) for cyber crime, POSHAN Abhiyan for malnutrition, followed Kyoto Protocol to reduce CO2 to save environment, adopting Denmark model for water crisis and ‘Catch the Rain’ campaign for saving rain water etc.

Conclusion :

More emphasis should be taken on sustainable development and resource management programs. Proper health institutions and research centers must be established so that epidemic like Covid-19 can be detected earlier and measures should be taken in advance. It is time to stand together for non conventional security threats as these are more dangerous than any other threats. So people also work together because “good people don’t need laws to tell them to act responsibly.” said by Dalai Lama

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Internal Security Challenges In India in english :

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Social Media as Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs farm bill 2020 pros and cons

Introduction :

The Farmers Bills 2020 is consist of three agricultural bills passed by the central government in September 2020. It includes the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, Farmers Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities Bill. These Bills will develop a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. This bill will also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • This agriculture Bill provides a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It will be beneficial for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land.
  • The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings but the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their crops directly to large buyers.
  • It will also give the farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply should also made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce.

Conclusion :

The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. The government should take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

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Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs Farm Bill 2020 Demand of the Farmers :

  • The main demand of the farmers are the revocation of all three bills. These Bills have not been revoked yet & the Lok Sabha passed the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020 & The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020 among the protests of these farmers.
  • With the introduction of these bills the mandi system will remain intact. These bills had been claimed by the farmers to end the monopoly of the mandis.
  • These new legislation has nothing to do with the Minimum Support Prices (MSPs), it is just providing freedom of choice to sell and buy the produces outside the mandis.
  • Later in line with the 2006 Swaminathan report by ‘The National Commission on Farmers’ law should be promulgated for MSP to be at least 50% more than the weighted average cost of production and if the MSP is not paid, it must be a penalized.
  • A law should be put in place that will provide guarantee payments from the buyers through middlemen. Middlemen also make money by selling the product for more than its purchase price. 

Advantages (Pros) of the new Farm Bills :

  • The farmers want a more flexible system.
  • Selling produces or crops outside the mandis will generate an additional marketing channel for the farmers.
  • The new bill has not brought any major changes, only a parallel system working with the existing system. Prior to these bills, farmers can sell their produce to anywhere in the world, through the e- NAM system.
  • The amendment to the Essential Commodities Act which is one of the three bills under protest removes the fear of the farmers.
  • The bills ensure that the farmer is given the same attention as production is and the farmer gets the stipulated price for crops, so that farming survives.
  • In the existing APMC system, it is compulsory for farmers to go through a trader via Mandis so as to sell their crops to consumers and companies and they receive Minimum Selling Prices for their crops.

Disadvantages (Cons) of the Farm Bills :

  • The Farm Bills hampers the monopoly of APMC (agricultural produce market committee) mandis, therefore allowing sale and purchase of crops outside the state government-regulated market mandis.
  • The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill does not provide any statutory backing to MSP. The farmers have nothing to do with the legal system but everything to do with the MSP, the minimum price at which they can sell their produce.
  • The new bills are placing farmers and traders at the mercy of civil servants.
  • The government declares MSPs for crops, but there has been no law about their implementation yet.
  • The only crop where MSP payment has some statutory implementation is sugarcane for which FRP is determined. This is due to its pricing being governed by the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966. 

Essay on North East insurgency of India Vs farm bill 2020 pros and cons in english

Introduction :

The Farm Bills 2020 is a combination of three agricultural bills passed by Parliament in September 2020. These three bills are the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill. The Bills will create a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. It also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • The Bill formulates a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It also provides benefits for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land. The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings.
  • But the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their products directly to big buyers.
  • Farmer unions in Punjab and Haryana say the recent laws enacted at the Centre will dismantle the minimum support price (MSP) system.
  • Over time big corporate houses will dictate terms and farmers will end up getting less for their crops. The key demand is the withdrawal of the three laws which deregulate the sale of their crops. 
  • The farmer unions could also settle for a legal assurance that the MSP system will continue, ideally through an amendment to the laws.
  • They are also pressing for the withdrawal of the proposed Electricity (Amendment) Bill 2020, fearing it will lead to an end to subsidised electricity. Farmers say rules against stubble burning should also not apply to them.
  • MSP is the minimum price paid by the government when it procures any crop from the farmers. Food Corporation of India (FCI) which is the main state-run grain procurement agency largely buys only paddy and wheat at these prices.
  • The FCI then sells these food grains at highly subsidised prices to the poor and is thereafter compensated by the government for its losses.
  • The three farm laws have been projected by the government as major reforms in the agriculture sector that will remove middlemen and allow farmers to sell anywhere in the country.

Conclusion :

Giving farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply is made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce. The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. It is the responsibility of the government to take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

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Essay on development at the cost of environment degradetion

Essay on development at the cost of environment degradetion

Introduction :

“Environment is no one’s property to destroy, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect.” These words of Mohith Agadi reflects the irrational utilization of resources for development  activities without considering the environment. Development is a process that leads to positive change in physical, environmental, economic and social aspects of our life. Day by day the issue of environment is increasing as we are degrading our environment in the name of economic growth.

  • As a result we are facing serious repercussions like climate change, global warming, flood, cyclones and ozone layer depletion etc.
  • According to the world bank report higher level of economic growth imposed Rs 3.75 trillion worth of environment damage cost.
  • Rapid industrialization and urbanization are inevitable to bring economic development, to increase the per capita income and ease of living.
  • But these activities have caused negative environmental consequences such as pollution, disasters, forced migration, imbalanced weather phenomena etc.
  • More urbanization and higher industrial setups are being encroached on the forest land. Now-a-days micro plastics are contaminating the water resources very badly.
  • Subsequent use of private vehicle by each family member had supplemented their contribution to pollution.
  • According to environment performance index released by world economic forum, India ranks 168th out of 180 countries, which was the worst in the south Asian countries.
  • Water scarcity and extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of floods and droughts could further strain the economy which is already reeling under pressure due to Covid-19.
  • Government has taken many initiatives to conserve the environment such as Biological diversity Act, 2002, Project Tiger 1972, World summit on sustainable development, Rio de janerio summit 1992, Project elephant 1992 etc.
  • At ground level, efforts made by people can further succeed these programmes. Moreover there should be the maximum recycling and reuse of water, improvement in energy efficient machines is the most effective measure in industries.

Conclusion :

Balancing economic development and environmental sustainable is the need of the hour, to bring this sustainable development in mainstream, united nations launched the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Countries must switch their development plans to the sustainable plans. Thus balancing economic development and environment protection requires a refocusing of economic activity not towards producing less but producing differently.

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Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Positive Effects of Coronavirus on Environment

Introduction :

Covid-19 virus has become worldwide disease and almost all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus. As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.

  • Today, when the production of almost everything is slowed down and factories are not as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke is also reduced which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • This indicates that air has become more pure and we can breathe in pure air. With the increase in number of flights, not only the air traffic increases but the quality of air also getting worse, but now the scenario is changed.
  • To reduce the risk of coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home. This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses.

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. The coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind however, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty again.

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Essay on Strategy For New India at 75

Introduction :

New India @ 75 is a path breaking initiative which envisions how India should be in her 75th year of Independence and seeks to bring together all stakeholders including the industry, government, institutions, community groups and individuals to translate the vision into a reality. ‘Strategy for New India’ by NITI Aayog replaced five year plans with an aim to accelerate economic growth to 9 to 10% and to achieve UN sustainable development goals. The 41 Chapters under the documents have been merged under four sessions – Drivers, infrastructure, inclusion and governance.

  • India is on its way to celebrate its 75th independence day on 15th August 2022. The past 75 years took India from a poverty stricken, uneducated country to become one of the greatest pioneers in space technology & pharmaceuticals.
  • However, even after 75 years some issues are left out of fixing or are being handled in a careless manner. India is set to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2025 but its per capita income is among world’s lowest.
  • Half of the population is working in agriculture and allied activities but the income of farmers is extremely low to a point that they are forced to commit suicides.
  • India is 3rd largest economy in the world but its tax to GDP ratio is just half of the OECD countries. In addition to that, Infrastructure will play a huge role.
  • We are in dire need of private railways, Buses with IT enabled services to make our country a truly digital India. Also, India needs to include all its citizens into healthcare services via Ayushman Bharat Scheme, educating them via Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, and provide them shelter via PM Awas Yojna.
  • Moreover, to make the above targets, we need strong and effective governance. The focus is to improve the policy environment so that the contribution of private investors and stakeholders can be diverted to mainstream to achieve the goals set out for new India 2022.
  • Alarming features such as Mining, River valley projects, infrastructure projects, tourism and agriculture are included in this strategy.
  • With all this we have to limit environmental damage, there is an urgent need to conserve non-forest ecosystems such as grassland, wetlands, mountains and deserts.
  • We need to learn from the many alternatives initiatives for food, water, energy etc, which shows the ways to more just and sustainable livelihoods and ways of living.

Conclusion :

Being one of the most populous country of the world, it is a little bit tough but not impossible to change. We need proper utilization of human capital in the direction of all round development of our country. Jan Bhagidari, balanced development, public private partnership lies at the core of the strategy for New India initiative. If the above problems are addressed and vision of ‘strategy for new India @ 75’ is fulfilled, India can truly evolve as a superpower.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Save Water – Saving the future generations

Introduction :

Water is the primary requirement for all the living beings. Human beings and all other animals cannot survive for a day without water. Plants also need water in order to grow and survive as well. Water is used in cleaning our clothes and utensils, wash, cultivating crops, cooking food items, and many other activities. We know that almost three-fourths part of the earth is water but all this water is not suitable for use, only 2% of those water is usable and so it is very necessary to save water. 

  • With the increasing population the water available is inadequate to meet the needs of the people. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.
  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish.
  • There are two extremes in India. The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood. Wastage of water needs to be controlled. 
  • We should identify the water wastage facts and try to save water as much as possible. Currently, the biggest problem related to global warming is a huge water depreciation on Earth.
  • This is mainly caused due to misuse of water happening at various places. In the current scenario, it is important to understand the formula for the conversation of water and thereby save water.
  • Because pure water resources are the primary sources for all our necessities. And when it becomes depreciated, it can lead to huge catastrophic conditions for human beings. 
  • There are many regions in the world that are facing extreme water scarcity due to decline of groundwater and scanty rainfalls. Also, in some areas, the groundwater is contaminated or it has been overused.
  • Thus, these factors have to lead to drought situations and in these areas it has lead to water scarcity. Furthermore, urbanization and industrialization have added to the problems where groundwater has been overused to fulfill the increasing demands of the population.
  • According to the WHO report, 1 out of people does not have access to safe drinking water. Seeing this, the water crisis in the future does seem inevitable.

Conclusion :

Also, it calls for an immediate action plan in order to conserve water so that precious resource can be saved for today as well for future generations. The ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate. Another factor is water leakage. Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages and Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. People who live in those areas where there is plenty of water available should understand the value of water and thus save water. People should understand the importance of water and thus wastage of water should be controlled.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Short Essay on Plastic ban in english for students :

Introduction :

Plastic, polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped by the application of heat and pressure. Plastic Bags are used for various purposes. The most common use of these bags is to carry grocery items. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable.

  • They have become a major cause of land pollution. Used plastic bags stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution.
  • Many countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • We must understand that these have been banned for our good. Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants.

Conclusion :

The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market. The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Thus, plastic bags are ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic bags. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

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Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Long essay on Plastic Ban for students

Introduction :

Plastic, polymeric material that has the capability of being molded or shaped by the application of heat and pressure. Plastic Bags are used for various purposes. The most common use of these bags is to carry grocery items. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable. They have become a major cause of land pollution. Used plastic bags stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution.

  • Many countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • We must understand that these have been banned for our good. Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants. Plastic bags have become the main cause of land pollution today.
  • The plastic bags entering into the water bodies are a major cause of water pollution. Hence we can conclude that these are deteriorating our environment in every possible way.
  • The production of plastic bags releases toxic chemicals. These are the main cause of serious illness. The polluted environment is a major reason for various diseases which are spreading easily in human beings.
  • Waste plastic bags are the main reason for trapping the drains and sewers, especially during rains. This can result in a flood-like situation and disrupt the normal life of people.
  • The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Thus, plastic bags are ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health.
  • Although the Indian government has imposed a ban on the usage of plastic bags in many states. But people are still carrying these bags.

Conclusion :

Shopkeepers stop providing plastic bags for few days only in the beginning. It is time when we all must contribute our bit to make this ban a success. Thus we the educated lot of society must take it as our responsibility to stop using plastic bags. In this way, we can support the government in this campaign. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic bags. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Short Essay on Plastic pollution in english 250 words : 

Introduction :

Plastic is used for various purposes. The most common use of it is to carry grocery items in the form of bags. These are easily available in the market and thus used extensively. However, disposing these bags is a big issue as these are non-biodegradable. Plastic stay in the environment for years and contribute to land and water pollution. This is the reason why many countries have banned the use of plastic in the form of bags. These countries have replaced plastic bags with paper bags or reusable cloth bags.

  • The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states. We must understand that these have been banned for our good.
  • Every individual must take it has his responsibility to stop the use of plastic to make our environment cleaner. Plastic cause health problems in human beings as well as animals.
  • Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags. Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases and illnesses in them.
  • Likewise, the marine creatures also tend to mistake the plastic pieces for food and eat them. People who have sea food can get infected if they have fishes suffering from illness.
  • The chemicals present in plastic bags contaminate the soil. They make the soil infertile and hinder the growth of plants. Plastic bags are mostly made of polypropylene which is produced from petroleum and natural gas.
  • These are both non-renewable fossil fuels and their extraction creates greenhouse gases that are the leading cause of global warming.

Conclusion :

The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market. The government must take strict measures to ensure these are not used. Plastic is ruining our beautiful environment and have become a threat to our health. It is high time we must stop the use of plastic. It is not that difficult to keep a cloth bag with us while going the market. This will go a long way in keeping our environment clean.

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Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Long Essay on Plastic pollution in english in 400 words

Introduction :

Plastic pollution has become a major threat to our environment in today’s times and it is likely to make things worse in future.  Plastic pollution is damaging our environment rapidly. Waste plastic material is hard to dispose and contributes to major pollution on earth. This has become a cause of global concern. The increasing use of plastic bags, utensils and furniture, the amount of plastic waste has also gone up and so has the plastic pollution.

  • Plastic waste is entering the water bodies such as rivers, seas and even oceans and is polluting our water drastically. This water is then supplied at our places.
  • No matter how much we filter this water it can never get back to its pure form. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals. Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags.
  • Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them. The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avoid it as soon as possible.
  • Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.
  • We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of using plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it.

Conclusion :

We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution these days. The government must also take strict measures to ensure these are not used. It is of utmost importance to spread awareness about the harmful effects of plastic waste on our environment.  This can be done by way of television and radio and social media. This should help people understand the seriousness of the issue.

Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so.
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.
  • Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.

Conclusion :

If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation. India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Clean India Movement – A step towards cleanliness

Introduction :

The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi had said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence” during his time before the independence of India. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people of India a lot about the cleanliness and sanitation as well as its implementation in the daily lives. After many years of independence of India, a most effective campaign of cleanliness is launched to call people for their active participation and complete the mission of cleanliness. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a Swachh Bharat Mission is launched.

  • In order to fulfill the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and make India an ideal country all over the world, the Prime Minister of India has initiated a campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2nd of October 2014).
  • People can make India clean in a number of ways. First of all, carrying a small poly-bag is a must. Most noteworthy, a recycled paper bag is the best.
  • Indians must certainly use it to throw trash in dustbins. Indians probably throw trash on the street because they dislike carrying it.
  • However, a recycled paper bag makes it easier to carry waste. Hence, Indians can carry this bag to the dustbin for waste disposal.
  • Segregating wastes is also very important. It is something which many Indians ignore. Most noteworthy, the segregation of waste at home should be in 3 separate bins.
  • These 3 bins are Biodegradable, Recyclable and Others. The waste management department should help in implementing this system.
  • Another notable way to clean India is the compost pit. Compost pit helps in the preparation of compost. To create compost pit at home, some items are required.
  • These items are kitchen wastes, leaves, grass, etc. Consequently, the microorganisms convert this organic matter into compost. Through this campaign the government of India would solve the sanitation problems by enhancing the waste management techniques.
  • Clean India movement is completely associated with the economic strength of the country. Community cleanliness drive is yet another brilliant way of making India clean.
  • It has a psychological benefit. This is because it is easier to do a thing when others are doing it. The birth date of the Mahatma Gandhi is targeted in both, the launch and completion of the mission.

Conclusion :

The basic goals behind launching the Swachh Bharat Mission are to make the country full of sanitation facilities as well as eliminate all the unhealthy practices of people in daily routines. Clean India would bring more tourists and enhance its economic condition. The Prime Minister of India has requested to every Indian to devote their 100 hours per year for the cleanliness in India which is very sufficient to make this country a clean country by 2019.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Making India Clean & Healthy

Introduction :

Mahatma Gandhi had said before the independence of India that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people a lot about the cleanliness. To fulfil his dream Swachh Bharat Abhiyan initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd of October in 2014 on the 145th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. Its primary goal is to make India open defecation-free by October 2, 2019, through the construction of at least 12 crore toilets across rural and urban households.

  • As of February 1, 2019, the government claims 9.2 crore toilets built in rural areas. Based on toilet construction, the govt has declared 28 states and UTs as Open Defecation Free.
  • But independent surveys show open defecation continues even in areas that the government has declared Open Defecation Free.
  • It is also found that 23% of people who own a toilet continue to defecate in the open, including people in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, which have been declared open defecation- free states. 
  • The Mission’s objectives also include creating sustainable solid and liquid waste management systems, promoting social inclusion by improving sanitation for women and marginalized communities, and eradicating manual scavenging.
  • Side by side of the main Swachh Bharat Mission, the Indian government also launched the Clean India: Clean Schools campaign.
  • The aim of the campaign was to ensure separate toilets for boys and girls in schools, appropriate sanitary facilities for menstruating students, hand washing station that can cater to at least 10 students at the same time, availability of soaps etc.
  • Our school has all the sanitation equipment necessary to facilitate Clean India, Clean Schools campaign. We have hygienically secure toilets with handwashing facilities.
  • Our female classmates feel comfortable coming to school because of the measures taken to make the girls’ toilet modern and friendly. Our teachers make it a point to emphasise the benefits of personal hygiene.

Conclusion :

In its National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2017-18 (NARSS), the government claimed 77% rural households had access to toilets, of which 93.4% used them regularly. It also claimed 95.6% of the surveyed villages that had been declared ODF were indeed free of open defecation. In urban areas, the government’s target was to build 67 lakh urban toilets by October 2019. It claims it has already built 60 lakh household toilets by October 2018.

Development at the cost of environment degradetion Vs Delhi Pollution – Growing Issue In India

Introduction : 

Pollution is one of the major issues causing concern not only in India but across the world. Delhi, the national capital of the country, is being tagged as one of the most heavily polluted capital cities in the world. It is the world’s worst city in terms of air pollution, with an unhealthy air quality index for the majority of the year. Thus, today, one of the biggest threats to the welfare of the people of Delhi. There has been a huge rise in the vehicular population, in spite of the metro railways, aggravating traffic congestion and increasing air and noise pollution. 

  • There has also been a number of diesel vehicles plying on the roads, which are largely responsible for the air pollution. Citizens need to start the public transport more and more to reduce the pollution level in the city.
  • Government has ensured to increase the no. of buses and auto-rickshaws in the capital as well. Stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana in northwest India has been cited as a major cause of air pollution in Delhi
  • Particulate matter (PM) is basically a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets like acids, chemicals, gas, water, metals, soil dust particles, etc. the measurement of which gives an idea of the pollution of a city.
  • There are mobile enforcement teams deployed at various locations for monitoring polluting vehicles. Citizens need to avoid all kinds of contact near construction sites.
  • These sites release gases which makes the air very harmful for eyes and for the respiratory system. The above measures are known by many of us yet the level of national capital remains at 11th in the ranking of WHO for the most polluted cities.
  • The practicing of the above measures is the need for hour and to live happier days with our loved one is we all demand. I whole heartedly appeal to every citizen to take steps to make pollution free capital, a pollution free India.

Conclusion :

 With a view to reducing vehicular pollution, there has been a ban imposed on the plying of more than 15 years old commercial or transport vehicles. Steps are taken to transform garbage into compost by developing new sanitary land-fill sites. It’s not that the Government is not taking steps to control pollution in Delhi, But we need proper and efficient implementation of plans and programmes and policies launched by the Government to make it successful.

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Essay on Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India

Essay on Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India :

Introduction :

India is the seventh largest country in the world. It has land frontier of 15200 km and a coastline of 7516.6 km. It is a land of beauty consisting of hilly regions, mountains, lakes, forest, deserts, historical monuments and world heritage sites. It is a country of diverse culture, languages, customs & traditions. Despite these diversities, people live here in harmony with each other. But along with these qualities, one of the biggest problems here is the problem of unauthorized infiltration. Unauthorized infiltration can be defined as the invasion of the people in a country by entering the borders of that country in a clandestine way.

  • This has necessitated to keep a check on the land and coastal security management. India has a threat from land and coastal boundaries of which 26/11 Mumbai attack is a well known incident.
  • The unauthorized infiltration creates various problems for any nation like drug smuggling, human trafficking, arms smuggling etc. There are many other internal and external threats to national security of India.
  • It can result in increase in terrorist activities in the country like spying, bombing, fetching sensitive information etc.
  • Although we share border with 7 countries including Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Myanmar, still we face sporadic attacks or violation of cease fire from two countries i.e. Pakistan and China.
  • However in order to deal with these violations Indian government set up a distinct department know as “Department of Border Management Force” under Ministry of Home Affairs” and “One Border One Force” like Border Security Force, Shashastra Seema Bal, Indo-Tieban Border etc.
  • Proper border fencing along the border of Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal that can help in better border and security management.
  • Coordination among various agencies such as customs, armed forces, intelligence agencies is required to strengthen the border guarding and management.
  • Coastal radars and electronic surveillance further can maintain strict security measures. Government can promote use of space technology in improving border management.

Conclusion :

An effective surveillance mechanism has to be developed at coastal areas too. A holistic and robust mechanism is required to deal with these problems. The vulnerable areas affected with infiltration should be given priority by our security agencies and local people living in these areas should be made aware about its dangers and consequences. Thus for better security management, a combination of properly trained manpower and affordable and tested technology is likely to yield better results and minimize the latest security threats emerging in our country.

Essay on Emerging Threats To India’s Internal Security

Introduction :

Internal security is one of the core focus areas in India. In this technology driven society, the security challenges become more compound and complex. A lot of threats ranging from domestic challenges to external scenarios impact internal security in India. From independence, India has tackled home grown insurgencies, external rebellions, militancy and terrorism. By using a mix of economic, political, military and kinetic approaches, it has been able to deal with these emerging issues threatening the integrity and sovereignty of the country with great success.

  • However, these challenges continue to evolve themselves in newer forms. In dealing with the new emerging internal security challenges which remain the most critical, agencies of the state including Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) and police machinery have to remain relevant and effective against the new evolving scenario.  
  • The rapidly changing internal dynamics of the country needs to be constantly monitored at all levels and aspects.
  • Our country has to overcome the challenges of unemployment, poverty, socio-economic divides, communal and sectarian violence, organised crime, drug-trafficking, labour, students’ unrest and political violence.
  • Internal security issues tend to grow out of the fissures of the society. The legitimate aspirations of our youth, along with global & local problems of environmental degradation and ill effects of climate change which shows the rising frequency of disasters are all critical in the evolving security scenario.
  • Our PM has on numerous occasions highlighted that the core strength of the nation lies in diversity of our varied cultures, beliefs and practices.
  • The most critical element is technology. It is altering the security landscape at present time.
  • Lightning changes and advancement in hardware, software, miniaturisation in robotics paired with networked communications have fully changed our daily life. These changes have fuelled competition between state and non-state actors.
  • A new dimension of risk to personal and national security is being seen in these days. The weaponization of social media, Disinforma-tion, attacks on critical infrastructure of the country all indicate towards a hybrid warfare scenario.

Conclusion :

War is no more an effective instrument to achieve the goals. Wars are more transparent and now with other means like covert operations, proxy-war, sabotage and subversion with a mix of technology has become much more difficult to handle. The enemy is invisible in cyberspace and social media which remain borderless in operation. The new risks that present themselves as biological threats are shaping the next generation of warfare. With the changing nature of threats, our approach to deal with should also change as per the situation. The government and security agencies should also be prepared to tackle these issues with changing strategies. 

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Non Conventional Security Threats in India

Introduction :

“Non conventional security threats are the challenges to the survival and well being of people and states that arises primarily out of non military sources” is a famous statement by Professor MC Anthony. As we are moving towards a better lifestyle and technological advancement, we are facing a lot of non conventional security threats. These threats range from climate change, environmental degradation, resource depletion, illegal migration, food security, cyber crime to health related issues. India’s development has posed many challenges as it has raised the aspiration of people and availability of digital connectivity & cheap data has become a related threat. 

  • There are around 62% youth in India, if their aspirations are not met, it has the potential to cause social conflict, demonstrations and violence in the society.
  • People have realised the power of mass movements and that is something which is exploited from time to time. Crime against women is catching consciousness and there is a lot of resentment against the slow justice system in India.
  • There has been a tendency to use violence for political influence. Mobs have been taking the law into their hands to punish individuals with they think not following their way of life.
  • Due to the over population, there is a huge burden on limited food resources. India occupies 94th rank in global hunger index, which shows the gap of food supply.
  • Cyber domain is also posing lots of challenges of cyber security, data threats, fake identities and frauds. Ransomware continues to remain a major threat.
  • Climate change is another non conventional security threat. Heavy use of vehicles increasing the rate of pollution which leads to change in our climate cycle.
  • It results in melting of glaciers before time and uncertainty of weather. Social insecurity is also considered as a non conventional security threat. Different people have different types of customs & traditions, cultures, religions and languages.
  • When these aspects are in danger of any minority group then their identity is threatened. To tackle these issues government has taken many initiatives like creating National Cyber Security Agency (NCSA) for cyber crime, POSHAN Abhiyan for malnutrition, followed Kyoto Protocol to reduce CO2 to save environment, adopting Denmark model for water crisis and ‘Catch the Rain’ campaign for saving rain water etc.

Conclusion :

More emphasis should be taken on sustainable development and resource management programs. Proper health institutions and research centers must be established so that epidemic like Covid-19 can be detected earlier and measures should be taken in advance. It is time to stand together for non conventional security threats as these are more dangerous than any other threats. So people also work together because “good people don’t need laws to tell them to act responsibly.” said by Dalai Lama

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Internal Security Challenges In India in english :

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion : 

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Naxalism – An threat to Internal Security

Introduction :

“ Power flows through the barrel of the gun” is the key slogan of Maoists. Have you ever heard of ‘GreyHounds’. What No/Yes! It’s not the breed of dog rather it is an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh created to combat Naxalism. Naxalism is one of the major challenges of Internal security. After the independence, India was an under-developed
country, so it strived for the development and growth of the nation. However, there are certain areas where it has failed to grow such as poverty, unemployment, under-development which still prevail in interior regions of India. These conditions gave rise as the threat to Internal Security. Naxalism is also known as Left-Wing Extremism(LWE)/Maoism.

Evolution of Naxalism :

  • The term Naxal gets its name from the village Naxalbari,in WestBengal, where the movement originated in 1967, led by Charu Majumdar.
  • Initially it started as a peasant movement who are fighting for land to cultivate. Eventually it stretched out and diversified.
  • The Naxalists believe that they are being exploited by the elite class and to get justice the only door they have is extreme violence.
  • This ideology is commonly called Communism/Marxism. The movement has spread across the Eastern India in less developed areas.
  • Some groups also engage in parliamentary politics ex. Communist Party of India(Marxist-Leninist). They even made
    progress in weapons from bows and arrows, to sophisticated weapons like AK47 rifles.
  • According to the Home Ministry, the districts affected by LWE are in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

How are they spreading ?

They spread their ideologies in a phased manner:
● Preparatory Phase: Detailed survey of new areas.
● Perspective Phase: Demonstration against Government by talking about public issues.
● Guerilla Phase: Converting into Guerilla warfare
● Base phase: establishing their base
● Liberated Phase: Establishing People’s Government.

The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich, being neglected by the government and the mainstream media, Corruption, alienation by large groups of people, the issue of Jal-Jangal-Jameen(water,forest, land): exploiting their mineral-rich land, illegal encroachment.

Conclusion :

Operation ‘SAMADHAN’, ‘Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation’ are the recent initiatives on the part of the Union Government to deal with the problem of Naxalism. Naxalism is not a problem but it is a symptom of a problem. LWE succeeds in the areas where there is no trust in the Government. Eliminating naxalism is only possible by addressing their problems but not by eliminating their leaders. Better infrastructure, socio-economic development, coordination between states and center, decentralisation are some of the steps to weed out naxalism. Because if the Naxalists have nothing to fight they won’t fight.

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Cyber Crime as A Security Issue in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence. It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.

  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly.
  • Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders.
  • Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Social Media as Security issue In India

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular. It also enables a business to get new information about their customers.
  • In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent.
  • Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Mobile Addiction as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction : 

Mobile Addiction has become a growing concern in our society now-a-days. Mobile phone addiction is quite easy but it is difficult to recover from it. Many people around the world are addicted to mobile phones. It gives us the freedom to quickly connect with anyone around the world. It also enable us to find all sort of information that we need and is a great source of entertainment. While mobile phones invention was done for empowering us, but it has now started dominating us.

  • In a research it is found that on average Indian consumes 1800 hours a year on his phone. That is approximately around 1/3rd  of his waking hours.
  • The impact of obsession with smartphones, internet, and television is that merely 30 percent of people meet their family and friends multiple times a month.
  • Smart phones enable us to engage in gaming, studying and online shopping. It also allow us to watch movies, click pictures, listen to music, surf the internet and enjoy various other activities.
  • Due to high utility it results can be very harmful for us. Mobile addiction can become the main cause of many serious problems, such as headaches, weakening of eyesight, sleepiness, depression, social isolation, stress, aggressive behavior, financial problems and less professional development.
  • They simply scroll through the app to check the information that are online and engage in such other useless activities on their mobile phones.
  • They are so addicted to their mobile phones that they do not hesitate to check them while driving and even during an important meeting.
  • Another sign of mobile addiction is loss of time. A person who is accustomed to mobile phones loses a complete understanding of time. He is often late to work and delays important tasks.
  • Most parents these days are so busy in their work that they don’t have the time to tell about it to their kids. Getting rid of this habit can be difficult but not impossible.

Conclusion :

We can set a schedule for common mobile activities such as social media, texting, gaming or watching videos. We can also engage in other recreational activities like Painting, dancing, playing indoor or outdoor games. With some efforts we can overcome this problem over time. Parents also need to avoid giving phones to their teenage children. As it’s time for them to focus on their studies and find out their interest in other useful activities.

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Honour Killing as Internal Security Issues in India

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts. In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees.
  • The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Fake News as a security Issue in India

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India. Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order.
  • The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation. Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs farm bill 2020 pros and cons

Introduction :

The Farmers Bills 2020 is consist of three agricultural bills passed by the central government in September 2020. It includes the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, Farmers Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities Bill. These Bills will develop a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. This bill will also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • This agriculture Bill provides a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It will be beneficial for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land.
  • The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings but the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their crops directly to large buyers.
  • It will also give the farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply should also made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce.

Conclusion :

The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. The government should take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

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Essay on North East insurgency of India

Introduction :

India is one of the seventh largest country in the world with wide culture and tradition. North east India is the most volatile and insurgency affected place in our country after Kashmir. It is the eastern most part of India covering seven states also known as Seven Sisters. It include Assam, Arunanchal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim linked to mainland India through Siliguri corridor which is also known as ‘Chicken Neck’. These states shares borders with our neighbouring countries such as China, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Nepal.

  • It has been observed that to overcome the problem of insurgency, government is trying to alienate the population that’s why the people from North East area always has the feeling of insecurity.
  • Unemployment, inter tribal conflicts, illegal migration from neighbouring states, resource conflicts are major issues prevalent in north east states of India.
  • The difference in races between India and its northeast region leads to feeling of alienation in the minds of the people.
  • Poor governance, lack of development and apthetic attitude from Central government, all these conflicts results in rise of various insurgent groups in northeastern states.
  • Several fatalities have been reported from northeast including both civilians and security forces. In the oil rich Assam, destructions are caused by insurgents alleging that India is exploiting its natural resources.
  • These groups hinders in the development of projects such as rail project, dams, roads etc. Tourism is suffered a lot due to instability in these areas.
  • Education in these areas is also adversely affected as these areas are prone to continuous strikes and military operations. Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region is responsible for proper planning, execution and launching of various schemes and projects in order to ensure development.
  • Inner line permit is used to restrict entry of outsiders in these regions. Infrastructure should be developed in order to upgrade communication and connectivity in these areas.

Conclusion :

Strict laws and policies should be imposed to minimize insurgency. Proper schools and education system should be established and education should be provided to such insurgent groups. Coordination should be made between Centre and these states governments. Although with the peace accords and efforts of government, the number of fatalities due to insurgency have been decreased. Proper coordination, decentralization, investment, encouragement to small industries are some steps the government can follow to meet up the challenges. Insurgency has been a threat to our internal security, hence it should be tacked with a right strategy.

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs Farm Bill 2020 Demand of the Farmers :

  • The main demand of the farmers are the revocation of all three bills. These Bills have not been revoked yet & the Lok Sabha passed the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020 & The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020 among the protests of these farmers.
  • With the introduction of these bills the mandi system will remain intact. These bills had been claimed by the farmers to end the monopoly of the mandis.
  • These new legislation has nothing to do with the Minimum Support Prices (MSPs), it is just providing freedom of choice to sell and buy the produces outside the mandis.
  • Later in line with the 2006 Swaminathan report by ‘The National Commission on Farmers’ law should be promulgated for MSP to be at least 50% more than the weighted average cost of production and if the MSP is not paid, it must be a penalized.
  • A law should be put in place that will provide guarantee payments from the buyers through middlemen. Middlemen also make money by selling the product for more than its purchase price. 

Advantages (Pros) of the new Farm Bills :

  • The farmers want a more flexible system.
  • Selling produces or crops outside the mandis will generate an additional marketing channel for the farmers.
  • The new bill has not brought any major changes, only a parallel system working with the existing system. Prior to these bills, farmers can sell their produce to anywhere in the world, through the e- NAM system.
  • The amendment to the Essential Commodities Act which is one of the three bills under protest removes the fear of the farmers.
  • The bills ensure that the farmer is given the same attention as production is and the farmer gets the stipulated price for crops, so that farming survives.
  • In the existing APMC system, it is compulsory for farmers to go through a trader via Mandis so as to sell their crops to consumers and companies and they receive Minimum Selling Prices for their crops.

Disadvantages (Cons) of the Farm Bills :

  • The Farm Bills hampers the monopoly of APMC (agricultural produce market committee) mandis, therefore allowing sale and purchase of crops outside the state government-regulated market mandis.
  • The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill does not provide any statutory backing to MSP. The farmers have nothing to do with the legal system but everything to do with the MSP, the minimum price at which they can sell their produce.
  • The new bills are placing farmers and traders at the mercy of civil servants.
  • The government declares MSPs for crops, but there has been no law about their implementation yet.
  • The only crop where MSP payment has some statutory implementation is sugarcane for which FRP is determined. This is due to its pricing being governed by the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966. 

Unauthorize Infiltration Problem in India Vs farm bill 2020 pros and cons in english

Introduction :

The Farm Bills 2020 is a combination of three agricultural bills passed by Parliament in September 2020. These three bills are the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill. The Bills will create a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. It also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • The Bill formulates a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It also provides benefits for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land. The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings.
  • But the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their products directly to big buyers.
  • Farmer unions in Punjab and Haryana say the recent laws enacted at the Centre will dismantle the minimum support price (MSP) system.
  • Over time big corporate houses will dictate terms and farmers will end up getting less for their crops. The key demand is the withdrawal of the three laws which deregulate the sale of their crops. 
  • The farmer unions could also settle for a legal assurance that the MSP system will continue, ideally through an amendment to the laws.
  • They are also pressing for the withdrawal of the proposed Electricity (Amendment) Bill 2020, fearing it will lead to an end to subsidised electricity. Farmers say rules against stubble burning should also not apply to them.
  • MSP is the minimum price paid by the government when it procures any crop from the farmers. Food Corporation of India (FCI) which is the main state-run grain procurement agency largely buys only paddy and wheat at these prices.
  • The FCI then sells these food grains at highly subsidised prices to the poor and is thereafter compensated by the government for its losses.
  • The three farm laws have been projected by the government as major reforms in the agriculture sector that will remove middlemen and allow farmers to sell anywhere in the country.

Conclusion :

Giving farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply is made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce. The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. It is the responsibility of the government to take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

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