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Essay on PM SVANiddhi Scheme in english 250 words

Essay on PM SVANiddhi Scheme in english 250 words :

The PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on June 01, 2020 for providing affordable loan to street vendors. So that they can resume their livelihoods that have been adversely affected due to coronavirus (Covid-19) lockdown.

The scheme would benefit not only the vendors but also hawkers and people involved in goods and services related to textiles, apparel, artisan products, barbers shops, laundry services etc. in different areas.

The street vendors and howkers can take working capital loan of upto Rs. 10,000. This loan can be repayable in monthly instalments within a year.

The loans would be without collateral. This scheme will be running until March 2022. If repayment of the loan is done on time or early, an interest subsidy of 7% per annum will be credited to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through direct benefit transfer on a six monthly basis.

 

The scheme provides for the rise of the credit limit on timely or early repayment of loans. PM SVANidhi scheme also promotes digital or online transactions through cash back incentives upto an amount of Rs. 100 per month.

The scheme proposes that it will benefit over 50 lakh Street Vendors. Urban Local Bodies will play a pivotal role in the implementation of the scheme by reaching to them in an efficient manner.

The loans through the scheme would help to restart activity for vendors who have been left without any income due to the impact of Covid-19 lockdown. Inspite of multiple schemes already running for the street vendors, there are various gaps in implementation and accessibility of various schemes which should be plugged in a timely manner.

 

 

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Essays

ऑनर किलिंग पर निबंध (Honour Killing essay in hindi 250 words)

ऑनर किलिंग पर निबंध – Honour Killing essay in hindi 250 words :

Introduction : 

अपने परिवार के सदस्यो, विशेष रूप से महिलाओ, की उसके सगे संबंधियों द्वारा की जाने वाली हत्या को ऑनर किलिंग कहा जाता है। ये हत्याएं परिवार और समाज की प्रतिष्ठा के नाम पे की जाती है। ऑनर किलिंग की घटनायें इन दिनों बढ़ती ही जा रही हैं। कुछ मामलों में, पुरुष और महिलाएं दोनों ऑनर किलिंग का शिकार हो जाते हैं। यह परिवार के भीतर प्रचलित एक प्रकार की हिंसा है। कई देशों ने इस प्रथा के खिलाफ सख्त कानून बनाए हैं। पुरुष प्रधान समाज में, महिलाओं की गतिविधियों पर कड़ी नजर रखी जाती है। 

  • माना जाता है कि हत्या के शिकार लोग अधिकतर यौन अनैतिक मामलो में शामिल होते है जैसे की शादी से पहले यौन संबंध होना, तलाक मांगना या पति से अलग होना आदि।
  • बाबा साहब आबेडकर ने एक बार कहा था, “मैं किसी समुदाय की प्रगति को महिलाओं द्वारा हासिल की गई प्रगति के पैमाने से मापता हूं।” वे मानते थे कि समाज के स्वास्थ्य का आकलन उसकी महिलाओं की स्थिति से किया जा सकता है।
  • जबकि इज्जत के नाम पर हत्याएं समाज मे महिलाओं की ख़राब स्थिति को बताती है। इस प्रकार इज्जत के नाम पर हत्याओं का मूल कारण जातिवाद और पितृसत्ता है। हरियाणा, पंजाब और राजस्थान राज्यों में हॉनर किलिंग की कई घटनाएं सामने आयी है।
  • जिनमे मुख्यता घर से भागे हुए युवा लड़की या लड़के या दोनों की एक या दोनों परिवार मिलकर हत्या कर देते है। ऐसे मामले ग्रामीणों के समर्थन के कारण पुलिस तक पहुंच ही नहीं पाते।

Conclusion : 

सरकार को ऐसे लोगों के खिलाफ सख्त कानून बनाने चाहिए जो न केवल जघन्य अपराध करते हैं बल्कि इसे छिपाकर और सबूतों को मिटाकर इसे आत्महत्या का नाम दे देते हैं। इज्जत के नाम पर हत्याओं को रोकने के लिए अनुसूचित जाति और अनुसूचित जनजाति (अत्याचार निवारण) अधिनियम के अनुरूप एक कड़े कानून की भी जरूरत है, और इस पर नजर भी रखी जानी चाहिए क्योंकि लोग अभी भी सम्मान के नाम पर अपनी जान गंवा रहे हैं।

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ऑनर किलिंग पर निबंध (Long Essay on Honour Killing in hindi)

Introduction :

परिवार के किसी सदस्य, विशेष रूप से महिलाओ, की उसके सगे संबंधियों द्वारा की जाने वाली हत्या को ऑनर किलिंग कहा जाता है। ये हत्याएं परिवार और समाज की प्रतिष्ठा के नाम पे की जाती है। ऑनर किलिंग की घटनायें इन दिनों बढ़ती ही जा रही हैं। कुछ मामलों में, पुरुष और महिलाएं दोनों ऑनर किलिंग का शिकार हो जाते हैं। यह परिवार के भीतर प्रचलित एक प्रकार की हिंसा है। पुरुष प्रधान समाज में, महिलाओं की गतिविधियों पर कड़ी नजर रखी जाती है। माना जाता है कि हत्या के शिकार लोग अधिकतर यौन अनैतिक मामलो में शामिल होते है जैसे की शादी से पहले यौन संबंध होना, तलाक मांगना आदि।

बाबा साहब आबेडकर ने एक बार कहा था, “मैं किसी समुदाय की प्रगति को महिलाओं द्वारा हासिल की गई प्रगति के पैमाने से मापता हूं।” वे मानते थे कि समाज के स्वास्थ्य का आकलन उसकी महिलाओं की स्थिति से किया जा सकता है। जबकि इज्जत के नाम पर हत्याएं समाज मे महिलाओं की ख़राब स्थिति को बताती है। हरियाणा, पंजाब और राजस्थान के कुछ हिस्सों में हॉनर किलिंग की घटनाएं हुई है। जिनमे मुख्यता घर से भागे हुए युवा लड़की या लड़के या दोनों की एक या दोनों परिवार मिलकर हत्या कर देते है। ऐसे मामले ग्रामीणों के समर्थन के कारण पुलिस तक पहुंच ही नहीं पाते।

  • हाल ही में ऑनर किलिंग से संबंधित एक याचिका पर सुनवाई के दौरान सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने कहा है कि दो वयस्क अगर शादी करते हैं तो कोई तीसरा उसमें दखल नही दे सकता है।
  • साथ में न्यायालय ने यह भी बताया है कि हिन्दू मैरिज एक्ट, 1955 की धारा 5 में एक ही गोत्र में शादी न करने को उचित बताया गया है।
  • उल्लेखनीय है कि ऑनर किलिंग के केवल 3 प्रतिशत मामले ही गोत्र से संबंधित होते हैं, जबकि 97% मामले धर्म तथा अन्य कारणों से संबंधित होते हैं।
  • देश में जातिगत धारणाएँ लगातार बलवती होती जा रही हैं। अधिकांश ऑनर किलिंग के मामले तथाकथित उच्च और नीची जाति के लोगों के प्रेम संबंधों के मामले में देखने को मिले हैं। अंतर-धार्मिक संबंध भी ऑनर किलिंग का एक बड़ा कारण है।
  • ऑनर किलिंग का मूल कारण औपचारिक शासन का ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों तक नहीं पहुँच पाना है।पंचायत समिति जैसे औपचारिक संस्थानों की अनुपस्थिति में ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में निर्णयन की शक्ति अवैध एवं गैर-संवैधानिक संस्थाएँ, जैसे- खाप पंचायतों के हाथ में चली जाती है।
  • शिक्षा के अभाव में समाज का बड़ा हिस्सा अपने संवैधानिक अधिकारों के संबंध में अनजान है। ऑनर किलिंग भारत के संविधान के अनुच्छेद 14, 15 (1), 1 9, 21 और 39 (एफ) को नकारात्मक ढंग से प्रभावित करता है।
  • अनुच्छेद 14, 15 (1), 19, और 21 मूल अधिकारों से संबंधित हैं, जबकि अनुच्छेद 39 राज्य के नीति निर्देशक तत्त्वों से संबंधित है। मूल अधिकार और निर्देशक तत्व संविधान की आत्मा और दर्शन के तौर पर जाने जाते हैं।
  • ऑनर किलिंग मानवाधिकारों के उल्लंघन के साथ-साथ अनुच्छेद 21 के अनुसार गरिमा के साथ जीने के अधिकार का उल्लंघन भी है।
  • यह देश में सहानुभूति, प्रेम, करुणा, सहनशीलता जैसे गुणों के अभाव को और बढ़ाने का कार्य करता है।

ऑनर किलिंग को रोकने में चुनौतियाँ –

  • इस तरह के अपराध प्रायः गोपनीय रूप से किये जाते हैं। अतः इसके संबंध में आँकड़ों की पर्याप्त कमी पाई जाती है।
  • स्थानीय पुलिस के सामने इस तरह के अपराध को वर्गीकृत करने मे समस्याएँ उत्पन्न होती हैं। सामूहिक आधार पर इस तरह के अपराध को घरेलू हिंसा के रूप में वर्गीकृत कर दिया जाता है।
  • स्थानीय प्रशासन पर विश्वसनीयता की कमी के कारण महिला स्वयं के साथ हुए अपराध की सूचना नहीं दे पाती।
  • ‘सम्मान के लिये हत्या’ को रोकने के लिये लोगों में प्रायः शिक्षा का अभाव देखा जाता है साथ ही लोग रूढि़यों व सामाजिक बंधनों में जकड़े रहते हैं।
  • लैंगिक असमानता समाज में व्यावहारिक स्तर पर कट्टर वैचारिकता को जन्म देती है। इसी के फलस्वरूप ऐसी घटनाएँ प्रकाश में आती हैं।

भारत में कानूनी प्रावधान –

  • भारतीय संविधान में किसी भी व्यक्ति को कानून के समक्ष समानता एवं समान संरक्षण अनुच्छेद 14 के तहत दिया गया है।
  • अनुच्छेद 15 के तहत भारतीय संविधान में राज्य केवल धर्म, जाति, लिंग अथवा जन्म स्थान के आधार पर भेदभाव नहीं करेगा।
  • अनुच्छेद 21 के तहत किसी भी व्यक्ति को जीवन जीने की स्वतन्त्रता अथवा व्यक्तिगत स्वतंत्रता से वंचित नहीं किया जाएगा।
  • भारतीय संविधान के अनुच्छेद 17 के तहत अस्पृश्यता का उन्मूलन किया गया, ताकि सभी व्यक्ति को समाज में सम्मानजनक जीवन जीने का अधिकार मिले। उसे सामाजिक प्रतिष्ठा अथवा पिछड़ेपन या अन्य किसी कारण से होने वाले अपराध से संरक्षण दिया जा सके।
  • संविधान के अनुच्छेद 19 के तहत भारत के नागरिकों को स्वतंत्रता का अधिकार दिया गया है, जिसके तहत वे अपना जीवन स्वतंत्रता से जी सकते हैं, जिसके तहत किसी को परंपरा, कानून अथवा अन्य किसी अनुचित आधार पर बाधित नहीं किया जा सकता।
  • “मानव अधिकार अधिनियम 2006” के तहत किसी मानव की गरिमा को हानि पहुँचाना भी अपराध की श्रेणी में आता है।
  • “घरेलू हिंसा अधिनियम 2005” के तहत किसी महिला को मानसिक रूप से अथवा शारीरिक रूप से प्रताडि़त किया जाता है तो महिला को इस अधिनियम के तहत संरक्षण प्राप्त है।

ऑनर किलिंग का प्रभाव –

  • परिवार द्वारा अथवा किसी भी सामाजिक व्यक्ति द्वारा सम्मान के नाम पर की गई हत्या समाज में अपराध को बढ़ावा देती है।
  • खाप पंचायत द्वारा दिये गए निर्णय जो कि ‘ऑनर किलिंग’ के नाम पर अत्याचार को प्रोत्साहित करते हैं इनके प्रभाव के बढ़ने से सामाजिक रूढि़वादिता को बढ़ावा मिलता है।
  • ‘ऑनर किलिंग’ के मामले महिलाओं की स्वयात्तता को प्रभावित करते हैं, जिससे घरेलू हिंसा, बलात्कार आदि विभिन्न तरह की समस्या उत्पन्न होती है।
  • ऑनर किलिंग के मामले जातिगत कट्टरता को बढ़ावा देंगे जिससे समाज के एक वर्ग का प्रभुत्व एवं अन्य का शोषण होगा जो लोगों में वैमनस्य एवं असंतुष्टि को भी बढ़ावा मिलता है।
  • इस तरह के अपराध देश में सामाजिक अराजकता को बढ़ावा देते हैं क्योंकि इससे एक-दूसरे की संस्कृति को सम्मान प्रदान करने की भावना समाप्त होगी।
  • समाज में नस्लीय एवं रंग भेद जैसे अपराध को बढ़ावा मिल सकता है।

Conclusion :

सरकार को ऐसे लोगों के खिलाफ सख्त कानून बनाने चाहिए जो न केवल जघन्य अपराध करते हैं बल्कि इसे छिपाकर और सबूतों को मिटाकर इसे आत्महत्या का नाम दे देते हैं। इज्जत के नाम पर हत्याओं को रोकने के लिए अनुसूचित जाति और अनुसूचित जनजाति (अत्याचार निवारण) अधिनियम के अनुरूप एक कड़े कानून की भी जरूरत है, और इस पर नजर भी रखी जानी चाहिए क्योंकि लोग अभी भी सम्मान के नाम पर अपनी जान गंवा रहे हैं।

LGBT अधिकार पर निबंध

Introduction :

मानवाधिकार का मुख्य आधार सभी मनुष्यों में समान हैं तथा सभी मनुष्यों के साथ समान व्यवहार किया जाना चाहिए। जो कुछ भी इस विचार को कमजोर करता है वह समानता के सिद्धांत का उल्लंघन है और भेदभाव का मार्ग प्रशस्त करता है। लेस्बियन, गे, बाइसेक्शुअल एवं ट्रांसजेंडर(एलजीबीटी) के मानवाधिकारों को दुनिया भर में तेजी से ध्यान में रखा जा रहा है, जिसमें नए कानूनी संरक्षण शामिल हैं। समानता का अधिकार और समान सुरक्षा की गारंटी संविधान के अनुच्छेद 14 और 21 में दी गई है। भारत एक विशाल और विविध देश है और इस विषय के प्रति लोगो का दृष्टिकोण अलग-अलग हैं। 

भारत में एलजीबीटी लोगों को कानूनी और सामाजिक कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ता है। पिछले एक दशक में, एलजीबीटी लोगों ने भारत मे, खासकर बड़े शहरों में, अधिक से अधिक सहिष्णुता प्राप्त की है। भारतीय दण्ड संहिता की धारा 377 द्वारा उन यौन कार्यों को अपराध घोषित किया गया है जो ‘प्रकृति के आदेश के प्रतिकूल’ हैं। किन्तु भारतीय सर्वोच्च न्यायालय ने सितम्बर 2018 में इस धारा का प्रयोग उन कार्यों के लिए असंवैधानिक घोषित कर दिया जिनमें दो वयस्क परस्पर सहमति से समलैंगिक आचरण करते हैं।

  • धारा 377 जिसे “अप्राकृतिक अपराध” (unnatural offences) के नाम से भी जाना जाता है, को 1857 के विद्रोह के बाद औपनिवेशक शासन द्वारा अधिनियमित किया गया था।
  • दरअसल, उन्होंने अपने धार्मिक और सांस्कृतिक मूल्यों के आधार पर हमारे लिये कानून बनाया। तब ईसाइयत में समलैंगिकता को अपराध माना जाता था जबकि इससे पहले समलैंगिक गतिविधियों में शामिल लोगों को भारत में दंडित नहीं किया जाता था।
  • अदालतों ने धारा 377 की कई बार व्याख्या की है और उन व्याख्याओं से निकलने वाला सामान्य सा निष्कर्ष यह है कि ‘धारा 377 में गैर-प्रजनन यौन कृत्यों और यौन विकृति के किसी भी कृत्य को दण्डित करने का प्रावधान है।
  • दरअसल, धारा 377 में गैर-प्रजनन यौन कृत्यों यानी अप्राकृतिक यौन संबंधों जैसे गुदा मैथुन (sadomy), ओरल सेक्स आदि को अपराध माना जाता है और दण्डित करने का भी प्रावधान है।
  • यह धारा विशेष रूप से एलजीबीटी समुदाय (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community) के लोगों की चिंताओं का कारण इसलिये है, क्योंकि उनके मध्य स्थापित होने वाले संबंधों को अप्राकृतिक ही माना जाता है।
  • ‘नाज़ फाउंडेशन’ ने वर्ष 2001 में दिल्ली उच्च न्यायालय से धारा 377 को गैर-संवैधानिक घोषित करने की मांग की थी। उच्च न्यायलय ने कहा कि:
  • → आपसी सहमति से स्थापित यौन संबंधों का अपराधीकरण न केवल लोगों के गरिमापूर्ण जीवन के अधिकार को नकारना है, बल्कि यह भेदभावपूर्ण भी है।
    → समलैंगिकों को धारा 377 की वज़ह से ही समाज अपराधी के तौर पर देखता है, जो कि बेहद चिंताजनक है।
  • नाज़ फाउंडेशन मामले में दिल्ली उच्च न्यायालय के इस निर्णय के बाद समलैंगिक समुदाय को राहत तो मिली, लेकिन ज़्यादा दिन तक यह स्थिति बनी नहीं रह सकी।
  • दिसंबर 2013 में ‘सुरेश कुमार कौशल बनाम नाज़ फाउंडेशन’ मामले में फैसला सुनाते हुए सर्वोच्च न्यायालय ने दिल्ली उच्च न्यायालय के फैसले को पलटते हुए दोबारा इस धारा को इसके मूल स्वरुप में ला दिया।
  • दरअसल समस्या इसलिये और गंभीर हो गई है, क्योंकि धारा 377 के प्रावधानों का सहारा लेते हुए समलैंगिकों को उनके अधिकारों से वंचित किया जा रहा है।
  • हाल ही में निजता को मूल अधिकार बनाए जाने के मामले की सुनवाई के दौरान उच्च न्यायालय ने कहा कि ‘सुरेश कौशल’ मामले में निजता के अधिकार को मौलिक अधिकार मानते हुए सुनवाई नहीं की गई थी।
  • अतः यह माना जा रहा है कि ‘सुरेश कौशल’ मामले की संवैधानिकता को चुनौती देने वाले किसी मामले के बस नज़र में आने भर की देर है और सर्वोच्च न्यायालय इसे प्रभावहीन बना देगा।
  • विदित हो कि ‘सुरेश कौशल’ मामले में निर्णय आने का बाद से ही बड़ी संख्या में ऐसे मामले सामने आए हैं, जहाँ समलैंगिकों को उनके परिचितों और पुलिस द्वारा ब्लैकमेल किया जा रहा है। पिछले तीन वर्षों में इस तरह के मामलों की संख्या कुछ ज़्यादा ही बढ़ गई है।
  • दरअसल, समाज की मानसिकता ऐसी है कि समलैंगिकों को अपमान और भयानक तनाव से गुजरना पड़ा है। ब्रिटिशर्स जिन्होंने कि इस कानून लागू किया, उन्होंने 1960 के दशक में ही इससे छुटकारा पा लिया।

प्रतिवाद –

  • धारा 377 एक औपनिवेशिक विरासत होने के नाते गहन आलोचना का विषय रहा है। माना जाता है कि यह एक ऐसा कानून है जिसका पुलिस द्वारा दुरुपयोग किया जाता है और जो व्यक्ति की चयन करने की स्वतंत्रता के खिलाफ है। किसी कानून का केवल दुरुपयोग किया जाना ही उस कानून को खत्म करने का आधार नहीं बन सकता है।
  • नाज़ फाउंडेशन मामले में दिल्ली उच्च न्यायलय ने भले ही इस कानून को कुछ मूल अधिकारों का उल्लंघन करने वाला माना था, लेकिन साथ में यह भी कहा था कि असहमति के बावज़ूद अप्राकृतिक यौनाचार और नाबालिग के साथ सहमति या असहमति से स्थापित अप्राकृतिक यौन संबंधों को इस धारा के अंतर्गत अपराध माना जाएगा।
  • सभी धर्मों में समलैंगिकता को पाप माना गया है। इसे प्रकृति के आदेश के विरुद्ध आचरण माना गया है और ऐसा करने वाला व्यक्ति अपराधी माना जाता है। हालाँकि, 19वीं शताब्दी के अंत में एक मज़बूत राय सामने आई कि यह एक बीमारी है और किसी व्यक्ति को इसके लिये दोषी नहीं ठहराया जाना चाहिये।
  • अभी कुछ दशकों पहले इस अवधारण को बल मिला है कि कुछ लोगों में समान लिंग के व्यक्तियों के प्रति आकर्षण एक जन्मजात लक्षण है| अतः यह न तो अनैतिक है और न ही कोई बीमारी है। हालाँकि अभी भी लोगों में इस बात को लेकर मतभेद है और कोई इसे धर्म-विरुद्ध आचरण मानता है तो कोई अनैतिक।

संवाद –

  • अपने घर के चहारदीवारी के अन्दर कोई व्यक्ति क्या करता है इसमें किसी का भी हस्तक्षेप नहीं होना चाहिये। प्रत्येक व्यक्ति अपने पसंद का जीवन जीने के लिये स्वतंत्र है।
  • हालाँकि उसे यह अधिकार नहीं है कि वह अपने पसंदीदा आचरण का विज्ञापन करे, जिससे कि अन्य लोग प्रभावित हों। समलैंगिक होना एकदम ठीक बात है लेकिन समलैंगिकता का खुलेआम प्रदर्शन वर्जित होना चाहिये।
  • भारत में समलैंगिकता ही नहीं बल्कि यौन संबंधी आचरण को भी धर्म के नज़रिये से देखा जाता है। प्रायः सभी धर्मों में विवाह-पूर्व और समलैंगिक यौन संबंधों की मनाही है। लेकिन हम एक सभ्य और गणतांत्रिक देश में रह रहें हैं, जहाँ संविधान के कायदे कानून लागू होते हैं न की किसी धर्म के।

Conclusion :

संविधान ने हमें यह मौलिक अधिकार दिया है कि प्रत्येक व्यक्ति अपनी पसंद के हिसाब से जीवन जीने को स्वतंत्र है और किसी को भी यह अधिकार नहीं है कि वह औरों के व्यक्तिगत जीवन में ताक-झाँक करे। दरअसल, समलैंगिकता को धर्म के चश्मे से नहीं, बल्कि संविधान में निहित सिद्धांतों के आलोक में देखा जाना चाहिये और ये सिद्धांत एलजीबीटी समुदायों को भी एक आम भारतीय नागरिक को प्राप्त सभी अधिकार दिये जाने पर जोर देते हैं। भारत में अधिकांश एलजीबीटी लोग अपने परिवार से भेदभाव के डर से छिपकर रहते हैं, क्योंकि समलैंगिकता को हमारे समाज में शर्मनाक दृस्टि से देखा जाता है। ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में अभी भी भेदभाव मौजूद है, जहां एलजीबीटी लोग अक्सर अपने परिवारों से अस्वीकृति का सामना करते हैं और विपरीत लिंग विवाह के लिए मजबूर होते हैं।

तीन तलाक (ट्रिपल तलाक) पर निबंध

Introduction :

तलाक एक अरबी शब्द है, लोकसभा ने मुस्लिम महिलाओं (विवाह पर अधिकारों का संरक्षण) विधेयक, पारित किया है। यह बिल तीन तालक से पीड़ित मुस्लिम महिलाओं के लिए मुख्य है। प्रस्तावित कानून के तहत, तत्काल ट्रिपल तालक देना गैरकानूनी होगा । ट्रिपल तालाक इस्लामिक तलाक का एक रूप है जो भारतीय मुसलमानों द्वारा, विशेष रूप से न्यायशास्त्र के हनफी स्कूलों के कुछ अनुयायियों द्वारा इस्तेमाल किया गया है। इसे मौखिक तालाक भी कहा जा सकता है। ट्रिपल तालाक शरिया कानून (इस्लामिक कानून) के तहत तलाक की प्रक्रिया है जहां एक पति अपनी पत्नी को तीन बार तालाक शब्द का उच्चारण करके तलाक दे सकता है। 

यह एक विडंबना है कि एक हिंदू महिला अपने पति की एकल पत्नी होने का पूर्ण अधिकार प्राप्त करती है, दूसरी ओर मुस्लिम महिलाओं को यह विशेषाधिकार प्राप्त नहीं है। शाह बानो केस (1985) में एक गरीब मुस्लिम महिला ने तलाक के बाद रखरखाव का दावा किया तो लोगो में गुस्सा भड़क उठा। अल्पसंख्यक के गुस्से को दबाने के लिए, सरकार ने तुरंत कार्रवाई की और संसद ने मुस्लिम महिला अधिनियम, 1986 पारित किया जिसने शाह बानो के मामले में पारित SC के निर्णय को निरस्त कर दिया।

कुरान क्या कहता है?

  • तलाक के बारे में कुरान के भीतर संदेश स्पष्ट रूप से स्पष्ट है। यह अचानक से इसे भंग करने के बजाय विवाह की सुरक्षा की ओर अधिक झुकाव करता है। कुरान तलाक को अंजाम देने के लिए कुछ मानक तय करता है, यहां तक ​​कि शादी को पवित्र करने के भी मानक हैं।
  • “जो लोग अपनी पत्नियों को तलाक देने का इरादा रखते हैं, वे चार महीने तक इंतजार करेंगे।” इस्लामी शास्त्र संघ को जारी रखने की उम्मीद में तलाक को लागू करने में समय और धैर्य की मांग करता है, यह जानते हुए कि युगल में मतभेद हैं।

क्या है ट्रिपल तालक?

  • कुछ भारतीय मुसलमान विशेष रूप से सुन्नी मुसलमान ट्रिपल तालक की प्रणाली का पालन करते हैं जहाँ पति अपनी पत्नी को तीन शब्दों ‘तालाक, तालाक, तालाक’ का उच्चारण करके तलाक दे सकता है। यह 1400 साल पुरानी प्रथा है।
  • इस प्रथा में, पति को अपनी पत्नी को तलाक देने के कारणों का उल्लेख करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है। ट्रिपल तालक की प्रथा का उपयोग करके मुस्लिम पत्नी अपने पति को तलाक नहीं दे सकती।
  • इन वर्षों में, भारत में मुस्लिम महिलाएं अपने वैवाहिक घरों से कुछ समय में बाहर हो जाने के डर से जी रही हैं, क्योंकि एक मुस्लिम व्यक्ति, अगर वह फैसला करता है, तो “तालक” शब्द (तलाक) तीन बार कहकर शादी के वर्षों को समाप्त कर सकता है। ।

ट्रिपल तालाक कानून –

  • भारतीय संसद ने ट्रिपल तालक कानून को पारित किया, जिसे 30 जुलाई, 2019 को त्वरित ट्रिपल टैलक को आपराधिक अपराध बनाने के लिए विवाह विधेयक पर अधिकारों का संरक्षण भी कहा गया।
  • कानून ट्रिपल तालक को संज्ञेय और गैर-जमानती अपराध भी बनाता है। रविशंकर प्रसाद, जो कानून और न्याय मंत्री थे, ने 21 फरवरी, 2019 को 21 फरवरी, 2019 को प्रख्यापित अध्यादेश को बदलने के लिए लोकसभा में विधेयक पेश किया।
  • कुछ राजनीतिक दलों द्वारा उच्च सदन के कामकाज की निरंतर गड़बड़ी के कारण यह विधेयक लंबे समय तक राज्यसभा में विचार के लिए लंबित था। ट्रिपल तालक तलाक प्रणाली का चलन जारी था, इसलिए कानून में सख्त प्रावधान करके इस तरह की प्रथा को रोकने के लिए तत्काल कार्रवाई करने की आवश्यकता थी।
  • सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने ट्रिपल तालाक को असंवैधानिक माना क्योंकि यह लैंगिक कानून के खिलाफ है और समानता के सिद्धांत के खिलाफ संविधान के अनुसार एक मौलिक अधिकार है और यह भारत में इस्लाम के विश्वास के लिए मौलिक नहीं है।
  • 1985 में, शाह बानो नाम की एक महिला ने अपने पति के खिलाफ सुप्रीम कोर्ट में केस लड़ा, जब उसने उसे बिना कोई गुजारा भत्ता दिए छोड़ दिया। शीर्ष अदालत ने उसके पक्ष में फैसला सुनाया।

ट्रिपल तालक अवैध –

  • विधेयक के क्लॉज 3 के अनुसार, “किसी भी व्यक्ति द्वारा अपनी पत्नी के शब्दों में, या तो बोले गए या लिखे गए या इलेक्ट्रॉनिक रूप में या अन्य तरीके से, जो भी शून्य और अवैध होगा,” एक व्यक्ति द्वारा तालाक का कोई भी उच्चारण।
  • खण्ड 3 में यह भी कहा गया है कि, “जो भी अपनी पत्नी पर ट्रिपल तालक का उच्चारण करेगा, उसे तीन साल के कारावास और जुर्माने से दंडित किया जाएगा”

Conclusion :

हाल ही में, सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने इसे मनमाना और असंवैधानिक बताते हुए ट्रिपल तालक प्रथा को अमान्य कर दिया। SC ने इसे अनुच्छेद 14 (समानता का अधिकार) का उल्लंघन बताया है । भारत संस्कृति, धर्म और रीति-रिवाजों की विविधता का देश है। भारत में, प्रत्येक धार्मिक समुदाय के पास अपने धार्मिक ग्रंथों के आधार पर कानूनों का एक सेट है, जो परिवार के मामलों को नियंत्रित करता है। हालांकि, किसी भी धर्म और सामाजिक न्याय का अभ्यास करने के अधिकार के बीच एक अच्छा संतुलन होना चाहिए। ट्रिपल तालाक बिल की संसद द्वारा स्वीकृति मुस्लिम महिलाओं को सामाजिक न्याय देने का सही कदम है। सुप्रीम कोर्ट का यह फैसला राष्ट्रीय एकीकरण और धर्मनिरपेक्षता का मार्ग प्रशस्त करेगा। यह लैंगिक समानता, महिलाओं के कल्याण और न्याय को भी बढ़ावा देगा। यह व्यक्तिगत कानूनी मामलों को सरल करेगा।

महिला सशक्तिकरण पर निबंध

Introduction :

नारी सशक्तिकरण के नारे के साथ एक प्रश्न उठता है कि “क्या महिलाएँ सचमुच में मजबूत बनी है” और “क्या उसका लंबे समय का संघर्ष खत्म हो चुका है”। राष्ट्र के विकास में महिलाओं की सच्ची महत्ता और अधिकार के बारे में समाज में जागरुकता लाने के लिये मातृ दिवस, अंतरराष्ट्रीय महिला दिवस आदि जैसे कई सारे कार्यक्रम सरकार द्वारा चलाये जा रहे और लागू किये गये है। महिलाओं को कई क्षेत्र में विकास की जरुरत है। ‘सशक्तिकरण’ से तात्पर्य किसी व्यक्ति की उस क्षमता से है जिससे उसमें ये योग्यता आ जाती है जिसमें वो अपने जीवन से जुड़े सभी निर्णय स्वयं ले सके। महिला सशक्तिकरण में भी हम उसी क्षमता की बात कर रहे है जहाँ महिलाएँ परिवार और समाज के सभी बंधनों से मुक्त होकर अपने निर्णयों की निर्माता खुद हो।

अपनी निजी स्वतंत्रता और स्वयं के फैसले लेने के लिये महिलाओं को अधिकार देना ही महिला सशक्तिकरण है। वें देश और परिवार की आर्थिक स्थिति का प्रबंधन करने में पूरी तरह से सक्षम है। अत: महिलाओं के सशक्त होने से पूरा समाज अपने आप सशक्त हो जायेगा। भारत में, महिलाओं को सशक्त बनाने के लिये सबसे पहले समाज में उनके अधिकारों और मूल्यों को मारने वाले उन सभी राक्षसी सोच को मारना जरुरी है जैसे दहेज प्रथा, अशिक्षा, यौन हिंसा, असमानता, भ्रूण हत्या, महिलाओं के प्रति घरेलू हिंसा, वैश्यावृति और मानव तस्करी ।

  • पुरुष और महिला को बराबरी पर लाने के लिये महिला सशक्तिकरण में तेजी लाने की जरुरत है। सभी क्षेत्रों में महिलाओं का उत्थान राष्ट्र की प्राथमिकता में शामिल होना चाहिये। महिला और पुरुष के बीच की असमानता कई समस्याओं को जन्म देती है जो राष्ट्र के विकास में बड़ी बाधा के रुप में सामने आ सकती है।
  • ये महिलाओं का जन्मसिद्ध अधिकार है कि उन्हें समाज में पुरुषों के बराबर महत्व मिले। वास्तव में सशक्तिकरण को लाने के लिये महिलाओं को अपने अधिकारों से अवगत होना चाहिये। न केवल घरेलू और पारिवारिक जिम्मेदारियों बल्कि महिलाओं को हर क्षेत्रों में सक्रिय और सकारात्मक भूमिका निभानी चाहिये। उन्हें अपने आस-पास और देश में होने वाली घटनाओं को भी जानना चाहिये।
  • महिला सशक्तिकरण में ये ताकत है कि वो समाज और देश में बहुत कुछ बदल सकें। वो समाज में किसी समस्या को पुरुषों से बेहतर ढ़ंग से निपट सकती है। वो देश और परिवार के लिये अधिक जनसंख्या के नुकसान को अच्छी तरह से समझ सकती है।
  • अच्छे पारिवारिक योजना से वो देश और परिवार की आर्थिक स्थिति का प्रबंधन करने में पूरी तरह से सक्षम है। पुरुषों की अपेक्षा महिलाएँ किसी भी प्रभावकारी हिंसा को संभालने में सक्षम है चाहे वो पारिवारिक हो या सामाजिक।
  • महिला सशक्तिकरण के द्वारा ये संभव है कि एक मजबूत अर्थव्यवस्था के महिला-पुरुष समानता वाले वाले देश को पुरुषवादी प्रभाव वाले देश से बदला जा सकता है। महिला सशक्तिकरण की मदद से बिना अधिक प्रयास किये परिवार के हर सदस्य का विकास आसानी से हो सकता है।
  • एक महिला परिवार में सभी चीजों के लिये बेहद जिम्मेदार मानी जाती है अत: वो सभी समस्याओं का समाधान अच्छी तरह से कर सकती है। महिलाओं के सशक्त होने से पूरा समाज अपने आप सशक्त हो जायेगा।
  • महिलाओं के लिये प्राचीन काल से समाज में चले आ रहे गलत और पुराने चलन को नये रिती-रिवाजों और परंपरा में ढ़ाल दिया गया था। भारतीय समाज में महिलाओं को सम्मान देने के लिये माँ, बहन, पुत्री, पत्नी के रुप में महिला देवियो को पूजने की परंपरा है लेकिन इसका ये कतई मतलब नहीं कि केवल महिलाओं को पूजने भर से देश के विकास की जरुरत पूरी हो जायेगी।
  • आज जरुरत है कि देश की आधी आबादी यानि महिलाओं का हर क्षेत्र में सशक्तिकरण किया जाए जो देश के विकास का आधार बनेंगी।
  • भारत एक प्रसिद्ध देश है जिसने ‘विविधता में एकता’ के मुहावरे को साबित किया है, जहाँ भारतीय समाज में विभिन्न धर्मों को मानने वाले लोग रहते है। महिलाओं को हर धर्म में एक अलग स्थान दिया गया है जो लोगों की आँखों को ढ़के हुए बड़े पर्दे के रुप में और कई वर्षों से आदर्श के रुप में महिलाओं के खिलाफ कई सारे गलत कार्यों (शारीरिक और मानसिक) को जारी रखने में मदद कर रहा है।
  • प्राचीन भारतीय समाज दूसरी भेदभावपूर्ण दस्तूरों के साथ सती प्रथा, नगर वधु व्यवस्था, दहेज प्रथा, यौन हिंसा, घरेलू हिंसा, गर्भ में बच्चियों की हत्या, पर्दा प्रथा, कार्य स्थल पर यौन शोषण, बाल मजदूरी, बाल विवाह तथा देवदासी प्रथा आदि परंपरा थी। इस तरह की कुप्रथा का कारण पितृसत्तामक समाज और पुरुष श्रेष्ठता मनोग्रन्थि है।
  • पुरुष पारिवारिक सदस्यों द्वारा सामाजिक राजनीतिक अधिकार (काम करने की आजादी, शिक्षा का अधिकार आदि) को पूरी तरह प्रतिबंधित कर दिया गया। महिलाओं के खिलाफ कुछ बुरे चलन को खुले विचारों के लोगों और महान भारतीय लोगों द्वारा हटाया गया जिन्होंने महिलाओं के खिलाफ भेदभावपूर्ण कार्यों के लिये अपनी आवाज उठायी।
  • राजा राम मोहन रॉय की लगातार कोशिशों की वजह से ही सती प्रथा को खत्म करने के लिये अंग्रेज मजबूर हुए। बाद में दूसरे भारतीय समाज सुधारकों (ईश्वर चंद्र विद्यासागर, आचार्य विनोभा भावे, स्वामी विवेकानंद आदि) ने भी महिला उत्थान के लिये अपनी आवाज उठायी और कड़ा संघर्ष किया। भारत में विधवाओं की स्थिति को सुधारने के लिये ईश्वर चंद्र विद्यासागर ने अपने लगातार प्रयास से विधवा पुर्न विवाह अधिनियम 1856 की शुरुआत करवाई।

Conclusion :

पिछले कुछ वर्षों में महिलाओं के खिलाफ होने वाले लैंगिक असमानता और बुरी प्रथाओं को हटाने के लिये सरकार द्वारा कई सारे संवैधानिक और कानूनी अधिकार बनाए और लागू किये गये है। हालाँकि ऐसे बड़े विषय को सुलझाने के लिये महिलाओं सहित सभी का लगातार सहयोग की जरुरत है। आधुनिक समाज महिलाओं के अधिकार को लेकर ज्यादा जागरुक है जिसका परिणाम हुआ कि कई सारे स्वयं-सेवी समूह और एनजीओ आदि इस दिशा में कार्य कर रहे है। महिलाएँ ज्यादा खुले दिमाग की होती है और सभी आयामों में अपने अधिकारों को पाने के लिये सामाजिक बंधनों को तोड़ रही है। हालाँकि अपराध इसके साथ-साथ चल रहा है। भारतीय समाज में सच में महिला सशक्तिकरण लाने के लिये महिलाओं के खिलाफ बुरी प्रथाओं के मुख्य कारणों को समझना और उन्हें हटाना होगा। जरुरत है कि हम महिलाओं के खिलाफ पुरानी सोच को बदले और संवैधानिक और कानूनी प्रावधानों में भी बदलाव लाये।

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Essays

Urban Unemployment In India Essay in english 500 words

Urban Unemployment In India Essay in english 500 words :

Introduction :

Unemployment is a serious problem faced by each and every country of the world. It refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented person wanted to do a job but cannot find a proper job. India is one of developing countries which is suffering from a huge unemployment problem. But the unemployment problem in India is not the result of deficiency of demand but the high rate of growth of population. As COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy hard and with large scale job losses, unemployment is the second biggest worry for urban Indians, after the coronavirus infection.

  • Around more than  85 percent of self-employed in urban areas claimed to have lost their employment due to this pandemic as per the a survey. This was highest among casual workers in rural parts of the country.
  • In fact we can say that employment loss in urban areas was higher than that of in rural areas during the period.
  • According to economists, slow functioning of industries, lack of demand in the market are impacting the overall employment in India. Industrial activities have not picked up due to factors like health and labor shortage.
  • The government has announced a special economic package of worth Rs. 20 lakh crore which is 10% of India’s GDP in 2019-20 to provide employment benefits to the poor, labourer, migrants both from organized and unorganized sectors who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic.
  • In India, there is much reason for a very large section of the population for being unemployed. Some of these factors are population growth, slow economic growth, slow growth of the economic sector, and fall in the cottage industry.
  • Moreover, these are the major reason for unemployment in India. The situation has become so worse that highly educated persons are ready to do the job of a sweeper.
  • A very significan reason of that a large portion of the population is engaged in the agricultural and allied sector and the sector only provides employment in harvest or plantation time.
  • The govt is taking this problem very seriously and have taken measures to slowly reduce unemployment in India.

Conclusion :

Some of these schemes includes Integrated Rural Development Programme, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Employment Assurance Scheme, Nehru Rozgar Yojana, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries, and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana etc. Moreover, the primary reason of unemployment in India is its huge population which demands a large number of jobs every year which the government and authorities are unable to provide. The problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage but, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce it.

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Work from Home – A Solution to Urban Unemployment In India

Introduction :

Work From home is a modern work approach where the employees of a company or firm can do their job from home. Work from home gives flexibility to the employees as well as to the employers as the whole work can be done easily from home. It has opened a new range of possibilities for the business houses and companies for their work. With the outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic, work from home has given some employers the flexibility they need to continue their business operations while considering their staffs and customers health and wellbeing.

  • Prior to covid-19 pandemic, work from home was on the increase as many employers were identifying its benefits that it can improve their business model and also the work life balance of their employees. 
  • It also helps to keep productivity of the employees same or even better as at the same time they can handle their personal work too.
  • In case some of the employees are facing health related issues then work from home can be a great tool for them. That’s why nowadays, most of the IT & other related companies are offering this option to their employees.
  • One advantage of working from home is the freedom. Home workers can organise their work around their home life as they can stop or start work as they wish.
  • For example, if they have children, they can easily arrange to take them and pick them up from school. They can also undertake any other tasks that they need to do during the day, such as doing the shopping, and then finish work later.
  • Overall then, employees have more control over their lives. But work from home may not be suitable for everyone’s ability. Some employees may prefer the structure of working in an office environment.
  • Some staff may prefer personal interaction with colleagues and can find face to face guidance with their manager that help them in completing their tasks.

Conclusion :

Working from home may have a negative impact on the support they need to do their job from their seniors. There could be difficulty in managing home workers and monitoring their performance. The companies can encourage the employees to work from home but can also provide certain rules so that the work can be done effectively from home. Like asking employees to work for the hours they work otherwise in office and maintain a proper work schedule. Working from home can be exciting, empowering and even profitable, provided the employees are realistic with pros and cons as responsibilities also come with freedom. 

Vocal for Local – A boost Unemployment in India

Introduction :

Vocal for Local is an initiative to boost the employment opportunities in India. Our PM Narendra Modi coined the term ‘Vocal for Local’ to encourage the people to promote the local products worldwide. He said in his Independence day speech on 15th August 2020, “The mindset of free India should be ‘vocal for local’. We should appreciate our local products, if we don’t do this then our products will not get the opportunity to do better and will not get encouraged,”

  • Vocal for Local initiative encourages the people to start producing their own products and hence, reducing the use of imported goods.
  • The need of ‘Vocal for Local’ arose during the lockdown  period when all the mediums of transport were on halt and the entire world realize the usefulness of local products.
  • Movements such as the “Vocal For Local” campaign can be the best initiative to give a boost to national economy after covid-19 crisis.
  • The positive effect of Vocal for Local is seen during the festive seasons like Diwali and Dashara. People of the country appreciated local products and purchased local made diya and many other things used in these festivals instead of Chinese products.
  • With good response in Diwali season, we can anticipate that this new initiative will strengthen the local markets in other festive seasons too and take the Indian economy to the next level.
  • As the leading brands of the world were once local brands and they became global brands only when local people started buying and using them.
  • The local people branded them and then start promoting them. Thus, these were the catalysts to make these local products a global brands from local brands.
  • The Vocal for local suggests not only buy local products but also be vocal about promoting local products proudly. The people making local products need support and it is the responsibility of each Indian to buy these products.

Conclusion :

India cannot become self-reliant until it has control over its domestic and global supply chains Thus, there is a need to ensure greater control over certain parts of the global value chain to protect strategic interests, especially in healthcare, agriculture and defence sectors. If all Indians adopt the ‘Vocal for Local’ mantra then a lot of Indian products can easily become global. So, let’s do it by purchasing and promoting local products and make our India self-reliant and self-sufficient.

Unemployment among Migrant Workers during Pandemic in India

Introduction :

A migrant worker is a person who migrates within their home country or outside it for work. Migrant workers do not have the intention to stay permanently in the place where they work. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 24, has caused immense distress to migrant workers around the country. Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. Indian migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced multiple hardships.

  • With the closure of factories and workplaces due to the lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty. 
  • Thousands of them, began walking back home, with no means of transport due to the lockdown. In response, the Government took various measures to help them, and later arranged transport for them.
  • The major states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi and Kerala are trying to minimise the loss of labour and are prime states for ‘unlocking’ of economic activity.
  • According to the 2011 Census, there are 41 million interstate migrants in India who migrate to other states due to the lack of work opportunities in their home state.
  • Poorer, less educated, and from socially disadvantaged communities, survival draws these migrants to the cities. Meagre pay, extended working hours, and unsafe work conditions characterise their exploited labour.
  • Covid-19 renders most of them jobless in cities with crushing rents and no access to food or water. Without employment, city life is so burdensome that many risk returning to the safety of their villages, in some cases even at the cost of their lives. 
  • The disproportionate impact of state policy also breaches the right to equality under Article 14 of the Constitution and imposes a corresponding duty on the government to mitigate negative effects.
  • The government has also launched an employment scheme named ‘Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan’ implementing on a mission mode in 125 days in 116 districts of six states – Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • The scheme was launched after lakhs of migrant workers returned to their home states following loss of employment in urban areas due to the nationwide lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19.

Conclusion :

In the long term, India should work towards reducing migrant workers’ vulnerability by amending labour laws. Such amendments should align migrant workers’ conditions with other unorganised sector workers, while also developing norms for food security, repatriation and wage safety in times of emergency. While emergency solutions are urgent, they must pave the way to address more fundamental issues in migrant worker-dominated sectors. The government has already announced schemes like ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ to enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country. But they also need cash for their day-to-day needs.

Urban Unemployment Vs Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan

Introduction :

Our Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan which is an employment scheme for migrant workers, who returned to villages from cities during lockdown. This Abhiyaan was launched via video conference on 20th, June 2020 from village Telihar in Bihar in the presence of Chief Ministers of five states Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and a minister of Odisha.

  • Under the scheme, the aim will be to reduce the economic impact faced by the rural parts of the country due to nationwide lockdown by providing livelihood support to the rural citizens, especially for the migrant workers.
  • The Central Government has set up a target of 125 days for achieving the targets under the scheme in 116 districts across the country by bringing together about 25 schemes under the Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyan.
  • Industry groups will be formed near villages, towns, and small cities for making make different products from local produce, and packing things.
  • Cold storage facilities to be developed at the cost of 1 lakh crore to store farm produce locally. The Abhiyan also provide modern facilities in rural areas. Laying of fibre cable and provision of internet are also made a part of the Abhiyan.

Conclusion :

This abhiyaan will provide immediate relief to families of migrant workers while creating infrastructure in rural areas. The scheme like Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana is much needed one as per the current situation of the migrant workers. However, the success of the program depends upon whether its benefits reach the migrant workers in time. The government should also create a database of migrant workers that could be used in the future to create a social security system for them.

Urban Unemployment Vs Self-Reliant India – Making India Aatmanirbhar

Introduction : 

Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently announced the ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan’ which is also known as self-reliant India Mission. The aim of this mission is to self reliance or self-sufficiency. PM Modi has also announced to provide an economic stimulus package of 20 lakh crores which is 10% of India’s GDP. This package aims towards achieving the objectives of self-reliant India Mission by injecting more money into the economy. To address COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent lockdown in India which has led to economic slowdown, self-reliant India Mission is launched.

  • The economic package which is 10% of India’s Gross Domestic Product in 2019-20 is announced which include packages already announced at the beginning of the lockdown incorporating measures from the RBI and the payouts under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojna.
  • This mission will enable our country to cut down import dependence. It will also focus on substitution and quality goods to gain global market share.
  • The mission focuses on the importance of promoting local products to global markets and involves creation of a helping hand to the whole world.
  • India completely missed out on the ‘third industrial revolution’ comprising electronic goods, micro-processors, personal computers, mobile phones and decentralised manufacturing and global value chains during the so-called lost decads.
  • Today, India is the world’s second largest smartphone market. However, it does not make any of these phones itself, and manufactures only a small fraction of solar photovoltaic cells and modules currently used.
  • With entry of foreign corporations, most Indian private companies retreated into technology imports or collaborations. Even today, most R&D in India is conducted by PSUs, and much of the smaller but rising proportion of private sector R&D is by foreign corporations in information technology and biotechnology or pharma.
  • The second idea is that inviting foreign direct investment and manufacturing by foreign majors would bring new technologies into India’s industrial ecosystem, obviating the need for indigenous efforts towards self-reliance. However, mere setting up of manufacturing facilities in India is no guarantee of absorption of technologies.
  • Countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam have focused on off-shore manufacturing lower down the value chain and without the thrust on self-reliance. This is useful for job creation but is an unsuitable model for a country of India’s size and aspirations.

Conclusion :

This mission will be implemented in two phases in the phase one it will consider all essential sectors like medical, textiles, electronics, plastics and toys where local manufacturing and exports will be promoted. These are labour intensive sectors thereby it will provide huge employment opportunities in the country. In phase two, it will consider products like gems and jewellery, pharma and steel etc. The progress and objectives of self-reliant India Mission has definitely shown the right path and will save our country from economic slowdown from this lockdown crisis in India.

 

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Farm bill 2020 essay in english | farmers bill 2020 essay in english

Essay on farm bill 2020 in english 

Introduction :

The Farmers Bills 2020 is consist of three agricultural bills passed by the central government in September 2020. It includes the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, Farmers Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities Bill. These Bills will develop a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. This bill will also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • This agriculture Bill provides a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It will be beneficial for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land.
  • The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings but the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their crops directly to large buyers.
  • It will also give the farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply should also made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce.

Conclusion :

The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. The government should take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

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Essays

Honour killing essay in english 250 words

Short essay on Honour killing in english 250 words

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored.
  • Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place.
  • Mostly these cases are remained legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts.

Conclusion :

In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees. The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide. This serious crime needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

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Long essay on Honour killing in english in 400 words

Introduction :

Honour killing is the killing of a family member on the belief that the victim has brought shame to the family, or has violated the rules set by the community. Generally women become the victim of honour killings, where the male family members kill them due to shame. In some cases, both men and women can become victims of honour killings. It is a type of violence practiced within the family. Many countries have put strict laws against this practice.

  • It is normally done to protect the family’s honour. In male-dominated societies, the activities of women and girls are closely monitored. Victims that are subjected to honour killing are believed to have been involved in actions that are considered ‘sexually immoral’.
  • A woman is targeted to kill for various reasons such as having sexual relationship before marriage or outside marriage, seeking divorce or separation from her husband.
  • In few cases, a man and woman decide to run away from their family because they are in love with each other. Still, their families do not support their marriage as it is inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh of India, the maximum number of honour killings take place. People living in different cultures of honour consider the family to be the central institution of their society.
  • Family honour is a vague concept that is taken seriously to such an extent by some communities that killing another human in the name of ‘honour’ is considered as a matter of pride for them.
  • These cases remain legally unreported to the police due to the direct or indirect support from the villagers. In India, women are a victim of 97% of honour killing acts.
  • In some countries, the judicial system fail to take actions to the laws against the killing committees. The government of India should have strict laws against the people who not only commit the heinous crime but also support it by hiding it and removing the evidences or reporting it as suicide.

Conclusion :

Due to lack of proper laws against these crimes, it is protecting the honour of a family or society results in the crimes being reported under myriad crime which makes it difficult to track. In some part of the world it is considered a grave offence and necessary steps are taken to criminalize it. This grave offence needs immediate attention and should be monitored as people are still losing their lives in the name of honour.

Honour killing Vs problem of Mob Lynching

Introduction : 

The word ‘Mob Lynching’ is consist of two words i.e Mob and Lynching. Mob is a large crowd especially one that can easily become violent. If a crowd of people lynch someone who they believe is guilty of crime, they kill them without a legal trial. Thus mob lynching is a kind of killing by a crowd on the basis of some fake news or religious fanaticism. It has become a threat to our society now-a-days.

  • The main causes that lead to mob lynching is the absence of awareness and proper understanding among the masses. Fake news on social media platforms such as Whats App & Facebook also adds to this menace.
  • In such cases there always been some groups that intend to satisfy their hidden agenda against some other groups or community.
  • There is a deep gap of mistrust between the majority and minority communities, which always incites one to look at each other with suspicion and when used, they use the mob to avenge each other.
  • Anger prevalent in society also acts as a catalyst in it, irrespective of which form of anger, this anger can also be about the governance system, judicial system or security which eventually comes out as a rampaging mob.
  • Politics is also the main cause of violent mob, sometimes violence sponsored in the name of vote bank or violence in the name of religion, gives political parties a wide background for politics.
  • The incidents of mob lynching become very common since the Government imposed a ban on the sale and purchase of cattle for slaughter at animal markets across India in May 2017.
  • Though the Supreme Court, suspended the ban on the sale of cattle in its judgment in July 2017. The states where beef is the primary foods, there was a rise in attacks and dozens of innocent Muslims were killed. 

Conclusion :

Rumours about child lifters also ignited mob violence.  As the technology is proved to be boon for mankind but some people spread rumours and fake news leading to assault and death of people. Now, mob lynching has become a social menace, therefore the government should come with the law to deal with it. Strict actions should be taken against those group of people that leading to mob lynching so that innocent people may not be suffered and lost their lives. 

Honour killing Vs Fake News on Social Media

Introduction :

Fake news is a kind of yellow journalism which comprises intentional misinformation distributed through broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media. Fake news is intentionally written in order to gain financial or political exaggerated, or false headlines for capturing the attention of the people. Everyone with an internet connection and a social media presence is now a content generator.

  • Free internet service has provided access to everyone to post whatever they want and hence created a trend of fake news spreading like wildfire. Everyone is in a hurry to like, share & comment instead of checking the authenticity of the news.
  • It affects the spirit of common brotherhood and increases intolerance in the country. Fake news results in harassment and threatening of innocent people and damages their reputations.
  • It can also result in deaths. For example, the rumours about child-lifters and cattle thieves led to mob attacks and deaths across India.
  • Fake news could lead to mass protests, riots, and a breakdown in law and order. The special reserve forces or the army would have to be brought in to control the situation.
  • Fake news can start wars. It is unreasonable to put the blame on the social media platforms for the fake news menace.
  • Because the platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp etc. are not generating content, but by the users themselves & cannot hold them responsible.
  • Fake news creators are now using modern technology like Artificial Intelligence to create other forms of fake news. The result is called “Deep Fakes” and it employs audio and video formats, which appear more realistic and convincing.

Conclusion :

The Govt needs to address the consumer end as well and adopt a collaborative way to tackle the menace of fake news. Security requirements should also consider the rights of millions of genuine users. An effective approach to deal with the fake news is to improve digital literacy i.e., the ability to identify real news from fake news. Government, media, and technology should work together to improve the overall digital literacy in India. The state police machinery should be strengthened to catch anyone responsible for spreading fake messages.

Honour killing Vs Fake News A Boon or A Bane

Introduction :

Social media is a very important and popular tool as it provides us many useful and user-friendly features. Social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are giving people a chance to connect with each other at any time and anywhere in the world. The youngsters are one of the most dominant users of social media in these days. People have embraced social media so deeply that it has become an integral part of their lives now.

  • These platforms are being used not only by individuals but also by business houses, organizations and even by the governments for constant engagement with the masses.
  • If we look at the positive aspect of social media, we find a lot of advantages.  The most important one is being a great tool for learning and educating.
  • Students can enhance their learning on various topics using social media platforms like YouTube and Facebook. Now, we can attend live lectures just because of social media platforms.
  • We can improve our social skills by sharing our knowledge and ideas with millions of people even if they are thousands of miles away from us.
  • Social media marketing has become one of the most significant tools that businesses and corporations are using these days.
  • These social media platforms help in attracting new customers and give them the information about the products which makes their brand more popular.
  • It also enables a business to get new information about their customers. In spite of having many advantages, social media can also become the most dangerous tool for the society if used for destructive purposes. 
  • It is harmful as it invades our privacy. The sharing of personal information on social media can make children a target for hackers.
  • It also leads to cyberbullying which can affect their life to a great extent. Hence, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored carefully by the parents. The next problem is the addiction of social media which is very common among the youth.

Conclusion :

The addiction of social media can destroy the academic life of students as they waste their most of time on social media instead of studying and learning. Anxiety and depression is also a common disadvantage of social media. Social media is neither a boon nor a bane by itself, it is totally depends on how we use it. We must maintain a balance between our productive and unproductive activities. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media too.

Honour killing Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

Honour killing Vs Euthanasia- Mercy Killing

Introduction :

Euthanasia means an action which aims at taking the life of someone at his expressed request. It concerns an action of which death is the purpose and the result. Euthanasia or ‘mercy killing’ is the direct intentional killing of a person with either his consent or without consent. Euthanasia may be either active or passive. Active euthanasia shows putting individuals to painless death for merciful reasons, as when a doctor administers a lethal dose of medication to a patient.

  • While passive euthanasia involves not doing something to prevent death, as when doctors refrain from using devices necessary to keep alive a terminally ill patient.
  • At present, there is no legislation on this subject and the judgment of the Hon’ble Supreme Court is binding on all. The court rejected active euthanasia by means of lethal injection.
  • In the absence of a law regulating euthanasia in India, the court stated that its decision becomes the law of the land until the Indian parliament enacts a suitable law.
  • Active euthanasia, including the administration of lethal compounds for the purpose of ending life, is still illegal in India, and in most countries.
  • Supporters of euthanasia are of the view that society should acknowledge the rights of patients and to respect the decisions of those, who choose euthanasia.
  • Patients, who are suffering from terminal disease, become hopeless and disappointed to such an extent that they want to end their lives rather than to continue the same under such pathetic circumstances.
  • On the contrary, the opponents of euthanasia emphasis that health-care providers are obligated to prohibit killing as euthanasia is inconsistent with the roles of nursing, caring and healing.

Conclusion :

At the end, we can conclude that euthanasia should be allowed. A terminally ill patient, who has no chance of recovery rather to endure unbearable pain for the remaining years of his life, should be allowed to die so that, spending money, facilities, and time on such a person would be of no utility but the waste of the same. In such case euthanasia will be the best remedy.

Honour killing Vs Cyber Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Cyber security is nothing but protecting data, networks and other information from unauthorized access, partially or fully destruction or change. Cyber security can play a very important role in our day to day life because we all have online presence. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and few minutes of cyber incident to ruin it.” This statement presents a true picture about the same as we all are exposed to security threats and cyber attacks. In today’s world, many companies are developing different types of software to protect data.

  • Cyber security is crucial in present time as it not only helps to secure information but also our system from virus attacks.
  • It is also important because we have a huge user base i.e. after the United States and China, India has the highest number of internet users.
  • Cyber threats can be of two types 1) Cybercrime, it is usually against individuals or corporates and 2) Cyberwarfare, it is against a state or a country.
  • By using computer, internet, cellphone, other technical devices to commit a crime by any individual or a group is called cyber crime. Hackers use various software and codes to commit cyber crime.
  • Hacking has become one of the major issues in India. Hacking denotes an activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer or a network to exploit the security for accessing personal or private information.
  • Hackers often use a malware that usually appears in the form of codes and other software like worms, and adware. It may gather sensitive information or gain access to private computer.
  • As the cyber threats have great potential it can be said that the future battles will not be fought on land or air but by using cyber attacks.
  • For protecting us from the cyber attacks we can ensure our safety by using antivirus software and can also change our passwords time to time.
  • Many password management tools are available now that can be used to keep track of all the passwords. Keeping our software up to date is also a way to protect us against cyber attacks.
  • Cyber security is one of the biggest challenge due to today’s high internet penetration in our daily life. For enhancing the security of the communication and information technology, there is a need to develop a computer emergency response team.
  • Such team will help in collecting and analyzing the information on cyber incidents that will be used in forecasting and alerting the cyber security incidents.

Conclusion :

There should have sound cyber security strategies also for protecting the government organizations, the general public and the businesses. The government and other security agencies should spread awareness among the people regarding cyber security. People should also use proper antivirus software to protect their system from virus and malware attacks.

 

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Essay on new education policy 2020 in english 250 words

Short Essay on new education policy 2020 in english 250 words

Introduction :

The New Educational policy 2020 is approved by the Central Govenment on 29 July, 2020 to overhaul the country’s education system. It aims to bring transformational reforms in school and higher education systems in India. This is the first educational policy of the 21st century in India.  This new policy has  covered the universalization of education from pre-school to secondary level with 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio in school education by 2030.

  • The New Educational policy 2020 proposes some variation including opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities, introduction of a four-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme with multiple exit options.
  • This educational policy focus at making India a global knowledge superpower. This policy is also focusing on overhauling the curriculum, reduction in the syllabus to retain core essentials and thrust on experiential learning and critical thinking.
  • With the introduction of this new policy the current 10+2 school system will be replaced by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure. As the new policy suggest, there will be 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre-schooling.
  • At schools and higher education, there will be provision of inclusion of Sanskrit language at all levels as an option for students. This will introduce the early childhood education under the ambit of formal schooling.

Conclusion :

In this policy, the mid-day meal programme will be extended to pre-school children. According to New Educational policy 2020, the students should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language until Class 5. According to new educational policy all the universities and colleges must target to become multidisciplinary by 2040. This new policy will bring employment in the country and completely transform our educational system.

 

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Long Essay on New National Education Policy 2020

Introduction :

The New National Education Policy is approved by the Union Cabinet on 29 July, 2020 to overhaul the country’s education system. It will bring transformational reforms in school and higher education systems in the country. This is the first education policy of the 21st century. NEP-2020, which will replace the National Policy on Education-1986, is an inclusive framework focusing on the elementary-level of education to higher education in the country.

  • The aim of the new policy is the universalization of education from pre-school to secondary level with 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in school education by 2030.
  • The NEP proposes some changes including opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities, introduction of a four-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme with multiple exit options.
  • The NEP 2020 aims at making India a global knowledge superpower. In school education, the policy focuses on overhauling the curriculum, reduction in the syllabus to retain core essentials and thrust on experiential learning and critical thinking.
  • As the objective of any education system is to benefit children so that no child loses any opportunity to learn and excel because of circumstances of birth or background.
  • The current 10+2 system in the school will be replaced by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure. As per the new policy, there will be 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre-schooling.
  • At school and higher education, Sanskrit will also be included at all levels as an option for students. This brings early childhood education under the ambit of formal schooling.
  • The Policy reaffirms that bridging social gaps in access, participation, and learning outcomes in school education will continue to be one of the major goals of all education sector development programmes.
  • The NEP 2020 talks about creating higher performance standards for teachers clearly stating out the role of the teacher at different levels of expertise and competencies required for that stage. Teachers will also have to be digitally trained to blend into the digital learning processes.

Conclusion :

NEP 2020 recognises now the need to evaluate higher-order skills, such as analysis, critical thinking and conceptual clarity, and hence shifting the focus of assessments from marks based to competency based. The mid-day meal programme will be extended to pre-school children. According to NEP 2020, the students should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language until Class 5. The policy also proposes that all universities and colleges must aim to become multidisciplinary by 2040. This policy will boost employment in the country and will radically transform our educational system.

New education policy 2020 Vs Online Education

Introduction :

Education is an important part of our live, it can either make us or break us in the future depending on the careers we choose. Online education or e-education consist of electronic mode of learning and teaching. Online education occurs outside the classroom through digital platforms. With online education students can acquire educational experiences through technology.

  • Online education can be delivered in the form of text, animation, audio, video and images. The corona virus pandemic has resulted in closure of schools all across the world.
  • Over 1.2 billion children globally are out of schools. As a result, education has changed drastically with the rise of e-learning, whereby teaching is undertaken on digital platforms.
  • Online learning has increased retention of information, and take less time. Due to huge demand, many online learning platforms are offering free access to their services, including platforms like BYJU’S & Unacademy.
  • There are some challenges are also there to overcome. Research reveals that on average, students retain 35-60% more material when learning online compared to only 8-10% in a classroom.

Conclusion :

This is commonly because of the students being able to learn faster online. Online learning requires 40-60% less time to learn than in a traditional classroom because students can learn at their own pace, revise the concepts as and when they want. Online education has made learning flexible because learners have the freedom to study at suitable time. But tt is truth that learning is highly dependent on the individual’s motivation to learn.

Long essay on New education policy 2020 Vs Online Education

Introduction :

Online education is quick and have very fast delivery process that includes any learning that takes place with the help of the internet. Online learning enables the educators to communicate with students who otherwise will not be able to enroll in a traditional classroom course and assists students by adjusting their own pace or speed of learning. In todays senario, the schools and institutions that offering online education  or online courses are growing very quickly.

  • Students have an option that they can  pursue degrees courses through online methods through a valued and credentialed university.
  • Online education is also well known to offer the benefits of effficiency and synergy. The Online Education programmes makes room for dynamic communications between students and the teachers.
  • With the help of these communications, sources can be shared, and an open-ended synergy developed between the teacher and students through a learning process.
  • When each person provides his own opinion through discussions and comments on others’ work course, it benefits the student to learn better and faster.
  • This unique advantage is shown in a student-centred virtual learning environment that online learning format alone can provide.
  • Through online classes, there is no need to travel to a different city or commute long distances at all. We can stay where we are and keep our current job while we work toward improving our career with an online degree courses.
  • Online education also helps digital nomads as their own lifestyle. We can watch lectures and complete our course along with our work wherever we are.
  • It does not matters whether we are a full-time or part-time online student, the online education experience provides a much more manageable schedule for all of us.
  • Online education has gained much more approval due to its cheapness and easy affordability. Online courses are also more affordable than those offered at schools or colleges in these days.
  • While studying in universities, we may have to spend some additional amount of money in other allied activities such as transportation, lodging, and meals, but online education will not require such expenses at all.
  • The most important aspects of online learning is its flexibility of time, however, one has to be extremely self-motivated for studying.
  • The Online students develop various approaches for staying up to date for their study. Things like taking extra time every week to study with least distractions can help immensely and help in drastice progress.

Conclusion :

Online education has great potential and many advantages that have increased educational access. It provides a high-quality learning opportunities to every student, improves their outcomes and skills, and expands educational choice options. Therefore, location, time, and quality are no longer considered major obsticles in seeking higher education just because of online education or e-learning.

New education policy 2020 – A step towards Right to Education (RTE)

Introduction :

The Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009 empowers children belonging to the backward section of the economy to free and compulsory education.  It describes the importance of free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6 to 14 years in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. This act came into force on 1 April 2010. The right to education also includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education.

  • All children between the ages of 6 to 14 can get free education from class 1 to class 8, in a nearby government school.
  • The Right to Education Act states that it is the responsibility of the government to endow every child with free and compulsory education and it should also ensure their attendance and accomplishment of their elementary education.
  • It specifically explains that free education should be provided wherein no child should pay any kind of amount or fees to the school for acquiring elementary education.
  • Parents of the child should not be charged for any kind of educational facilities provided to the children. Hence, it is the complete liability of the government to sustain all the expenditure incurred in the process of providing education to the children.
  • It is not only the government schools but private schools are also supposed to reserve 25% of the seats for unprivileged children of the society.
  • Children must be given admission in a school even if they don’t have documents like transfer certificate and age proof. Children cannot be forced to give tests for getting admission in a school.
  • Every private school has to keep 25% of its seats in class 1 for children from ‘disadvantaged groups’ and ‘weaker sections’. The school has to give free education to these children till class 8.
  • National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body located at New Delhi, It makes the curriculum related matters for school education across India.

Conclusion :

The NCERT provides support, guidance and technical assistance to a number of schools in India. India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population. The Act makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 and 14. Now in India 74% of the population is literate in which males comprise 80% and females 65%.

 

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Essays

Life in covid-19 pandemic essay in english 250 words

Short Essay on Life in covid-19 pandemic :

Introduction :

COVID-19 has affected our day to day life. The corona virus pandemic has already affected thousands of peoples who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems. This, being a new viral disease affecting people for the first time, vaccines are also not yet available.

  • Hence, the focus is on taking extensive precautions such as extensive hygiene, regularly washing of hands, avoidance of face to face interaction, social distancing, and wearing of masks etc.
  • For controlling the spread identification of this virus at an early stage is very important because it very rapidly spreads from person to person. Most of the countries have slowed down their manufacturing of the products.
  • This pandemic had affected various industries including the pharmaceuticals industry, power sector and tourism. This virus creates drastic effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as on the global economy.
  • There are restrictions of travelling from one country to another country.  A large numbers of cases are identified positive when tested during travelling, especially when they are taking international visits.

Conclusion :

The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers, several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back. For this, the govt has announced relief measures for migrants, and made arrangements to return to their native places. The Govts, health organizations and other authorities are continuously focusing on identifying the cases affected by the COVID-19. Healthcare professional face lot of difficulties in maintaining the quality of healthcare in these days.

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Long essay on Life in Covid-19 Pandemic

Introduction :

COVID-19 has affected our day to day life. This pandemic has affected thousands of peoples, who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems. This, being a new viral disease affecting people for the first time, vaccines are being available now but still, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as extensive hygiene, regularly washing of hands, avoidance of face to face interaction, social distancing, and wearing of masks etc.

  • Identification of the disease at an early stage is vital to control the spread of the virus because it very rapidly spreads from person to person.
  • Most of the countries have slowed down their manufacturing of the products. The pandemic has been affecting the entire food system.
  • Trade restrictions and confinement measures have been preventing farmers from accessing markets, including for buying inputs and selling their produce, and agricultural workers from harvesting crops, thus disrupting domestic and international food supply chains and reducing access to healthy, safe and diverse diets.
  • The pandemic has impacted jobs and placed millions of livelihoods at risk. As common man lose jobs, fall ill and die, the food security and nutrition of millions of women and men are under threat, with those in low-income countries, particularly the most marginalized populations, which include small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples, being hardest hit.
  • The various industries and sectors are affected by the cause of this disease including the pharmaceuticals industry, power sector and tourism.
  • Millions of agricultural workers waged and self-employed, regularly face high levels of working poverty, malnutrition and poor health, and suffer from a lack of safety and labour protection.
  • With low and irregular incomes and lack of social support, many of them are forced to continue working, often in unsafe conditions, thus exposing themselves and their families to additional risks.
  • Further, when experiencing income losses, they may resort to negative coping strategies, such as distress sale of assets, taking loans or child labour.
  • Migrant agricultural workers are particularly vulnerable, because they face risks in their transport, working and living conditions and struggle to access support measures put in place by governments.
  • This virus creates drastic effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as on the global economy.
  • There are restrictions of travelling from one country to another country. During travelling, numbers of cases are identified positive when tested, especially when they are taking international visits.

Conclusion :

The lockdown has also impacted migrant workers, several of whom lost their jobs due to shutting of industries and were outside their native places wanting to get back.  Since then, the government has announced relief measures for migrants, and made arrangements to return to their native places. All governments, health organizations and other authorities are continuously focusing on identifying the cases affected by the COVID-19. Healthcare professional face lot of difficulties in maintaining the quality of healthcare in these days.

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Essays

आपदा प्रबंधन पर निबंध – Essay on Disaster Management in Hindi 250 words

आपदा प्रबंधन पर निबंध – Essay on Disaster Management in Hindi 250 words :

प्राचीन काल से, मनुष्य विभिन्न प्रकार के प्राकृतिक आपदाओं से पीड़ित हैं। भूकंप, बाढ़, चक्रवात या ज्वालामुखीय विस्फोट हो, मनुष्यों को हमेशा किसी न किसी प्रकार की प्राकृतिक आपदा का डर लगा रहा है। आज, हम अपने पूर्वजों से वैज्ञानिक और तकनीकी रूप में बेहतर हैं।

विज्ञान में प्रगति ने वास्तव में कई आपदाओं की भविष्यवाणी करने में मदद की है और उनमें से कुछ को नियंत्रित करने के तरीकों को खोजा है। हालांकि, आज भी प्राकृतिक आपदाओं से होने वाली क्षति बहुत बड़ी है।

हमारे पारिस्थितिक तंत्र में संतुलन बनाए रखने के प्रयास के बिना प्राकृतिक संसाधनों का उपयोग किया जाता है। कुछ हद तक, विज्ञान ने मनुष्यों को नुकसान की मात्रा सीमित करके प्राकृतिक आपदाओं से निपटने में मदद की है। प्राकृतिक आपदा न केवल भौतिक संपत्ति के नुकसान में बल्कि शारीरिक और मानसिक पीड़ा का कारण बनती है।

आपदा के बाद भी, पीड़ितों को अल्पकालिक और दीर्घकालिक राहत प्रदान करने के प्रयास आमतौर पर प्रशासनिक हस्तक्षेप से बाधित होते हैं। प्राकृतिक आपदाएं वास्तव में हमारे नियंत्रण में नहीं हैं।

 

लेकिन अगर हम इस बात पर अधिक ध्यान देते हैं कि हम पर्यावरण को कैसे प्रभावित कर रहे हैं, तो कई आपदाएं नहीं होतीं या उनके प्रभाव को कम किया जा सकता है । अकेले तकनीकी आपदाओं के कारण होने वाले नुकसान को सीमित करने के लिए पर्याप्त नहीं हैं; जल्द से जल्द जितना संभव हो सके राहत देने के लिए तत्काल कार्रवाई आवश्यक है।

आज के समय में वैज्ञानिक एवं तकनीकी शोध के द्वारा आपदाओं का अध्ययन तथा विश्लेषण किया जा रहा है । भूगर्भ विज्ञान, मौसम विज्ञान, जलवायु विज्ञान, समुद्र विज्ञान आदि के माध्यम से अनेक आपदाओं का पूर्वानुमान किया जाने लगा है ।

इसी के साथ सूचना और संचार तन्त्र भी अत्यधिक विकसित होने के कारण दुनिया के किसी भी भाग में चेतावनी देना सम्भव हो गया है इस सम्बन्ध में अनुमान पूर्वानुमान और चेतावनी दी जाती है।अनुमान सामान्यतया सांख्यिकी अथवा अन्य घटनाक्रम के सिद्धान्त के आधार पर होता है जो पूर्व की घटनाओं के आधार पर होता है तथा यह औसत सम्भावनाओं को प्रकट करता है ।

 

जबकि पूर्वानुमान अनेक आँकडों, मानचित्र एवं अन्य सूचनाओं के विश्लेषण पर आधारित होता है जिसमें घटना के विभिन्न क्रमों के आधार पर पर्यावरण आपदा के सम्बन्ध में अनुमान लगाया जाता है । आपदाओं से जन-धन की हानि कम हो तथा पर्यावरण पर प्रतिकूल प्रभाव न हो इसके लिए आपदा प्रबन्धन के साथ जन भागीदारी भी आवश्यक है तथा इसके साथ सूचना तंत्र को प्रभावी बनाना और एक देश का दूसरे देश को वैज्ञानिक एवं तकनीकी सहयोग देना आवश्यक है ।

पर्यावरणीय आपदाओं को रोकना कठिन है किन्तु उचित प्रबन्धन से उनके द्वारा होने वाली हानि को कम अवश्य किया जा सकता है । मनुष्यों ने निश्चित रूप से प्राकृतिक आपदाओं का सामना किया है, लेकिन अब भी प्रकृति का क्रोध वैज्ञानिक रूप से उन्नत मानव को काफी हद तक प्रभावित कर  सकता है।

 

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Essays

Essay on Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan in english 250 words

Essay on Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan in english 250 words :

Our Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan which is an employment scheme for migrant workers, who returned to villages from cities during lockdown.

This Abhiyaan was launched via video conference on 20th, June 2020 from village Telihar in Bihar in the presence of Chief Ministers of five states Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and a minister of Odisha.

The prime aim will be to reduce the economic impact faced by the rural parts of the country due to nationwide lockdown by providing livelihood support to the rural citizens, especially for the migrant workers.

The Union Govt has setup a goal of 125 days for achieving the targets under the scheme in 116 districts across the country by bringing together about 25 schemes under the Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyan.

 

Industrial grouping will be done near villages, towns, and small cities for making make different products from local produce, and packing things. For storing farm produce locally, cold storage facilities to be developed at the cost of 1 lakh crore.

This campaign is also providing modern facilities in rural areas. As a part of Laying of Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan, fibre cable and provision of internet are also made. This campaign has provided immediate relief to families of migrant workers while creating infrastructure in rural areas.

The scheme like Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana is much needed one as per the current situation of the migrant workers. However, the success of the program depends upon whether its benefits reach the migrant workers in time. The Govt can also make a database of migrant workers that may be used in the future to create a social security system for them.

 

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Essays

Essay on PM Kisan Maan-Dhan Yojana in english 250 words

Essay on PM Kisan Maan-Dhan Yojana in english 250 words

Introduction :

The PM Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana(PM-KMY) was launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 12th September 2019 in Jharkhand.  Under this scheme, a minimum fixed pension of Rs 3,000 is provided to the small and marginal farmers on attaining the age of 60 years. PM-KMY Scheme is for the farmers aged between 18 to 40 years. Any farmer can become a member of the PM-Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana Scheme by registering under the Pension Fund managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India.

  • The members are thus required to make a monthly contribution to the Pension Fund between Rs 55 to Rs 200, depending on their age with the provision of equal contribution by the Central Government.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana scheme is applicable to all the small and marginal farmers of the country.
  • The contribution that must be made by the farmer and the Central Government under this Yojana is 1:1.
  • It means the contribution of the Govt under the PM-Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana is equal to the monthly contribution made by the farmer.
  • If any farmer who is already registered under other schemes such as the National Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation scheme, Employees’ Fund Organization Scheme, etc. is not eligible for the PM-Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana Scheme.

Conclusion :

If the farmer’s death occur after the retirement date, the spouse will receive 50% of the pension as Family Pension and If there is no spouse, then the total contribution along with interest will be paid to the nominee of the scheme. It is expected that at least 10 crore farmers will avail the benefit of the scheme within next five years making it one of the largest pension schemes of the world.

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Essay on PM Kisan Maan-Dhan Yojana Vs farm bill 2020 in english 

Introduction :

The Farmers Bills 2020 is consist of three agricultural bills passed by the central government in September 2020. It includes the Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, Farmers Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill and Essential Commodities Bill. These Bills will develop a system in which the farmers can sell their crops outside the Mandis. This bill will also encourage intra-state trade and reduce the cost of transportation.

  • This agriculture Bill provides a framework that will create an ecosystem where the farmers will enjoy the freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agricultural produce and promote barrier-free inter and intra-state trade.
  • It will be beneficial for the small and marginal farmers with less than five hectares of land.
  • The bills have faced strong protests from the farmers and opposition parties, saying that it will hurt their earnings but the government mentions that they will make it effortless for farmers to sell their crops directly to large buyers.
  • It will also give the farmers the choice to sell without the help of middlemen will be of great use only if there are climate-controlled storage facilities, the electricity supply should also made reliable and available to power those facilities, and food processing companies who compete to buy their produce.

Conclusion :

The government has promised double farmers’ income by 2022 and the Bills will make the farmer independent of government controlled markets and fetch them a better price for their produce. The government should take the opinions of farmers and also of the states before passing such bills to ensure the betterment of farmers and to eliminate the loopholes in them.

 

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