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Essay on Urban Employment Crisis in english

Essay on Urban Employment Crisis in english

Introduction :

“Of all aspects of social misery nothing is so heartbreaking as unemployment.” The above statement is quite relevant with respect to the present situation. Unemployment is a serious problem faced by each and every country of the world. It refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented person wanted to do a job but cannot find a proper job. India is one of developing countries which is suffering from a huge unemployment problem. But the unemployment problem in India is not the result of deficiency of demand

  • but the high rate of growth of population. As COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy hard and with large scale job losses, unemployment is the second biggest worry for urban Indians, after the coronavirus infection.
  • In a survey conducted across India, approximately 87 percent of self-employed respondents in urban areas claimed to have lost their employment due to COVID-19 pandemic.
  • This was highest among casual workers in rural parts of the country. In general, employment loss in urban India was higher than in rural areas during the survey period.
  • According to economists, slow functioning of industries, lack of demand in the market are impacting the overall employment in India. Formal sector jobs in cities will take months to come back.

Conclusion :

Industrial activities have not picked up due to factors like health and labor shortage. The government has announced a special economic package of worth Rs 20 lakh crore which is 10% of India’s GDP in 2019-20 to provide employment benefits to the poor, labourers, migrants both from organized and unorganized sectors who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic. The problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage but, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce it. 

Urban Unemployment In India Essay in english 500 words :

Introduction :

Unemployment is a serious problem faced by each and every country of the world. It refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented person wanted to do a job but cannot find a proper job. India is one of developing countries which is suffering from a huge unemployment problem. But the unemployment problem in India is not the result of deficiency of demand but the high rate of growth of population. As COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Indian economy hard and with large scale job losses, unemployment is the second biggest worry for urban Indians, after the coronavirus infection.

  • Around more than  85 percent of self-employed in urban areas claimed to have lost their employment due to this pandemic as per the a survey. This was highest among casual workers in rural parts of the country.
  • In fact we can say that employment loss in urban areas was higher than that of in rural areas during the period.
  • According to economists, slow functioning of industries, lack of demand in the market are impacting the overall employment in India. Industrial activities have not picked up due to factors like health and labor shortage.
  • The government has announced a special economic package of worth Rs. 20 lakh crore which is 10% of India’s GDP in 2019-20 to provide employment benefits to the poor, labourer, migrants both from organized and unorganized sectors who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic.
  • In India, there is much reason for a very large section of the population for being unemployed. Some of these factors are population growth, slow economic growth, slow growth of the economic sector, and fall in the cottage industry.
  • Moreover, these are the major reason for unemployment in India. The situation has become so worse that highly educated persons are ready to do the job of a sweeper.
  • A very significan reason of that a large portion of the population is engaged in the agricultural and allied sector and the sector only provides employment in harvest or plantation time.
  • The govt is taking this problem very seriously and have taken measures to slowly reduce unemployment in India.

Conclusion :

Some of these schemes includes Integrated Rural Development Programme, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Employment Assurance Scheme, Nehru Rozgar Yojana, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries, and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana etc. Moreover, the primary reason of unemployment in India is its huge population which demands a large number of jobs every year which the government and authorities are unable to provide. The problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage but, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce it.

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Work from Home – A Solution to Urban Unemployment In India

Introduction :

Work From home is a modern work approach where the employees of a company or firm can do their job from home. Work from home gives flexibility to the employees as well as to the employers as the whole work can be done easily from home. It has opened a new range of possibilities for the business houses and companies for their work. With the outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic, work from home has given some employers the flexibility they need to continue their business operations while considering their staffs and customers health and wellbeing.

  • Prior to covid-19 pandemic, work from home was on the increase as many employers were identifying its benefits that it can improve their business model and also the work life balance of their employees. 
  • It also helps to keep productivity of the employees same or even better as at the same time they can handle their personal work too.
  • In case some of the employees are facing health related issues then work from home can be a great tool for them. That’s why nowadays, most of the IT & other related companies are offering this option to their employees.
  • One advantage of working from home is the freedom. Home workers can organise their work around their home life as they can stop or start work as they wish.
  • For example, if they have children, they can easily arrange to take them and pick them up from school. They can also undertake any other tasks that they need to do during the day, such as doing the shopping, and then finish work later.
  • Overall then, employees have more control over their lives. But work from home may not be suitable for everyone’s ability. Some employees may prefer the structure of working in an office environment.
  • Some staff may prefer personal interaction with colleagues and can find face to face guidance with their manager that help them in completing their tasks.

Conclusion :

Working from home may have a negative impact on the support they need to do their job from their seniors. There could be difficulty in managing home workers and monitoring their performance. The companies can encourage the employees to work from home but can also provide certain rules so that the work can be done effectively from home. Like asking employees to work for the hours they work otherwise in office and maintain a proper work schedule. Working from home can be exciting, empowering and even profitable, provided the employees are realistic with pros and cons as responsibilities also come with freedom. 

Vocal for Local – A boost Unemployment in India

Introduction :

Vocal for Local is an initiative to boost the employment opportunities in India. Our PM Narendra Modi coined the term ‘Vocal for Local’ to encourage the people to promote the local products worldwide. He said in his Independence day speech on 15th August 2020, “The mindset of free India should be ‘vocal for local’. We should appreciate our local products, if we don’t do this then our products will not get the opportunity to do better and will not get encouraged,”

  • Vocal for Local initiative encourages the people to start producing their own products and hence, reducing the use of imported goods.
  • The need of ‘Vocal for Local’ arose during the lockdown  period when all the mediums of transport were on halt and the entire world realize the usefulness of local products.
  • Movements such as the “Vocal For Local” campaign can be the best initiative to give a boost to national economy after covid-19 crisis.
  • The positive effect of Vocal for Local is seen during the festive seasons like Diwali and Dashara. People of the country appreciated local products and purchased local made diya and many other things used in these festivals instead of Chinese products.
  • With good response in Diwali season, we can anticipate that this new initiative will strengthen the local markets in other festive seasons too and take the Indian economy to the next level.
  • As the leading brands of the world were once local brands and they became global brands only when local people started buying and using them.
  • The local people branded them and then start promoting them. Thus, these were the catalysts to make these local products a global brands from local brands.
  • The Vocal for local suggests not only buy local products but also be vocal about promoting local products proudly. The people making local products need support and it is the responsibility of each Indian to buy these products.

Conclusion :

India cannot become self-reliant until it has control over its domestic and global supply chains Thus, there is a need to ensure greater control over certain parts of the global value chain to protect strategic interests, especially in healthcare, agriculture and defence sectors. If all Indians adopt the ‘Vocal for Local’ mantra then a lot of Indian products can easily become global. So, let’s do it by purchasing and promoting local products and make our India self-reliant and self-sufficient.

Unemployment among Migrant Workers during Pandemic in India

Introduction :

A migrant worker is a person who migrates within their home country or outside it for work. Migrant workers do not have the intention to stay permanently in the place where they work. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 24, has caused immense distress to migrant workers around the country. Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. Indian migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced multiple hardships.

  • With the closure of factories and workplaces due to the lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty. 
  • Thousands of them, began walking back home, with no means of transport due to the lockdown. In response, the Government took various measures to help them, and later arranged transport for them.
  • The major states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi and Kerala are trying to minimise the loss of labour and are prime states for ‘unlocking’ of economic activity.
  • According to the 2011 Census, there are 41 million interstate migrants in India who migrate to other states due to the lack of work opportunities in their home state.
  • Poorer, less educated, and from socially disadvantaged communities, survival draws these migrants to the cities. Meagre pay, extended working hours, and unsafe work conditions characterise their exploited labour.
  • Covid-19 renders most of them jobless in cities with crushing rents and no access to food or water. Without employment, city life is so burdensome that many risk returning to the safety of their villages, in some cases even at the cost of their lives. 
  • The disproportionate impact of state policy also breaches the right to equality under Article 14 of the Constitution and imposes a corresponding duty on the government to mitigate negative effects.
  • The government has also launched an employment scheme named ‘Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan’ implementing on a mission mode in 125 days in 116 districts of six states – Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • The scheme was launched after lakhs of migrant workers returned to their home states following loss of employment in urban areas due to the nationwide lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19.

Conclusion :

In the long term, India should work towards reducing migrant workers’ vulnerability by amending labour laws. Such amendments should align migrant workers’ conditions with other unorganised sector workers, while also developing norms for food security, repatriation and wage safety in times of emergency. While emergency solutions are urgent, they must pave the way to address more fundamental issues in migrant worker-dominated sectors. The government has already announced schemes like ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ to enable migrant workers and their family members to access PDS benefits from any Fair Price Shop in the country. But they also need cash for their day-to-day needs.

Urban Unemployment Vs Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan

Introduction :

Our Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyaan which is an employment scheme for migrant workers, who returned to villages from cities during lockdown. This Abhiyaan was launched via video conference on 20th, June 2020 from village Telihar in Bihar in the presence of Chief Ministers of five states Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and a minister of Odisha.

  • Under the scheme, the aim will be to reduce the economic impact faced by the rural parts of the country due to nationwide lockdown by providing livelihood support to the rural citizens, especially for the migrant workers.
  • The Central Government has set up a target of 125 days for achieving the targets under the scheme in 116 districts across the country by bringing together about 25 schemes under the Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyan.
  • Industry groups will be formed near villages, towns, and small cities for making make different products from local produce, and packing things.
  • Cold storage facilities to be developed at the cost of 1 lakh crore to store farm produce locally. The Abhiyan also provide modern facilities in rural areas. Laying of fibre cable and provision of internet are also made a part of the Abhiyan.

Conclusion :

This abhiyaan will provide immediate relief to families of migrant workers while creating infrastructure in rural areas. The scheme like Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana is much needed one as per the current situation of the migrant workers. However, the success of the program depends upon whether its benefits reach the migrant workers in time. The government should also create a database of migrant workers that could be used in the future to create a social security system for them.

Urban Unemployment Vs Self-Reliant India – Making India Aatmanirbhar

Introduction : 

Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently announced the ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan’ which is also known as self-reliant India Mission. The aim of this mission is to self reliance or self-sufficiency. PM Modi has also announced to provide an economic stimulus package of 20 lakh crores which is 10% of India’s GDP. This package aims towards achieving the objectives of self-reliant India Mission by injecting more money into the economy. To address COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent lockdown in India which has led to economic slowdown, self-reliant India Mission is launched.

  • The economic package which is 10% of India’s Gross Domestic Product in 2019-20 is announced which include packages already announced at the beginning of the lockdown incorporating measures from the RBI and the payouts under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojna.
  • This mission will enable our country to cut down import dependence. It will also focus on substitution and quality goods to gain global market share.
  • The mission focuses on the importance of promoting local products to global markets and involves creation of a helping hand to the whole world.
  • India completely missed out on the ‘third industrial revolution’ comprising electronic goods, micro-processors, personal computers, mobile phones and decentralised manufacturing and global value chains during the so-called lost decads.
  • Today, India is the world’s second largest smartphone market. However, it does not make any of these phones itself, and manufactures only a small fraction of solar photovoltaic cells and modules currently used.
  • With entry of foreign corporations, most Indian private companies retreated into technology imports or collaborations. Even today, most R&D in India is conducted by PSUs, and much of the smaller but rising proportion of private sector R&D is by foreign corporations in information technology and biotechnology or pharma.
  • The second idea is that inviting foreign direct investment and manufacturing by foreign majors would bring new technologies into India’s industrial ecosystem, obviating the need for indigenous efforts towards self-reliance. However, mere setting up of manufacturing facilities in India is no guarantee of absorption of technologies.
  • Countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam have focused on off-shore manufacturing lower down the value chain and without the thrust on self-reliance. This is useful for job creation but is an unsuitable model for a country of India’s size and aspirations.

Conclusion :

This mission will be implemented in two phases in the phase one it will consider all essential sectors like medical, textiles, electronics, plastics and toys where local manufacturing and exports will be promoted. These are labour intensive sectors thereby it will provide huge employment opportunities in the country. In phase two, it will consider products like gems and jewellery, pharma and steel etc. The progress and objectives of self-reliant India Mission has definitely shown the right path and will save our country from economic slowdown from this lockdown crisis in India.

 

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Essays

Essay on Impact of Russia-Ukraine War on World Economy

Essay on Impact of Russia-Ukraine War on World Economy

Introduction :

“Peace cannot be kept by force, it can only be achieved by understanding.” This is a quite famous statement of Albert Einstein that denotes the importance of peace. The invasion of Russia on Ukraine is the largest conventional military attack and have caused economic crisis for this world. The ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine has major ramifications for the global economy, which is just recovering from the stress of the covid-19 pandemic.  

  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) indicated that both Russia and Ukraine are major commodity producers and disruptions there have resulted in increasing global prices, especially that of oil and natural gas. 
  • Ukraine and Russia accounting for around 30% of the global exports for wheat that’s why food prices too have hiked. The IMF pointed out that the entire global economy would feel the effects with slower growth and faster inflation.
  • Inspite of India’s limited direct exposure, the combination of supply disruptions and the ongoing terms of trade will definitely impact the growth of Indian economy that can also result in rise in inflation.
  • The World Bank’s projection pointed out Ukraine’s poverty, will increase from 1.8% in 2021 to 19.8% in 2022. It added that models developed by from the United Nations suggested that a more severe and protracted war could lead to poverty affecting nearly 30% of the population. 
  • The poor countries are likely to suffer most from high food prices because they tend to spend a large proportion of their income on food. The problem of high food prices compounded by high oil prices and expensive fertilizer represent a threat to future crop yields.

Conclusion :

The automobile sector is also expected to be hit hard by the war. Rise in oil prices, continued shortage of semiconductors and chips and other rare earth metals is likely to add to the industry’s problems. Besides, Ukraine is also home to many companies which manufacture such components. The ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine is constantly impacting financial markets, exchange rate, crude and natural gas prices. It is expected that inflation will further worsen and will result in the reduced purchasing power of the common man.

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Essay on Russia Ukraine conflict in english

Introduction :

“Peace is not absence of conflict, it is the ability to handle conflict by peaceful means.“ This statement can be directly connected with the on going war between Russia and Ukraine. The invasion of Russia on Ukraine in February is the largest conventional military attack and can cause economic crisis for the whole world. Although, India has taken a neutral stance because of its historic partnership with Russia. This alliance is making Russia a pivotal part of India’s nation-building process, especially during its early days of independence.

  • The main cause of concern is Ukraine’s accession to NATO that would cross Russia’s red lines, and poses a continuing security threat to Russia. Russia wants an assurance from the West that Ukraine will never be allowed to join NATO. 
  • The Russia-Ukraine crisis has caused uncertainty in global trade and is impacting oil and other commodities prices to a great extent. Though, India doesn’t have a significant trade with Russia but it stands to lose economically due to supply disruptions caused by western countries.
  • Inspite of India’s limited direct exposure, the combination of supply disruptions and the ongoing terms of trade will definitely impact the growth of Indian economy that can also result in rise in inflation.
  • In reaction to the US’s ban on all oil and gas imports from Russia, Crude oil prices increased to nearly 43% from the beginning of February.
  • This is a huge setback for global economic growth because Russia is one of the largest exporters of crude oil of the world. However, India’s trade consist of only 1% oil imports from Russia, but there can be a great impact in the form of high inflation and slow growth.

Conclusion :

It can be said that more risks could arise if global growth conditions deteriorate further, which would hamper India’s export and capital expenditure as well. The ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine may impact financial markets, exchange rate and crude prices. In the short-term, however, this moment will not have any lasting impact on the Indian economy. It is expected that inflation will further worsen and will result in the reduced purchasing power parity of common people.

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Impact of Rising prices on common man

Introduction :

“Inflation is like toothpaste once it’s out you can hardly get it back in again” This statement indicate the impact of inflation on our economy. The rampant increase in prices is causing anxiety among the people of India. Price rise is a world wide phenomenon and India is no exception to it. Prices of everything are hiking even of the essential goods like gas, pulses, sugar, edible oils, tea, food grains and petrol. When the total demand is greater than total supply of goods and services, it causes prices to rise.

  • The factors such as increase in disposable income, consumer spending, public expenditure, black money are responsible for increasing demand. Price-rise affects different people differently.
  • Although it may not have much affect on the flexible income group. However, maximum hardship is faced by the fixed income groups.
  • It is so because their salaries remain the same but the prices continue to rise. The impact of rising prices can be seen as unfulfillment of basic needs, increase in the prices of petrol and diesel leads to increase in transportation cost,
  • It also causes hunger and malnutrition, no access to healthcare services, migration and much more. India ranks 101st in Global Hunger Index which shows the real condition of poor people in India.
  • The condition of women is not every good as 7 out of 10 women are suffering from anemia in India.
  • In order to curb the problem of price rise there should be the joint effort of the government and the public to control it.
  • There should be more fair price shops, Kendriya Bhandar where the common man can shop for quality goods at low prices.

Conclusion :

The Government and banks must keep a check on hoarding and black marketing. As far as general public is concerned, they must reduce unnecessary expenditure and increase savings. This will reduce disposable income with the people and hence personal consumption expenditure. Government should focus on lowest income group, promote startups, provide skills to youth and try to control the inflation so that the gap between the rich and poor can be reduced as much as possible as it is truly said “growth is possible where there is no difference.”

Essay on Virtual Currencies in India

Introduction :

Bitcoin is a digital currency that is widely known for its creator’s anonymity. It is a kind of virtual currency which was launched as an open source software in 2009. Its creator whose identity to this day remains unknown, goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Since its inception, virtual currency, has grown in both its popularity and its use. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator. Bitcoin is often referred to as a “virtual currency” or “cryptocurrency.”

  • All transfers of bitcoin are verified and recorded on a public ledger known as the block chain. It is an electronic or digital currency that works on a peer-to-peer basis.
  • Like currency notes, it can be sent from one person to another. The beauty of this cryptocurrency is that if you receive a bitcoin from another, you can be as sure of the payment as you would on receiving physical currency notes, with the same anonymity ascribed to it.
  • This anonymity is lacking in other forms of digital payment such as online banking or e-wallets. You can send bitcoins digitally to anyone who has a bitcoin address anywhere in the globe.
  • One person could have multiple addresses for different purposes. Receivers can get to spend them within minutes of receiving the coins.
  • It is to be noted that cryptocurrency transactions are settled immediately without any third-party approvals.

Conclusion :

With recognition at universal level, cryptocurrencies can be accessed by everyone. As India moves to digitize much of its financial services and parts of its consumer market, cryptocurrencies offer a new, dynamic addition to the Digital India project.

Cashless Economy – Making Indian economy Digital

Introduction :

A cashless economy means the liquidity in the system is exchanged between two parties through either plastic currency or through digital currency i.e online payments. With the advent of blockchain technology, bitcoins have given a whole new meaning for a cashless economy. The concept of bitcoin talks about a decentralized system of finance, but that is not the point of discussing in this particular essay on cashless India.

  • Hence, let us come back to the crux of this essay on cashless India, which are the pros and cons of the digital payment system.
  • Cashless Economy promotes electronic payment methods which improves transparency and accountability.
  • Tax collection increases as all the transaction takes place through bank accounts. It can also mitigate corruption and black money as all transactions can be traced easily.
  • It also saves time and prevents theft and burglary of cash and endorses paperless environment friendly as it will save a huge amount of money spent on printing and maintenance of currency.
  • With so much technological revolutions happening around, it will be impossible to find someone without a smartphone in this 21st century.
  • Almost every Indian has a smartphone. Hence the ease of transaction through fintech platforms such as Paytm, google pay or phonepe are easier than ever before.
  • The hassles of carrying hard cash( with possible viruses on it) is eliminated. The government of India has produced platforms such as UPI (Unified Payments Interface) for hassle-free cashless transactions.
  • But it is seen that the small businesses still use cash as they cannot afford digital infrastructures. Hackers and Cyber Crimes are a huge threat to cashless economy.
  • There is lack of internet connectivity in rural areas in our nation which makes it difficult to commence the concept of the cashless economy in every region
  • India is lacking robust and widespread internet connection in all parts of the country which becomes a huge hurdle in practicing cashless economy.

Conclusion :

The cashless economy has its own sets of merits and demerits. The concept of cashless economy is very useful for eliminating black money from the nation. The lack of sufficient infrastructure and illiteracy is one of the major hindrances in the path of the cashless economy. It is important for the government to address the issues related to achieving a proper cashless economy by providing financial education to the people along with better internet services.

Technological Development in India

Introduction :

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information.

  • New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.
  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems. The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains. In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable.
  • The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society. Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science.

Conclusion :

When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

Cyber Crimes in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence.

  • It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.
  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly. Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types.
  • These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders. Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes.
  • Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Digital India – Empowerment & Safety Issues

Introduction :

Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India to ensure that Government services are made available to citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure and by increasing Internet connectivity in the field of technology. The digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networks, computers, software, and other related information technologies.

  • The motto for the campaign is “Power to Empower” and it was launched on 1 July 2015 by PM Narendra Modi.

Information is easier to produce and harder to control in this dynamic era. Digital India consists of three core components they are-

  • Development of secure and stable digital infrastructure.
  • Delivering government services digitally.
  • Universal Digital Literacy.
  • The facilities which will be provided through this initiative are Digital Locker, e-education, e-health, e-sign and national scholarship portal. Digi Locker is an initiative under Digital India program.
  • Digital Locker facilities will be provided to citizens to store their important documents like PAN card, Passport, Mark sheet and Degree certificates.
  • The term digital economy also refers to the convergence of computing and communication technologies on the Internet and other networks.
  • This convergence enables all types of information (data, audio, video) to be stored, processed, and transmitted over networks to many destinations worldwide.
  • Digital India wants to enlighten all types of people in India digitally and to provide the citizens with the best public services.
  • The commercial broadband and IT Indian companies also supported it. It also helps bridge the gap in the employment of youth between developed and undeveloped areas.
  • The domestic e-government system is reliable as it prevails fiber optic road, public interest access, mobile connectivity everywhere, electronics revolution, e-government, job information, IT, post-harvest management program, and electronic devices.
  • Digital India initiative aims to enhance the process and delivery of different government services through e-Governance and payment gateways, UIDAI, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) and mobile platforms.

Conclusion :

The main objective was to improve the country’s people’s access to technology. The government has worked to enhance accessibility to the internet and to make it much easier for regional and underserved parts of the country to connect. A plan to communicate countryside to high-speed Internet was one of the initiatives. Government intends to make all information easily available to the citizen through online hosting of data. Digital India campaign is a great initiative to integrate digital technology for better future. 

Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essay on Role of Small & Payment Banks in Financial Inclusion

Essay on Role of Small & Payment Banks in Financial Inclusion

Introduction :

“Great things come in Small Packages”. It is true with respect to the Small and Payments banks in India. They are the big steps in banking sector. Small banks can complete India’s dream of total financial inclusion. Small banks are smaller than the commercial banks. Small banks accept deposits as well as give loans to public. Unlike commercial banks, small banks deal only in basic banking services. These banks operate mainly in rural and interior parts of the country.

  • For widening the scope of the banking, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) focused on financial inclusion, digital banking, and better risk management. Various initiatives have been taken by the RBI for strengthening financial inclusion.
  • One such initiative is the issue of different Banking Licenses to financial institutions to convert themselves into either Payment Banks or Small Finance Banks.
  • Financial inclusion plays a major role in the inclusive growth of the country. The growth of our economy is dependent on the growth of rural India.
  • The availability of quality financial services in rural areas will enable a large number of rural households to fund the growth of their livelihoods.
  • Payments banks can issue ATM or debit cards however, cannot issue credit cards. The payments bank cannot undertake lending activities.
  • The minimum paid-up capital for payments banks is Rs. 100 crore. Payment  banks  will  complement banking services offered by commercial banks  and  are expected to play its role in promoting financial inclusion. 

These banks aim at bringing the unbanked masses such as migrant labourers low income households, small businesses, and other unorganised sector entities under the ambit of formal banking and expedites financial inclusion by making it easier for them to get a bank account.  Payment banks may make handling cash a lot easier through mobile phone  and point-of-sale (POS) terminals. Commercial banks collaborate with payment banks to use their technology. Commercial banks can also start joint ventures with payment banks, to launch innovative services and products. More people in India have a mobile phone than a bank account. Mobile phones are the new tools of banking which we can utilize to achieve the goals of financial inclusion.

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Essay on India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality

Introduction :

India adopted the policy of liberalization in 1991 to boost to the economy, under this various sectors were opened to the private sector and gradually the pace of India’s economy grew rapidly. India has become the sixth largest economy in the world but the current state of the economy cannot be appreciated. Keeping this fact in mind, the policy makers of India have set a target of making India a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2024-25. Paying special attention to infrastructure, the government has set a target of constructing 1.95 crore houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana.

  • Also, an additional deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh has also been allowed on interest payment of home loan.
  • Under the ‘Study in India’ initiative, several announcements were made to promote private higher education. Apart from this, sports universities are also being set up under the ‘Khelo India’.
  • Apart from this, in order to help private capital formation, the government has planned a fresh capital infusion of Rs 70,000 crore in public sector banks.
  • At present, the private sector is grappling with the problem of debt pressure and lack of capital. Therefore, the government is working towards promoting foreign direct investment in several sectors, especially in insurance, aviation and retail.
  • Along with giving special attention to MSMEs, the government has also taken several steps towards labor reforms. The government has stated the need for an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore for the modernization of the railways.
  • In this way, Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been proposed to increase the resources of the Railways.
  • The agriculture sector is already grappling with irrigation crisis due to high power usage. India lacks global level infrastructure in the field of transport, as well as rural and remote areas still far from connectivity.

Conclusion :

It is believed that to achieve the target of 5 trillion dollars, India will need a growth rate of about 8 percent of GDP. At present the pace of Indian economy is slow, as well as achieving high economic growth rate in this situation may prove to be a difficult task. There are many important issues like improving the quality of education, unemployment, economic inequality, status of women, malnutrition, caste discrimination, poverty which need to be resolved. Only by removing these problems India will be able to achieve its goal of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy.

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Long Essay on India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality

Introduction :

India adopted the policy of liberalization in 1991 to give impetus to the economy, under which various sectors were opened to the private sector and gradually the pace of India’s economy grew rapidly. India has recently become the sixth largest economy in the world. But given the size and capacity ratio of India, the current state of the economy cannot be appreciated. Keeping this fact in mind, the policy makers of India have set a target of making India a 5 trillion dollar economy by the year 2024. Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman also talked about making the country a ‘five trillion dollar economy’ by 2024 during her budget speech.

  • However, even before the budget, our Prime Minister Narendra Modi has talked about achieving this goal during many of his programs.
  • During the budget speech, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said that India did not make rapid growth in the economic sector after independence.
  • The result was that it took 55 years for the Indian economy to reach one trillion dollars, while China’s economy grew very rapidly during this period.
  • In such a situation, due to limited economic capacity, the necessary resources are often not available in all areas of the country such as railways, social sector, defense and infrastructure.

Main steps taken by the government –

  • Paying special attention to infrastructure, the government has set a target of constructing 1.95 crore houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana alone.
  • Also, an additional deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh has also been allowed on interest payment of home loan. Under the ‘Study in India’ initiative, several announcements were made to promote private higher education.
  • Apart from this, sports universities are also being set up under the ‘Khelo India’ scheme for creation of world class institutions. The government also announced the establishment of a sovereign debt market.
  • Under this, the government will provide funds for private investment in the country by taking loans from the international market. This will help in bringing down the interest rate.
  • Apart from this, in order to help private capital formation, the government has planned a fresh capital infusion of Rs 70,000 crore in public sector banks.
  • At present, the private sector is grappling with the problem of debt pressure and lack of capital. In such a situation, the government will have to make better use of foreign capital for capital formation.
  • Therefore, the government is working towards promoting foreign direct investment in several sectors, especially in insurance, aviation and single brand retail.
  • Along with giving special attention to MSMEs, the government has also taken several steps towards labor reforms. In order to give emphasis to the manufacturing sector, work is being done to merge 44 labor laws into four codes.
  • Corporate tax has been reduced to 25 per cent for small enterprises with a turnover of up to Rs 400 crore. The government has stated the need for an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore for the modernization of the railways.
  • In this way, Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been proposed to increase the resources of the Railways.

The main challenges in this regard are –

  • Climate change has disturbed the pace of monsoon, which is paying off on Indian agriculture. Also, the situation is not very good in the services sector which has the largest share in the Indian economy. India’s energy sector is passing through difficult times and this sector needs to be reformed at the structural level.
  • There is a need for the Center to improve the tariff policy in collaboration with the State Governments so that industries and large consumers can get its benefits, as well as increase the tariff rates for the agriculture sector and domestic consumers.
  • The agriculture sector is already grappling with irrigation crisis due to high power usage. India lacks global level infrastructure in the field of transport, as well as rural and remote areas still far from connectivity.
  • Indian Railways is included in some of the largest railway routes in the world, yet it needs improvement. It is estimated that an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore is required for the modernization of railways.
  • Similarly, it is also necessary to have high quality roads, increase the capacity of ports and connect them with various economic establishments of the country through rail and road. In this way, India’s transport capacity will be increased, due to which the economy will be able to grow at a faster pace.
  • Telecom sector in India is also facing many problems. Other countries where the use of 5G has started, in India, the necessary efforts have not been made for this.
  • The telecom sector is already struggling due to the spectrum and base price policy of TRAI and the government. The Bharat Net project, which was started to bring internet service to the local level in India, is still not completed.

Conclusion :

It is believed that to achieve the target of 5 trillion dollars, India will need a growth rate of about 8 percent of GDP. At present the pace of Indian economy is slow, as well as achieving high economic growth rate in this situation may prove to be a difficult goal. But looking at the current situation, it would not be wrong to say that the challenges for the economy are increasing continuously. But still the dream of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy is not an impossible thing. There are many important issues like improving the quality of education, unemployment, economic inequality, status of women, malnutrition, caste discrimination, poverty which need to be resolved. Only by removing these problems will India be able to achieve its goal of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality And Domestic Tourism Opportunities in India

Introduction :

“Live life with no excuses, travel with no regrets.” This statement shows that travelling is an integral part of our life. Tourism is a vital socio-economic activity and is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism in India has good potential for developing as a high profit making industry. India is a well known tourist destination and has been successful in attracting domestic and international tourists. In India, temple towns, monuments and sea beaches are traditionally sought as tourist attractions.

  • The hill stations, historical sites, architecture and monuments and places of religious interests make India a preferred destination for the tourists from all over the world.
  • The root of tourism in India can be traced to pilgrimage. In the early stages, pilgrimage-based tourism
  • was only of domestic nature but during recent years, a large number of foreign tourists have also started visiting places of pilgrimage.
  • Domestic tourism is estimated to be much higher than international tourism and has also been rising rapidly. Better connectivity of transport and
  • communication, improved standard of living has led to the increase in the domestic as well as international tourists in India.
  • The Government of India is taking keen interest in promoting different forms of tourism such as rural tourism, eco tourism, spiritual tourism and ‘adventure tourism’ etc.
  • Medical tourism has formed an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. Most of the foreigners from the Western countries such as US, UK, Canada, and neighbouring countries are turning towards India for the affordable world class health care services.

Conclusion :

The tourism industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. It has the potential to generate mass employment and raise the income levels thereby contribute significantly to the economic development of the country. The government has made the facility of e-Tourist Visa and ‘Incredible India’ campaign is a good initiative in this regard. More and more efficient facilities for tourist in terms of accommodation, recreation, transport, shopping and development of new tourist spots is the need of the hour to develop India as a global tourist hub.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality And Strategy For New India at 75

Introduction :

New India @ 75 is a path breaking initiative which envisions how India should be in her 75th year of Independence and seeks to bring together all stakeholders including the industry, government, institutions, community groups and individuals to translate the vision into a reality. ‘Strategy for New India’ by NITI Aayog replaced five year plans with an aim to accelerate economic growth to 9 to 10% and to achieve UN sustainable development goals. The 41 Chapters under the documents have been merged under four sessions – Drivers, infrastructure, inclusion and governance.

  • India is on its way to celebrate its 75th independence day on 15th August 2022. The past 75 years took India from a poverty stricken, uneducated country to become one of the greatest pioneers in space technology & pharmaceuticals.
  • However, even after 75 years some issues are left out of fixing or are being handled in a careless manner. India is set to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2025 but its per capita income is among world’s lowest.
  • Half of the population is working in agriculture and allied activities but the income of farmers is extremely low to a point that they are forced to commit suicides.
  • India is 3rd largest economy in the world but its tax to GDP ratio is just half of the OECD countries. In addition to that, Infrastructure will play a huge role.
  • We are in dire need of private railways, Buses with IT enabled services to make our country a truly digital India. Also, India needs to include all its citizens into healthcare services via Ayushman Bharat Scheme, educating them via Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, and provide them shelter via PM Awas Yojna.
  • Moreover, to make the above targets, we need strong and effective governance. The focus is to improve the policy environment so that the contribution of private investors and stakeholders can be diverted to mainstream to achieve the goals set out for new India 2022.
  • Alarming features such as Mining, River valley projects, infrastructure projects, tourism and agriculture are included in this strategy.
  • With all this we have to limit environmental damage, there is an urgent need to conserve non-forest ecosystems such as grassland, wetlands, mountains and deserts.
  • We need to learn from the many alternatives initiatives for food, water, energy etc, which shows the ways to more just and sustainable livelihoods and ways of living.

Conclusion :

Being one of the most populous country of the world, it is a little bit tough but not impossible to change. We need proper utilization of human capital in the direction of all round development of our country. Jan Bhagidari, balanced development, public private partnership lies at the core of the strategy for New India initiative. If the above problems are addressed and vision of ‘strategy for new India @ 75’ is fulfilled, India can truly evolve as a superpower.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs development at the cost of environment degradetion

Introduction :

“Environment is no one’s property to destroy, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect.” These words of Mohith Agadi reflects the irrational utilization of resources for development  activities without considering the environment. Development is a process that leads to positive change in physical, environmental, economic and social aspects of our life. Day by day the issue of environment is increasing as we are degrading our environment in the name of economic growth.

  • As a result we are facing serious repercussions like climate change, global warming, flood, cyclones and ozone layer depletion etc.
  • According to the world bank report higher level of economic growth imposed Rs 3.75 trillion worth of environment damage cost.
  • Rapid industrialization and urbanization are inevitable to bring economic development, to increase the per capita income and ease of living.
  • But these activities have caused negative environmental consequences such as pollution, disasters, forced migration, imbalanced weather phenomena etc.
  • More urbanization and higher industrial setups are being encroached on the forest land. Now-a-days micro plastics are contaminating the water resources very badly.
  • Subsequent use of private vehicle by each family member had supplemented their contribution to pollution.
  • According to environment performance index released by world economic forum, India ranks 168th out of 180 countries, which was the worst in the south Asian countries.
  • Water scarcity and extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of floods and droughts could further strain the economy which is already reeling under pressure due to Covid-19.
  • Government has taken many initiatives to conserve the environment such as Biological diversity Act, 2002, Project Tiger 1972, World summit on sustainable development, Rio de janerio summit 1992, Project elephant 1992 etc.
  • At ground level, efforts made by people can further succeed these programmes. Moreover there should be the maximum recycling and reuse of water, improvement in energy efficient machines is the most effective measure in industries.

Conclusion :

Balancing economic development and environmental sustainable is the need of the hour, to bring this sustainable development in mainstream, united nations launched the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Countries must switch their development plans to the sustainable plans. Thus balancing economic development and environment protection requires a refocusing of economic activity not towards producing less but producing differently.

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India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Positive Effects of Coronavirus on Environment

Introduction :

Covid-19 virus has become worldwide disease and almost all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus. As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.

  • Today, when the production of almost everything is slowed down and factories are not as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke is also reduced which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • This indicates that air has become more pure and we can breathe in pure air. With the increase in number of flights, not only the air traffic increases but the quality of air also getting worse, but now the scenario is changed.
  • To reduce the risk of coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home. This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses.

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. The coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind however, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty again.

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India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so.
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.
  • Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.

Conclusion :

If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation. India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Clean India Movement – A step towards cleanliness

Introduction :

The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi had said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence” during his time before the independence of India. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people of India a lot about the cleanliness and sanitation as well as its implementation in the daily lives. After many years of independence of India, a most effective campaign of cleanliness is launched to call people for their active participation and complete the mission of cleanliness. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a Swachh Bharat Mission is launched.

  • In order to fulfill the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and make India an ideal country all over the world, the Prime Minister of India has initiated a campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2nd of October 2014).
  • People can make India clean in a number of ways. First of all, carrying a small poly-bag is a must. Most noteworthy, a recycled paper bag is the best.
  • Indians must certainly use it to throw trash in dustbins. Indians probably throw trash on the street because they dislike carrying it.
  • However, a recycled paper bag makes it easier to carry waste. Hence, Indians can carry this bag to the dustbin for waste disposal.
  • Segregating wastes is also very important. It is something which many Indians ignore. Most noteworthy, the segregation of waste at home should be in 3 separate bins.
  • These 3 bins are Biodegradable, Recyclable and Others. The waste management department should help in implementing this system.
  • Another notable way to clean India is the compost pit. Compost pit helps in the preparation of compost. To create compost pit at home, some items are required.
  • These items are kitchen wastes, leaves, grass, etc. Consequently, the microorganisms convert this organic matter into compost. Through this campaign the government of India would solve the sanitation problems by enhancing the waste management techniques.
  • Clean India movement is completely associated with the economic strength of the country. Community cleanliness drive is yet another brilliant way of making India clean.
  • It has a psychological benefit. This is because it is easier to do a thing when others are doing it. The birth date of the Mahatma Gandhi is targeted in both, the launch and completion of the mission.

Conclusion :

The basic goals behind launching the Swachh Bharat Mission are to make the country full of sanitation facilities as well as eliminate all the unhealthy practices of people in daily routines. Clean India would bring more tourists and enhance its economic condition. The Prime Minister of India has requested to every Indian to devote their 100 hours per year for the cleanliness in India which is very sufficient to make this country a clean country by 2019.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Making India Clean & Healthy

Introduction :

Mahatma Gandhi had said before the independence of India that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people a lot about the cleanliness. To fulfil his dream Swachh Bharat Abhiyan initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd of October in 2014 on the 145th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. Its primary goal is to make India open defecation-free by October 2, 2019, through the construction of at least 12 crore toilets across rural and urban households.

  • As of February 1, 2019, the government claims 9.2 crore toilets built in rural areas. Based on toilet construction, the govt has declared 28 states and UTs as Open Defecation Free.
  • But independent surveys show open defecation continues even in areas that the government has declared Open Defecation Free.
  • It is also found that 23% of people who own a toilet continue to defecate in the open, including people in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, which have been declared open defecation- free states. 
  • The Mission’s objectives also include creating sustainable solid and liquid waste management systems, promoting social inclusion by improving sanitation for women and marginalized communities, and eradicating manual scavenging.
  • Side by side of the main Swachh Bharat Mission, the Indian government also launched the Clean India: Clean Schools campaign.
  • The aim of the campaign was to ensure separate toilets for boys and girls in schools, appropriate sanitary facilities for menstruating students, hand washing station that can cater to at least 10 students at the same time, availability of soaps etc.
  • Our school has all the sanitation equipment necessary to facilitate Clean India, Clean Schools campaign. We have hygienically secure toilets with handwashing facilities.
  • Our female classmates feel comfortable coming to school because of the measures taken to make the girls’ toilet modern and friendly. Our teachers make it a point to emphasise the benefits of personal hygiene.

Conclusion :

In its National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2017-18 (NARSS), the government claimed 77% rural households had access to toilets, of which 93.4% used them regularly. It also claimed 95.6% of the surveyed villages that had been declared ODF were indeed free of open defecation. In urban areas, the government’s target was to build 67 lakh urban toilets by October 2019. It claims it has already built 60 lakh household toilets by October 2018.

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Essay on India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality

Essay on India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality

Introduction :

India adopted the policy of liberalization in 1991 to boost to the economy, under this various sectors were opened to the private sector and gradually the pace of India’s economy grew rapidly. India has become the sixth largest economy in the world but the current state of the economy cannot be appreciated. Keeping this fact in mind, the policy makers of India have set a target of making India a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2024-25. Paying special attention to infrastructure, the government has set a target of constructing 1.95 crore houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana.

  • Also, an additional deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh has also been allowed on interest payment of home loan.
  • Under the ‘Study in India’ initiative, several announcements were made to promote private higher education. Apart from this, sports universities are also being set up under the ‘Khelo India’.
  • Apart from this, in order to help private capital formation, the government has planned a fresh capital infusion of Rs 70,000 crore in public sector banks.
  • At present, the private sector is grappling with the problem of debt pressure and lack of capital. Therefore, the government is working towards promoting foreign direct investment in several sectors, especially in insurance, aviation and retail.
  • Along with giving special attention to MSMEs, the government has also taken several steps towards labor reforms. The government has stated the need for an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore for the modernization of the railways.
  • In this way, Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been proposed to increase the resources of the Railways.
  • The agriculture sector is already grappling with irrigation crisis due to high power usage. India lacks global level infrastructure in the field of transport, as well as rural and remote areas still far from connectivity.

Conclusion :

It is believed that to achieve the target of 5 trillion dollars, India will need a growth rate of about 8 percent of GDP. At present the pace of Indian economy is slow, as well as achieving high economic growth rate in this situation may prove to be a difficult task. There are many important issues like improving the quality of education, unemployment, economic inequality, status of women, malnutrition, caste discrimination, poverty which need to be resolved. Only by removing these problems India will be able to achieve its goal of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy.

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Long Essay on India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality

Introduction :

India adopted the policy of liberalization in 1991 to give impetus to the economy, under which various sectors were opened to the private sector and gradually the pace of India’s economy grew rapidly. India has recently become the sixth largest economy in the world. But given the size and capacity ratio of India, the current state of the economy cannot be appreciated. Keeping this fact in mind, the policy makers of India have set a target of making India a 5 trillion dollar economy by the year 2024. Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman also talked about making the country a ‘five trillion dollar economy’ by 2024 during her budget speech.

  • However, even before the budget, our Prime Minister Narendra Modi has talked about achieving this goal during many of his programs.
  • During the budget speech, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said that India did not make rapid growth in the economic sector after independence.
  • The result was that it took 55 years for the Indian economy to reach one trillion dollars, while China’s economy grew very rapidly during this period.
  • In such a situation, due to limited economic capacity, the necessary resources are often not available in all areas of the country such as railways, social sector, defense and infrastructure.

Main steps taken by the government –

  • Paying special attention to infrastructure, the government has set a target of constructing 1.95 crore houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana alone.
  • Also, an additional deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh has also been allowed on interest payment of home loan. Under the ‘Study in India’ initiative, several announcements were made to promote private higher education.
  • Apart from this, sports universities are also being set up under the ‘Khelo India’ scheme for creation of world class institutions. The government also announced the establishment of a sovereign debt market.
  • Under this, the government will provide funds for private investment in the country by taking loans from the international market. This will help in bringing down the interest rate.
  • Apart from this, in order to help private capital formation, the government has planned a fresh capital infusion of Rs 70,000 crore in public sector banks.
  • At present, the private sector is grappling with the problem of debt pressure and lack of capital. In such a situation, the government will have to make better use of foreign capital for capital formation.
  • Therefore, the government is working towards promoting foreign direct investment in several sectors, especially in insurance, aviation and single brand retail.
  • Along with giving special attention to MSMEs, the government has also taken several steps towards labor reforms. In order to give emphasis to the manufacturing sector, work is being done to merge 44 labor laws into four codes.
  • Corporate tax has been reduced to 25 per cent for small enterprises with a turnover of up to Rs 400 crore. The government has stated the need for an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore for the modernization of the railways.
  • In this way, Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been proposed to increase the resources of the Railways.

The main challenges in this regard are –

  • Climate change has disturbed the pace of monsoon, which is paying off on Indian agriculture. Also, the situation is not very good in the services sector which has the largest share in the Indian economy. India’s energy sector is passing through difficult times and this sector needs to be reformed at the structural level.
  • There is a need for the Center to improve the tariff policy in collaboration with the State Governments so that industries and large consumers can get its benefits, as well as increase the tariff rates for the agriculture sector and domestic consumers.
  • The agriculture sector is already grappling with irrigation crisis due to high power usage. India lacks global level infrastructure in the field of transport, as well as rural and remote areas still far from connectivity.
  • Indian Railways is included in some of the largest railway routes in the world, yet it needs improvement. It is estimated that an investment of about Rs 50 lakh crore is required for the modernization of railways.
  • Similarly, it is also necessary to have high quality roads, increase the capacity of ports and connect them with various economic establishments of the country through rail and road. In this way, India’s transport capacity will be increased, due to which the economy will be able to grow at a faster pace.
  • Telecom sector in India is also facing many problems. Other countries where the use of 5G has started, in India, the necessary efforts have not been made for this.
  • The telecom sector is already struggling due to the spectrum and base price policy of TRAI and the government. The Bharat Net project, which was started to bring internet service to the local level in India, is still not completed.

Conclusion :

It is believed that to achieve the target of 5 trillion dollars, India will need a growth rate of about 8 percent of GDP. At present the pace of Indian economy is slow, as well as achieving high economic growth rate in this situation may prove to be a difficult goal. But looking at the current situation, it would not be wrong to say that the challenges for the economy are increasing continuously. But still the dream of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy is not an impossible thing. There are many important issues like improving the quality of education, unemployment, economic inequality, status of women, malnutrition, caste discrimination, poverty which need to be resolved. Only by removing these problems will India be able to achieve its goal of becoming a 5 trillion dollar economy.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality And Domestic Tourism Opportunities in India

Introduction :

“Live life with no excuses, travel with no regrets.” This statement shows that travelling is an integral part of our life. Tourism is a vital socio-economic activity and is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism in India has good potential for developing as a high profit making industry. India is a well known tourist destination and has been successful in attracting domestic and international tourists. In India, temple towns, monuments and sea beaches are traditionally sought as tourist attractions.

  • The hill stations, historical sites, architecture and monuments and places of religious interests make India a preferred destination for the tourists from all over the world.
  • The root of tourism in India can be traced to pilgrimage. In the early stages, pilgrimage-based tourism
  • was only of domestic nature but during recent years, a large number of foreign tourists have also started visiting places of pilgrimage.
  • Domestic tourism is estimated to be much higher than international tourism and has also been rising rapidly. Better connectivity of transport and
  • communication, improved standard of living has led to the increase in the domestic as well as international tourists in India.
  • The Government of India is taking keen interest in promoting different forms of tourism such as rural tourism, eco tourism, spiritual tourism and ‘adventure tourism’ etc.
  • Medical tourism has formed an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. Most of the foreigners from the Western countries such as US, UK, Canada, and neighbouring countries are turning towards India for the affordable world class health care services.

Conclusion :

The tourism industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. It has the potential to generate mass employment and raise the income levels thereby contribute significantly to the economic development of the country. The government has made the facility of e-Tourist Visa and ‘Incredible India’ campaign is a good initiative in this regard. More and more efficient facilities for tourist in terms of accommodation, recreation, transport, shopping and development of new tourist spots is the need of the hour to develop India as a global tourist hub.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality And Strategy For New India at 75

Introduction :

New India @ 75 is a path breaking initiative which envisions how India should be in her 75th year of Independence and seeks to bring together all stakeholders including the industry, government, institutions, community groups and individuals to translate the vision into a reality. ‘Strategy for New India’ by NITI Aayog replaced five year plans with an aim to accelerate economic growth to 9 to 10% and to achieve UN sustainable development goals. The 41 Chapters under the documents have been merged under four sessions – Drivers, infrastructure, inclusion and governance.

  • India is on its way to celebrate its 75th independence day on 15th August 2022. The past 75 years took India from a poverty stricken, uneducated country to become one of the greatest pioneers in space technology & pharmaceuticals.
  • However, even after 75 years some issues are left out of fixing or are being handled in a careless manner. India is set to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2025 but its per capita income is among world’s lowest.
  • Half of the population is working in agriculture and allied activities but the income of farmers is extremely low to a point that they are forced to commit suicides.
  • India is 3rd largest economy in the world but its tax to GDP ratio is just half of the OECD countries. In addition to that, Infrastructure will play a huge role.
  • We are in dire need of private railways, Buses with IT enabled services to make our country a truly digital India. Also, India needs to include all its citizens into healthcare services via Ayushman Bharat Scheme, educating them via Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, and provide them shelter via PM Awas Yojna.
  • Moreover, to make the above targets, we need strong and effective governance. The focus is to improve the policy environment so that the contribution of private investors and stakeholders can be diverted to mainstream to achieve the goals set out for new India 2022.
  • Alarming features such as Mining, River valley projects, infrastructure projects, tourism and agriculture are included in this strategy.
  • With all this we have to limit environmental damage, there is an urgent need to conserve non-forest ecosystems such as grassland, wetlands, mountains and deserts.
  • We need to learn from the many alternatives initiatives for food, water, energy etc, which shows the ways to more just and sustainable livelihoods and ways of living.

Conclusion :

Being one of the most populous country of the world, it is a little bit tough but not impossible to change. We need proper utilization of human capital in the direction of all round development of our country. Jan Bhagidari, balanced development, public private partnership lies at the core of the strategy for New India initiative. If the above problems are addressed and vision of ‘strategy for new India @ 75’ is fulfilled, India can truly evolve as a superpower.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs development at the cost of environment degradetion

Introduction :

“Environment is no one’s property to destroy, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect.” These words of Mohith Agadi reflects the irrational utilization of resources for development  activities without considering the environment. Development is a process that leads to positive change in physical, environmental, economic and social aspects of our life. Day by day the issue of environment is increasing as we are degrading our environment in the name of economic growth.

  • As a result we are facing serious repercussions like climate change, global warming, flood, cyclones and ozone layer depletion etc.
  • According to the world bank report higher level of economic growth imposed Rs 3.75 trillion worth of environment damage cost.
  • Rapid industrialization and urbanization are inevitable to bring economic development, to increase the per capita income and ease of living.
  • But these activities have caused negative environmental consequences such as pollution, disasters, forced migration, imbalanced weather phenomena etc.
  • More urbanization and higher industrial setups are being encroached on the forest land. Now-a-days micro plastics are contaminating the water resources very badly.
  • Subsequent use of private vehicle by each family member had supplemented their contribution to pollution.
  • According to environment performance index released by world economic forum, India ranks 168th out of 180 countries, which was the worst in the south Asian countries.
  • Water scarcity and extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of floods and droughts could further strain the economy which is already reeling under pressure due to Covid-19.
  • Government has taken many initiatives to conserve the environment such as Biological diversity Act, 2002, Project Tiger 1972, World summit on sustainable development, Rio de janerio summit 1992, Project elephant 1992 etc.
  • At ground level, efforts made by people can further succeed these programmes. Moreover there should be the maximum recycling and reuse of water, improvement in energy efficient machines is the most effective measure in industries.

Conclusion :

Balancing economic development and environmental sustainable is the need of the hour, to bring this sustainable development in mainstream, united nations launched the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Countries must switch their development plans to the sustainable plans. Thus balancing economic development and environment protection requires a refocusing of economic activity not towards producing less but producing differently.

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India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Positive Effects of Coronavirus on Environment

Introduction :

Covid-19 virus has become worldwide disease and almost all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus. As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.

  • Today, when the production of almost everything is slowed down and factories are not as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke is also reduced which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • This indicates that air has become more pure and we can breathe in pure air. With the increase in number of flights, not only the air traffic increases but the quality of air also getting worse, but now the scenario is changed.
  • To reduce the risk of coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home. This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses.

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. The coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind however, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty again.

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India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Positive Impact of Coronavirus (covid-19) on Environment :

Introduction :

Corona virus has become worldwide disease and all nations of the world are facing it. Due to which population of the world is forced to live inside their home. Business activities in the country also affected due to corona virus. As we all know coronavirus has taken life of a lot of people all across the globe. To prevent the spread of COVD-19, governments of different nations are taking multiple steps to control the spread of this virus.

  • As far as our environment is concerned, it is enjoying the positive impact of this virus.
  • Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the air around us had been deemed very toxic to breathe in due to the amount of greenhouse gases that had been emitted over the centuries.
  • The Earth faced rising temperatures, which in turn led to the melting of glaciers and rising of sea levels. Environmental degradation was happening fast due to the depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. But after the coronavirus lockdown commenced, there have been slight changes in the environment. 
  • After the lockdown was put in place in many countries, there was lesser travelling done by people, whether it be by their own cars, or by trains and flights.
  • Even industries were closed down and not allowed to function. This in turn led to the pollution in the air dropping significantly, as there was a marked decline in nitrous oxide emission.
  • Again where fish is concerned, the lockdown has seen a decline in fishing, which means that the fish biomass will increase after over-fishing almost depleted it.
  • Apart from that, animals have been spotted moving about freely where once they would not dare to go. Even sea turtles have been spotted returning to areas they once avoided to lay their eggs, all due to the lack human interference.
  • Today, when the production of almost everything is on halt and factories are no longer as active as they used to be, the emission of smoke has lessened which has resulted in clear sky.
  • Not only this, the use of vehicles on road is reduced. All this have contributed towards lowered CO2-emissions. The emission of nitrogen dioxide has also reduced.
  • Plants are growing better because there is cleaner air and water, and because yet again there is no human interference.
  • With everything at a standstill, plants are allowed to thrive and grow and produce more coverage and oxygen.
  • Less litter also means lesser clogging of river systems, which is good in the long run for the environment.
  • To combat coronavirus, companies have asked workers to work from home.
  • This has reduced vehicles on road. In addition to this, the consumption of plastic has also reduced as people no longer have tea or coffee in disposable glasses. 

Conclusion :

In this competitive era where we have to follow a hectic schedule, we have never had thought about the way we are treating the environment. However, now due to lockdown we are forced to stay at home, we have ample time to think on our actions. There is no denying the fact that coronavirus has had catastrophic impacts on mankind. However, it has surely given the environment a chance to self-heal and restore its beauty.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Disaster Management – Best Way The Protect Ourselves

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is the need of the hour that it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so.
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.
  • Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.

Conclusion :

If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation. India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Clean India Movement – A step towards cleanliness

Introduction :

The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi had said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence” during his time before the independence of India. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people of India a lot about the cleanliness and sanitation as well as its implementation in the daily lives. After many years of independence of India, a most effective campaign of cleanliness is launched to call people for their active participation and complete the mission of cleanliness. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a Swachh Bharat Mission is launched.

  • In order to fulfill the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and make India an ideal country all over the world, the Prime Minister of India has initiated a campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2nd of October 2014).
  • People can make India clean in a number of ways. First of all, carrying a small poly-bag is a must. Most noteworthy, a recycled paper bag is the best.
  • Indians must certainly use it to throw trash in dustbins. Indians probably throw trash on the street because they dislike carrying it.
  • However, a recycled paper bag makes it easier to carry waste. Hence, Indians can carry this bag to the dustbin for waste disposal.
  • Segregating wastes is also very important. It is something which many Indians ignore. Most noteworthy, the segregation of waste at home should be in 3 separate bins.
  • These 3 bins are Biodegradable, Recyclable and Others. The waste management department should help in implementing this system.
  • Another notable way to clean India is the compost pit. Compost pit helps in the preparation of compost. To create compost pit at home, some items are required.
  • These items are kitchen wastes, leaves, grass, etc. Consequently, the microorganisms convert this organic matter into compost. Through this campaign the government of India would solve the sanitation problems by enhancing the waste management techniques.
  • Clean India movement is completely associated with the economic strength of the country. Community cleanliness drive is yet another brilliant way of making India clean.
  • It has a psychological benefit. This is because it is easier to do a thing when others are doing it. The birth date of the Mahatma Gandhi is targeted in both, the launch and completion of the mission.

Conclusion :

The basic goals behind launching the Swachh Bharat Mission are to make the country full of sanitation facilities as well as eliminate all the unhealthy practices of people in daily routines. Clean India would bring more tourists and enhance its economic condition. The Prime Minister of India has requested to every Indian to devote their 100 hours per year for the cleanliness in India which is very sufficient to make this country a clean country by 2019.

India – $5 trillion economy dream or reality Vs Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Making India Clean & Healthy

Introduction :

Mahatma Gandhi had said before the independence of India that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people a lot about the cleanliness. To fulfil his dream Swachh Bharat Abhiyan initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd of October in 2014 on the 145th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. Its primary goal is to make India open defecation-free by October 2, 2019, through the construction of at least 12 crore toilets across rural and urban households.

  • As of February 1, 2019, the government claims 9.2 crore toilets built in rural areas. Based on toilet construction, the govt has declared 28 states and UTs as Open Defecation Free.
  • But independent surveys show open defecation continues even in areas that the government has declared Open Defecation Free.
  • It is also found that 23% of people who own a toilet continue to defecate in the open, including people in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, which have been declared open defecation- free states. 
  • The Mission’s objectives also include creating sustainable solid and liquid waste management systems, promoting social inclusion by improving sanitation for women and marginalized communities, and eradicating manual scavenging.
  • Side by side of the main Swachh Bharat Mission, the Indian government also launched the Clean India: Clean Schools campaign.
  • The aim of the campaign was to ensure separate toilets for boys and girls in schools, appropriate sanitary facilities for menstruating students, hand washing station that can cater to at least 10 students at the same time, availability of soaps etc.
  • Our school has all the sanitation equipment necessary to facilitate Clean India, Clean Schools campaign. We have hygienically secure toilets with handwashing facilities.
  • Our female classmates feel comfortable coming to school because of the measures taken to make the girls’ toilet modern and friendly. Our teachers make it a point to emphasise the benefits of personal hygiene.

Conclusion :

In its National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2017-18 (NARSS), the government claimed 77% rural households had access to toilets, of which 93.4% used them regularly. It also claimed 95.6% of the surveyed villages that had been declared ODF were indeed free of open defecation. In urban areas, the government’s target was to build 67 lakh urban toilets by October 2019. It claims it has already built 60 lakh household toilets by October 2018.

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Essay on Russia Ukraine conflict in english

Essay on Russia Ukraine conflict in english

Introduction :

“Peace is not absence of conflict, it is the ability to handle conflict by peaceful means.“ This statement can be directly connected with the on going war between Russia and Ukraine. The invasion of Russia on Ukraine in February is the largest conventional military attack and can cause economic crisis for the whole world. Although, India has taken a neutral stance because of its historic partnership with Russia. This alliance is making Russia a pivotal part of India’s nation-building process, especially during its early days of independence.

  • The main cause of concern is Ukraine’s accession to NATO that would cross Russia’s red lines, and poses a continuing security threat to Russia. Russia wants an assurance from the West that Ukraine will never be allowed to join NATO. 
  • The Russia-Ukraine crisis has caused uncertainty in global trade and is impacting oil and other commodities prices to a great extent. Though, India doesn’t have a significant trade with Russia but it stands to lose economically due to supply disruptions caused by western countries.
  • Inspite of India’s limited direct exposure, the combination of supply disruptions and the ongoing terms of trade will definitely impact the growth of Indian economy that can also result in rise in inflation.
  • In reaction to the US’s ban on all oil and gas imports from Russia, Crude oil prices increased to nearly 43% from the beginning of February.
  • This is a huge setback for global economic growth because Russia is one of the largest exporters of crude oil of the world. However, India’s trade consist of only 1% oil imports from Russia, but there can be a great impact in the form of high inflation and slow growth.

Conclusion :

It can be said that more risks could arise if global growth conditions deteriorate further, which would hamper India’s export and capital expenditure as well. The ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine may impact financial markets, exchange rate and crude prices. In the short-term, however, this moment will not have any lasting impact on the Indian economy. It is expected that inflation will further worsen and will result in the reduced purchasing power parity of common people.

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Impact of Rising prices on common man

Introduction :

“Inflation is like toothpaste once it’s out you can hardly get it back in again” This statement indicate the impact of inflation on our economy. The rampant increase in prices is causing anxiety among the people of India. Price rise is a world wide phenomenon and India is no exception to it. Prices of everything are hiking even of the essential goods like gas, pulses, sugar, edible oils, tea, food grains and petrol. When the total demand is greater than total supply of goods and services, it causes prices to rise.

  • The factors such as increase in disposable income, consumer spending, public expenditure, black money are responsible for increasing demand. Price-rise affects different people differently.
  • Although it may not have much affect on the flexible income group. However, maximum hardship is faced by the fixed income groups.
  • It is so because their salaries remain the same but the prices continue to rise. The impact of rising prices can be seen as unfulfillment of basic needs, increase in the prices of petrol and diesel leads to increase in transportation cost,
  • It also causes hunger and malnutrition, no access to healthcare services, migration and much more. India ranks 101st in Global Hunger Index which shows the real condition of poor people in India.
  • The condition of women is not every good as 7 out of 10 women are suffering from anemia in India.
  • In order to curb the problem of price rise there should be the joint effort of the government and the public to control it.
  • There should be more fair price shops, Kendriya Bhandar where the common man can shop for quality goods at low prices.

Conclusion :

The Government and banks must keep a check on hoarding and black marketing. As far as general public is concerned, they must reduce unnecessary expenditure and increase savings. This will reduce disposable income with the people and hence personal consumption expenditure. Government should focus on lowest income group, promote startups, provide skills to youth and try to control the inflation so that the gap between the rich and poor can be reduced as much as possible as it is truly said “growth is possible where there is no difference.”

Essay on Virtual Currencies in India

Introduction :

Bitcoin is a digital currency that is widely known for its creator’s anonymity. It is a kind of virtual currency which was launched as an open source software in 2009. Its creator whose identity to this day remains unknown, goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Since its inception, virtual currency, has grown in both its popularity and its use. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator. Bitcoin is often referred to as a “virtual currency” or “cryptocurrency.”

  • All transfers of bitcoin are verified and recorded on a public ledger known as the block chain. It is an electronic or digital currency that works on a peer-to-peer basis.
  • Like currency notes, it can be sent from one person to another. The beauty of this cryptocurrency is that if you receive a bitcoin from another, you can be as sure of the payment as you would on receiving physical currency notes, with the same anonymity ascribed to it.
  • This anonymity is lacking in other forms of digital payment such as online banking or e-wallets. You can send bitcoins digitally to anyone who has a bitcoin address anywhere in the globe.
  • One person could have multiple addresses for different purposes. Receivers can get to spend them within minutes of receiving the coins.
  • It is to be noted that cryptocurrency transactions are settled immediately without any third-party approvals.

Conclusion :

With recognition at universal level, cryptocurrencies can be accessed by everyone. As India moves to digitize much of its financial services and parts of its consumer market, cryptocurrencies offer a new, dynamic addition to the Digital India project.

Cashless Economy – Making Indian economy Digital

Introduction :

A cashless economy means the liquidity in the system is exchanged between two parties through either plastic currency or through digital currency i.e online payments. With the advent of blockchain technology, bitcoins have given a whole new meaning for a cashless economy. The concept of bitcoin talks about a decentralized system of finance, but that is not the point of discussing in this particular essay on cashless India.

  • Hence, let us come back to the crux of this essay on cashless India, which are the pros and cons of the digital payment system.
  • Cashless Economy promotes electronic payment methods which improves transparency and accountability.
  • Tax collection increases as all the transaction takes place through bank accounts. It can also mitigate corruption and black money as all transactions can be traced easily.
  • It also saves time and prevents theft and burglary of cash and endorses paperless environment friendly as it will save a huge amount of money spent on printing and maintenance of currency.
  • With so much technological revolutions happening around, it will be impossible to find someone without a smartphone in this 21st century.
  • Almost every Indian has a smartphone. Hence the ease of transaction through fintech platforms such as Paytm, google pay or phonepe are easier than ever before.
  • The hassles of carrying hard cash( with possible viruses on it) is eliminated. The government of India has produced platforms such as UPI (Unified Payments Interface) for hassle-free cashless transactions.
  • But it is seen that the small businesses still use cash as they cannot afford digital infrastructures. Hackers and Cyber Crimes are a huge threat to cashless economy.
  • There is lack of internet connectivity in rural areas in our nation which makes it difficult to commence the concept of the cashless economy in every region
  • India is lacking robust and widespread internet connection in all parts of the country which becomes a huge hurdle in practicing cashless economy.

Conclusion :

The cashless economy has its own sets of merits and demerits. The concept of cashless economy is very useful for eliminating black money from the nation. The lack of sufficient infrastructure and illiteracy is one of the major hindrances in the path of the cashless economy. It is important for the government to address the issues related to achieving a proper cashless economy by providing financial education to the people along with better internet services.

Technological Development in India

Introduction :

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information.

  • New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.
  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems. The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains. In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable.
  • The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society. Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science.

Conclusion :

When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

Cyber Crimes in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence.

  • It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.
  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly. Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types.
  • These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders. Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes.
  • Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Digital India – Empowerment & Safety Issues

Introduction :

Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India to ensure that Government services are made available to citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure and by increasing Internet connectivity in the field of technology. The digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networks, computers, software, and other related information technologies.

  • The motto for the campaign is “Power to Empower” and it was launched on 1 July 2015 by PM Narendra Modi.

Information is easier to produce and harder to control in this dynamic era. Digital India consists of three core components they are-

  • Development of secure and stable digital infrastructure.
  • Delivering government services digitally.
  • Universal Digital Literacy.
  • The facilities which will be provided through this initiative are Digital Locker, e-education, e-health, e-sign and national scholarship portal. Digi Locker is an initiative under Digital India program.
  • Digital Locker facilities will be provided to citizens to store their important documents like PAN card, Passport, Mark sheet and Degree certificates.
  • The term digital economy also refers to the convergence of computing and communication technologies on the Internet and other networks.
  • This convergence enables all types of information (data, audio, video) to be stored, processed, and transmitted over networks to many destinations worldwide.
  • Digital India wants to enlighten all types of people in India digitally and to provide the citizens with the best public services.
  • The commercial broadband and IT Indian companies also supported it. It also helps bridge the gap in the employment of youth between developed and undeveloped areas.
  • The domestic e-government system is reliable as it prevails fiber optic road, public interest access, mobile connectivity everywhere, electronics revolution, e-government, job information, IT, post-harvest management program, and electronic devices.
  • Digital India initiative aims to enhance the process and delivery of different government services through e-Governance and payment gateways, UIDAI, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) and mobile platforms.

Conclusion :

The main objective was to improve the country’s people’s access to technology. The government has worked to enhance accessibility to the internet and to make it much easier for regional and underserved parts of the country to connect. A plan to communicate countryside to high-speed Internet was one of the initiatives. Government intends to make all information easily available to the citizen through online hosting of data. Digital India campaign is a great initiative to integrate digital technology for better future. 

Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essays

Essay on Impact of Rising prices on common man in hindi

Essay on Impact of Rising prices on common man in hindi

Introduction :

“देश की जनता गरीबी से लड़ रही है, महंगाई और बेरोजगारी बढ़ रही है” उपरोक्त पंक्ति आम आदमी पर महंगाई से पड़ने वाले प्रभाव को दर्शाती है। जरुरी वस्तुओं की कीमतों में तेजी से हो रही बढ़ोतरी भारत के लोगों में चिंता का कारण बन रही है। महंगाई एक विश्वव्यापी घटना है और भारत भी इससे बच नहीं सका है। गैस, दाल, चीनी, तेल, चाय, पेट्रोल आदि जैसी आवश्यक वस्तुओं की कीमतें भी तेज़ी से बढ़ती जा रही हैं। जब कुल मांग वस्तुओं और सेवाओं की कुल आपूर्ति से अधिक हो जाती है, तब कीमतों में वृद्धि होने लगती है।

  • अर्थशास्त्रियों के अनुसार मांग में होने वाली वृद्धि के मुख्य कारण डिस्पोजेबल आय में वृद्धि, उपभोक्ता खर्च में वृद्धि, सार्वजनिक व्यय, काला धन आदि हैं।
  • मूल्य वृद्धि अलग-अलग लोगों को अलग तरह से प्रभावित करती है। हालांकि लचीले आय वर्ग पर इसका ज्यादा असर नहीं होता है।
  • हालांकि, निश्चित आय वर्ग के लोगों को सबसे अधिक कठिनाई का सामना करना पड़ता है। ऐसा इसलिए है क्योंकि उनका वेतन और मजदूरी समान रहती है लेकिन वस्तुओं और सेवाओं की कीमतों में वृद्धि जारी रहती है।
  • बढ़ती कीमतों के कारण आम आदमी अपनी बुनियादी जरूरतों को पूरा नहीं कर पाता, पेट्रोल और डीजल की कीमतों में वृद्धि से परिवहन लागत में वृद्धि होती है।
  • ग्लोबल हंगर इंडेक्स में भारत 101वें स्थान पर है जो भारत में गरीब लोगों की वास्तविक स्थिति को दर्शाता है। भारत में महिलाओं की स्थिति भी अच्छी नहीं है यहाँ 10 में से 7 महिलाएं एनीमिया से पीड़ित हैं। मूल्य वृद्धि की समस्या को रोकने के लिए
  • सरकार और जनता का संयुक्त प्रयास होना चाहिए ताकि इसे नियंत्रित किया जा सके। अधिक उचित मूल्य की दुकानें, केन्द्रीय भंडार खोले जाने चाहिए, जहां आम आदमी कम कीमत पर गुणवत्तापूर्ण सामान की खरीदारी कर सके।

Conclusion :

जमाखोरी और कालाबाजारी पर सरकार और बैंकों को नजर रखनी चाहिए। जहां तक आम जनता का सवाल है, उन्हें अनावश्यक खर्च कम करना चाहिए और बचत बढ़ानी चाहिए। इससे लोगों के पास खर्च करने योग्य आय कम हो जाएगी और उपभोग व्यय में भी कमी होगी। सरकार को निम्नतम आय वर्ग पर ध्यान देना चाहिए, स्टार्टअप को बढ़ावा देना चाहिए, युवाओं को कौशल प्रदान करना चाहिए ताकि अमीर और गरीब के बीच की खाई को जितना संभव हो उतना कम किया जा सके। इस सम्बन्ध में यह कहना गलत नहीं होगा की “सबके विकास से ही देश का विकास संभव है।”

गरीब कल्याण रोजगार अभियान पर निबंध

Introduction :

हमारे प्रधान मंत्री श्री नरेंद्र मोदी ने गरीब कल्याण रोज़गार अभियान की शुरुआत की, जो प्रवासी मजदूरों के लिए एक रोजगार योजना है, जिससे लॉकडाउन के दौरान शहरों से गांवों में लौटे मजदूरों की मदत होगी। इस अभियान को पांच राज्यों मध्य प्रदेश, उत्तर प्रदेश, राजस्थान, झारखंड और ओडिशा के मुख्यमंत्रियों की मौजूदगी में बिहार के तेलिहार गाँव से 20 जून, 2020 को वीडियो कॉन्फ्रेंस के माध्यम से शुरू किया गया।

इस योजना के तहत, देश के ग्रामीण हिस्सों में ग्रामीण नागरिकों, विशेषकर प्रवासी श्रमिकों के लिए आजीविका सहायता प्रदान करके देश के ग्रामीण हिस्सों में होने वाले आर्थिक प्रभाव को कम करना ही इस अभियान का मुख्य उद्देश्य है। केंद्र सरकार ने गरीब कल्याण रोज़गार अभियान के तहत लगभग 25 योजनाओं को एक साथ देश भर के 116 जिलों में लागू किया है तथा इस योजना के लिए 125 दिनों का लक्ष्य रखा गया है।

पैकेजिंग और स्थानीय उत्पाद बनाने के लिए गांवों, कस्बों और छोटे शहरों के पास उद्योग समूह बनाए जाएंगे। फसलों को स्थानीय स्तर पर स्टोर करने के लिए 1 लाख करोड़ की लागत से कोल्ड स्टोरेज सुविधाएं विकसित की जाएंगी।

  • इस अभियान की शुरुआत प्रधानमंत्री द्वारा वीडियो-कॉन्फ्रेंस के माध्यम से बिहार के खगड़िया ज़िले के ग्राम तेलिहार से की।
  • ‘गरीब कल्याण रोज़गार अभियान’ के अंतर्गत सरकार द्वारा लगभग 50 हज़ार करोड़ रुपए का निवेश किया किया गया है।
  • यह 125 दिनों का अभियान होगा, जिसे मिशन मोड रूप में संचालित किया किया गया।
  • इस अभियान में छ: राज्यों बिहार, उत्तर प्रदेश, मध्य प्रदेश, राजस्थान, झारखंड तथा ओडिशा को शामिल किया गया है।
  • छ: ज़िलों के 25,000 से अधिक प्रवासी श्रमिकों के साथ कुल 116 ज़िलों को इस अभियान के लिये चुना गया है, जिसमें 27 आकांक्षी ज़िले (aspirational districts) भी शामिल हैं।
  • इस कार्यक्रम में शामिल छ: राज्यों के 116 ज़िलों के गाँव कॉमन सर्विस सेंटर (Common Service Centres) तथा ‘कृषि विज्ञान केंद्रों’ (Krishi Vigyan Kendras) के माध्यम से शामिल होंगे, जो कोरोना के कारण लागू शारीरिक दूरी के मानदंडों को भी ध्यान में रखा गया।
  • इस अभियान में 12 विभिन्न मंत्रालयों को समनवित किया जाएगा, जिसमें पंचायती राज, ग्रामीण विकास, सड़क परिवहन और राजमार्ग, खान, पेयजल और स्वच्छता, पर्यावरण, रेलवे, नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा, पेट्रोलियम और प्राकृतिक गैस, सीमा सड़कें, दूरसंचार तथा कृषि मंत्रालय शामिल हैं।
  • इस अभियान को ऐसे समय में शुरू किया जा रहा है जब COVID-19 के प्रकोप के कारण लाखों प्रवासी मज़दूर गाँवों की तरफ लौट रहे हैं जिससे ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में रोज़गार की समस्या उत्पन्न हो रही है।
  • मनरेगा के तहत काम करने वाले परिवारों की संख्या भी मई 2020 में एक स्तर पर पहुँच गई है।
  • यह अभियान ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में ही प्रवासी श्रमिकों को रोज़गार प्रदान करने के साथ-साथ गाँवों के टिकाऊ बुनियादी ढाँचे का निर्माण करने में सहायक है।
  • यह अभियान प्रवासी श्रमिकों तथा ग्रामीण नागरिकों के सशक्तीकरण तथा उन्हें आत्मनिर्भर बनाने में महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका का निर्वहन करेगा अर्थात् गाँवों में ही आजीविका के अवसरों को इस अभियान के माध्यम से विकसित किया है।
  • PMGKRA में 50000 करोड़ की लागत लगी है जिसकी उद्घोषणा भारत की वित्त मंत्री निर्मला सीतारमण ने सहाय पैकेज के दौरान की थी। इस अभियान के लिए बिहार, उत्तर प्रदेश, मध्य प्रदेश, राजस्थान, झारखंड और ओडिशा के 25,000 से अधिक अपने गाँव पलायन कर गए प्रवासी श्रमिकों के साथ कुल 116 जिलों को चुना गया है।

Conclusion :

इस अभियान के द्वारा ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में आधुनिक सुविधाएं भी प्रदान की जाएंगी है। फाइबर केबल बिछाने और इंटरनेट के प्रावधान को भी अभियान का हिस्सा बनाया गया है। यह अभियान ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में बुनियादी ढांचे का निर्माण करते हुए प्रवासी श्रमिकों के परिवारों को तत्काल राहत प्रदान करेगा। प्रवासी श्रमिकों की वर्तमान स्थिति के अनुसार गरीब कल्याण योजना जैसी योजना की बहुत आवश्यकता है। हालांकि, कार्यक्रम की सफलता इस बात पर निर्भर करती है कि क्या इसका लाभ प्रवासी श्रमिकों तक समय पर पहुंच पायेगा या नहीं। सरकार को सभी प्रवासी मजदूरों का एक डेटाबेस भी बनाना चाहिए जो भविष्य में उनके लिए एक सामाजिक सुरक्षा प्रणाली बनाने के लिए इस्तेमाल किया जा सके।

भ्रष्टाचार पर निबंध (Essay on Curruption in hindi)

Introduction :

जब कोई व्यक्ति न्याय व्यवस्था के नियमों के विरूद्ध जाकर अपने स्वार्थ की पूर्ति के लिए सार्वजनिक संपत्ति, स्थिति, शक्ति और अधिकार का दुरुपयोग करने लगता है तो वह व्यक्ति भ्रष्टाचारी कहलाता है। आज भारत जैसे देश में भ्रष्टाचार अपनी जड़े तेज़ी से फैला रहा है।

भ्रष्टाचार अब समाज की गहराई में फैल गया है और इसकी बहुत सारी जड़ों के होने के कारण बहुत मजबूत हो गया है। यह एक कैंसर की तरह है जो एक बार उत्पन्न होने पर दवा के बिना समाप्त नहीं किया जा सकता। भ्रष्टाचार के कई रूप है जैसे रिश्वत, काला-बाजार, जान-बूझकर दाम बढ़ाना, पैसा लेकर काम करना, सस्ता सामान लाकर महंगा बेचना आदि।

भ्रष्टाचार विभिन्न प्रकार का हो सकता है जो शिक्षा, खेल, राजनीति जैसे हर क्षेत्र में फैला हुआ है। भ्रष्टाचार के कारण व्यक्ति अपनी जिम्मेदारियों को नहीं समझ पाता है। भ्रष्टाचार कई तरह से हो सकता है जैसे चोरी, बेईमानी, सार्वजनिक संपत्ति का दुरूपयोग, अनावश्यक रूप से समय की बर्बादी, शोषण, घोटाला आदि।

  • इसने विकासशील और विकसित दोनों देशों में अपनी जड़ें जमा ली हैं। हमें गुलामी से वास्तविक स्वतंत्रता प्राप्त करने के लिए अपने समाज और देश से भ्रष्टाचार को दूर करने की आवश्यकता है।
  • हम पैसो के कारण अपनी असली ज़िम्मेदारी को भूल गए हैं। हमें यह समझने की जरूरत है कि पैसा ही सब कुछ नहीं होता, हम इसे हमेशा के लिए नहीं रख सकते, यह हमें केवल लालच और भ्रष्टाचार दे सकता है। यह सच है कि जीवन जीने के लिए हमें धन की आवश्यकता होती है, लेकिन यह सच नहीं है कि सिर्फ अपने स्वार्थ और लालच के लिए हम किसी के जीवन से खेले और उसका दुरूपयोग करे।
  • भ्रष्टाचार का रोग सरकारी और गैर सरकारी संस्थाओं में इस तरह से फैल गया है कि आम आदमी को अपना कार्य करवाने के लिए बड़े अफसर नेताओं को घूस देनी ही पड़ती है।
  • भारत अपने लोकतंत्र के लिए प्रसिद्ध है लेकिन यह भ्रष्टाचार है जो इसकी लोकतांत्रिक प्रणाली को बर्बाद कर रहा है। सरकार द्वारा भ्रष्टाचार को रोकने के लिए कोई सख्त नियम नहीं बनाए जाने के कारण भ्रष्ट लोगों के हौसले दिन प्रतिदिन बढ़ते जा रहे हैं जिसके कारण वर्तमान में घोटालों की संख्या बढ़ गई है।

भ्रष्टाचार के कारण

  • देश का लचीला कानून – भ्रष्टाचार विकासशील देश की समस्या है, यहां भ्रष्टाचार होने का प्रमुख कारण देश का लचीला कानून है। पैसे के दम पर ज्यादातर भ्रष्टाचारी बाइज्जत बरी हो जाते हैं, अपराधी को दण्ड का भय नहीं होता है।
  • व्यक्ति का लोभी स्वभाव – लालच और असंतुष्टि एक ऐसा विकार है जो व्यक्ति को बहुत अधिक नीचे गिरने पर विवश कर देता है। व्यक्ति के मस्तिष्क में सदैव अपने धन को बढ़ाने की प्रबल इच्छा उत्पन्न होती है।
  • आदत – आदत व्यक्ति के व्यक्तित्व में बहुत गहरा प्रभाव डालता है। एक मिलिट्री रिटायर्ड ऑफिसर रिटायरमेंट के बाद भी अपने ट्रेनिंग के दौरान प्राप्त किए अनुशासन को जीवन भर वहन करता है। उसी प्रकार देश में व्याप्त भ्रष्टाचार की वजह से लोगों को भ्रष्टाचार की आदत पड़ गई है।
  • मनसा – व्यक्ति के दृढ़ निश्चय कर लेने पर कोई भी कार्य कर पाना असंभव नहीं होता वैसे ही भ्रष्टाचार होने का एक प्रमुख कारण व्यक्ति की मनसा (इच्छा) भी है।

भ्रष्टाचार के विभिन्न प्रकार

  • रिश्वत की लेन-देन –सरकारी काम करने के लिए कार्यालय में चपरासी (प्यून) से लेकर उच्च अधिकारी तक आपसे पैसे लेते हैं। इस काम के लिए उन्हें सरकार से वेतन प्राप्त होता है वह वहां हमारी मदद के लिए हैं। इसके साथ ही देश के नागरिक भी अपना काम जल्दी कराने के लिए उन्हे पैसे देते हैं अतः यह भ्रष्टाचार है।
  • चुनाव में धांधली –देश के राजनेताओं द्वारा चुनाव में सरेआम लोगों को पैसे, ज़मीन, अनेक उपहार तथा मादक पदार्थ बांटे जाते हैं। यह चुनावी धान्धली असल में भ्रष्टाचार है।
  • भाई-भतीजावाद –अपने पद और शक्ति का गलत उपयोग कर लोग भाई-भतीजावाद को बढ़ावा देते हैं। वह अपने किसी प्रिय जन को उस पद का कार्यभार दे देते हैं जिसके वह लायक नहीं हैं। ऐसे में योग्य व्यक्ति का हक उससे छिन जाता है।
  • नागरिकों द्वारा टैक्स चोरी –नागरिकों द्वारा टैक्स भुगतान करने हेतु प्रत्येक देश में एक निर्धारित पैमाना तय किया गया है। पर कुछ व्यक्ति सरकार को अपने आय का सही विवरण नहीं देते और टैक्स की चोरी करते हैं। यह भ्रष्टाचार की श्रेणी में अंकित है।
  • शिक्षा तथा खेल में घूसखोरी –शिक्षा तथा खेल के क्षेत्र में घूस लेकर लोग मेधावी व योग्य उम्मीदवार को सीटें नहीं देते बल्कि जो उन्हें घूस दे, उन्हें दे देते हैं।

भ्रष्टाचार के उपाय

  • भ्रष्टाचार के विरुद्ध सख्त कानून – हमारे संविधान के लचीलेपन के वजह से अपराधी में दण्ड का बहुत अधिक भय नहीं रह गया है। अतः भ्रष्टाचार के खिलाफ सख्त कानून बनाने की आवश्यकता है।
  • कानून की प्रक्रिया में समय का सदुपयोग – कानूनी प्रक्रिया में बहुत अधिक समय नष्ट नहीं किया जाना चाहिए। इससे भ्रष्टाचारी को बल मिलता है।
  • लोकपाल कानून की आवश्यकता – लोकपाल भ्रष्टाचार से जुड़े शिकायतों को सुनने का कार्य करता है। अतः देश में फैले भ्रष्टाचार को दूर करने हेतु लोकपाल कानून बनाना आवश्यक है।

Conclusion : 

इसके अतिरिक्त लोगों में जागरूकता फैला कर, प्रशासनिक कार्यों में पारदर्शिता बना और लोगों का सरकार तथा न्याय व्यवस्था के प्रति मानसिकता में परिवर्तन कर व सही उम्मीदवार को चुनाव जिता कर भ्रष्टाचार रोका जा सकता है। भ्रष्टाचार का कैंसर हमारे देश के स्वास्थ्य को नष्ट कर रहा है। यह आतंकवाद से भी बड़ा खतरा बना हुआ है। देश के युवाओं को भ्रष्टाचार के सभी कारणों से अवगत होना चाहिए और इसे हल करने के लिए एकजुट होना चाहिए। अगर हमें भ्रष्टाचार को जड़ से समाप्त करना है तो राजनेताओं, सरकारी तंत्र और जनता को साथ मिलकर इसके खिलाफ लड़ना होगा तभी हम अपने देश को भ्रष्टाचार से बचा सकते हैं।

भ्रष्टाचार पर निबंध – Short Essay on corruption in hindi for students :

Introduction :

जब कोई व्यक्ति न्याय व्यवस्था के नियमों के विरूद्ध जाकर अपने स्वार्थ की पूर्ति के लिए सार्वजनिक संपत्ति, स्थिति, शक्ति और अधिकार का दुरुपयोग करने लगता है तो वह व्यक्ति भ्रष्टाचारी कहलाता है। आज भारत जैसे देश में भ्रष्टाचार अपनी जड़े तेज़ी से फैला रहा है। भ्रष्टाचार अब समाज की गहराई में फैल गया है और इसकी बहुत सारी जड़ों के होने के कारण बहुत मजबूत हो गया है। यह एक कैंसर की तरह है जो एक बार उत्पन्न होने पर दवा के बिना समाप्त नहीं किया जा सकता।

भ्रष्टाचार के कई रूप है जैसे रिश्वत, काला-बाजार, जान-बूझकर दाम बढ़ाना, पैसा लेकर काम करना, सस्ता सामान लाकर महंगा बेचना आदि। भ्रष्टाचार विभिन्न प्रकार का हो सकता है जो शिक्षा, खेल, राजनीति जैसे हर क्षेत्र में फैला हुआ है। 

  • भ्रष्टाचार के कारण व्यक्ति अपनी जिम्मेदारियों को नहीं समझ पाता है। भ्रष्टाचार कई तरह से हो सकता है जैसे चोरी, बेईमानी, सार्वजनिक संपत्ति का दुरूपयोग, अनावश्यक रूप से समय की बर्बादी, शोषण, घोटाला आदि। (भ्रष्टाचार पर निबंध)
  • इसने विकासशील और विकसित दोनों देशों में अपनी जड़ें जमा ली हैं। हमें गुलामी से वास्तविक स्वतंत्रता प्राप्त करने के लिए अपने समाज और देश से भ्रष्टाचार को दूर करने की आवश्यकता है। हम पैसो के कारण अपनी असली ज़िम्मेदारी को भूल गए हैं।
  • हमें यह समझने की जरूरत है कि पैसा ही सब कुछ नहीं होता, हम इसे हमेशा के लिए नहीं रख सकते, यह हमें केवल लालच और भ्रष्टाचार दे सकता है। यह सच है कि जीवन जीने के लिए हमें धन की आवश्यकता होती है।
  • लेकिन यह सच नहीं है कि सिर्फ अपने स्वार्थ और लालच के लिए हम किसी के जीवन से खेले और उसका दुरूपयोग करे।
  • भ्रष्टाचार का रोग सरकारी और गैर सरकारी संस्थाओं में इस तरह से फैल गया है कि आम आदमी को अपना कार्य करवाने के लिए बड़े अफसर नेताओं को घूस देनी ही पड़ती है। भारत अपने लोकतंत्र के लिए प्रसिद्ध है लेकिन यह भ्रष्टाचार है जो इसकी लोकतांत्रिक प्रणाली को बर्बाद कर रहा है। (Essay on corruption in hindi)

Conclusion :

सरकार द्वारा भ्रष्टाचार को रोकने के लिए कोई सख्त नियम नहीं बनाए जाने के कारण भ्रष्ट लोगों के हौसले दिन प्रतिदिन बढ़ते जा रहे हैं जिसके कारण वर्तमान में घोटालों की संख्या बढ़ गई है। भ्रष्टाचार का कैंसर हमारे देश के स्वास्थ्य को नष्ट कर रहा है। यह आतंकवाद से भी बड़ा खतरा बना हुआ है। देश के युवाओं को भ्रष्टाचार के सभी कारणों से अवगत होना चाहिए और इसे हल करने के लिए एकजुट होना चाहिए।

अगर हमें भ्रष्टाचार को जड़ से समाप्त करना है तो राजनेताओं, सरकारी तंत्र और जनता को साथ मिलकर इसके खिलाफ लड़ना होगा तभी हम अपने देश को भ्रष्टाचार से बचा सकते हैं।

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भ्रष्टाचार के कारण ( Causes of corruption in India)

  • देश का लचीला कानून 
  • व्यक्ति का लोभी स्वभाव 
  • आदत – आदत व्यक्ति के व्यक्तित्व में बहुत गहरा प्रभाव डालती है। उसी प्रकार देश में व्याप्त भ्रष्टाचार की वजह से लोगों को भ्रष्टाचार की आदत पड़ चुकी है।
  • मनसा -व्यक्ति के दृढ़ निश्चय कर लेने पर कोई भी कार्य कर पाना असंभव नहीं होता वैसे ही भ्रष्टाचार होने का एक प्रमुख कारण व्यक्ति की मनसा भी है।

भ्रष्टाचार के विभिन्न प्रकार (Types of corruption in India)

  • रिश्वत की लेन-देन 
  • चुनाव में धांधली 
  • भाई-भतीजावाद 
  • नागरिकों द्वारा टैक्स चोरी
  • शिक्षा तथा खेल में घूसखोरी 

भ्रष्टाचार के उपाय (How to curb corruption)

  • भ्रष्टाचार के विरुद्ध सख्त कानून
  • कानून की प्रक्रिया में समय का सदुपयोग 
  • लोकपाल कानून की आवश्यकता
  • सरकारी कर्मचारियों को अच्छा वेतन
  • दफ्तरों में लोगों की कमी न हो
  • सभी कार्यालय में कैमरा लगाया जाये
  • भ्रष्टाचार निवारण (संशोधन) बिल
  • भ्रष्टाचार का विरोध करें

भ्रष्टाचार के विरुद्ध सरकार द्वारा उठाए गए कदम (Steps taken by Government to remove corruption)

  • डिजिटलीकरण 
  • नौकरी से निष्कासित 
  • चुनाव में सुधार 
  • गैरकानूनी संस्थानों तथा दुकानों पर ताला 

भ्रष्टाचार : सतर्क भारत समृद्ध भारत पर निबंध – Satark bharat samridh bharat essay in hindi :

Introduction :

नए भारत का निर्माण तब तक लगभग असंभव है जब तक इसमें भ्रष्टाचार का कैंसर है। लोगों और सरकार की सामूहिक इच्छा के बिना भ्रष्टाचार को खत्म करना असंभव है। जब कोई व्यक्ति न्याय व्यवस्था के नियमों के विरूद्ध जाकर अपने स्वार्थ की पूर्ति के लिए सार्वजनिक संपत्ति, स्थिति, शक्ति और अधिकार का दुरुपयोग करने लगता है तो वह व्यक्ति भ्रष्टाचारी कहलाता है। यद्यपि भ्रष्टाचार को एक बार में शून्य स्तर तक नहीं लाया जा सकता है लेकिन हम इसे कम करने का प्रयास कर सकते हैं। यह निगरानी और सतर्कता से सुनिश्चित किया जा सकता है। सतर्कता हमारे समाज में प्रबंधन कार्यों का एकअभिन्न अंग है।

  • सतर्कता की भूमिका संगठन को आंतरिक खतरों से बचाने के लिए है जो बाहरी खतरों की तुलना में सबसे अधिक ख़तरनाक हैं।
  • शिक्षा की मदद से हम भ्रष्टाचार को कम कर सकते हैं। एक सर्वेक्षण के अनुसार, सबसे कम भ्रष्ट राज्य केरेल है, क्योंकि इसमें साक्षरता की दर सभी राज्यों से अधिक है। इस प्रकार हम कह सकते हैं कि शिक्षा लोगों को प्रभावित कर सकती है।
  • अगर हम अपने भारत को समृद्ध बनाना चाहते हैं तो सभी को अपने अधिकारों के लिए आगे आना होगा। जैसा कि हम जानते हैं कि अगर हम अपने-अपने क्षेत्र में बेहतर हो जाएं तो हम जो कुछ भी चाहते हैं वह हासिल कर सकते हैं।

आज व्यवसाय के हज़ारो विकल्प मौजूद हैं ज़रूरत है तो केवल सतर्कता और समझदारी से लाभ उठाने की ।  इसके लिये आवशयक है कि मौजूद विकल्पो और नितियो को जनता खुद सतर्क रहकर अपने हक़ मे लाभ का आनंद ले । भारत को स्वस्थ और समृद्ध बनाने के लिए निवेश नहीं बल्कि नवाचार सबसे बड़ी ताकत बन सकती हैं। हमे ज़रूरत है अपनी ताकत का मह्त्व समझकर उसका सही तरीके से उपयोग करने की।

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Essays

Essay on Impact of Rising prices on common man

Essay on Impact of Rising prices on common man

Introduction :

“Inflation is like toothpaste once it’s out you can hardly get it back in again” This statement indicate the impact of inflation on our economy. The rampant increase in prices is causing anxiety among the people of India. Price rise is a world wide phenomenon and India is no exception to it. Prices of everything are hiking even of the essential goods like gas, pulses, sugar, edible oils, tea, food grains and petrol. When the total demand is greater than total supply of goods and services, it causes prices to rise.

  • The factors such as increase in disposable income, consumer spending, public expenditure, black money are responsible for increasing demand. Price-rise affects different people differently.
  • Although it may not have much affect on the flexible income group. However, maximum hardship is faced by the fixed income groups.
  • It is so because their salaries remain the same but the prices continue to rise. The impact of rising prices can be seen as unfulfillment of basic needs, increase in the prices of petrol and diesel leads to increase in transportation cost,
  • It also causes hunger and malnutrition, no access to healthcare services, migration and much more. India ranks 101st in Global Hunger Index which shows the real condition of poor people in India.
  • The condition of women is not every good as 7 out of 10 women are suffering from anemia in India.
  • In order to curb the problem of price rise there should be the joint effort of the government and the public to control it.
  • There should be more fair price shops, Kendriya Bhandar where the common man can shop for quality goods at low prices.

Conclusion :

The Government and banks must keep a check on hoarding and black marketing. As far as general public is concerned, they must reduce unnecessary expenditure and increase savings. This will reduce disposable income with the people and hence personal consumption expenditure. Government should focus on lowest income group, promote startups, provide skills to youth and try to control the inflation so that the gap between the rich and poor can be reduced as much as possible as it is truly said “growth is possible where there is no difference.”

Essay on Effects Of Money Laundering on Society

Introduction :

Money laundering is the process of concealing the source of money obtained by illegal means such as embezzlement, insider trading, bribery, drug trafficking or terrorist activity. The process of converting ‘illegal or unclean money’ into ‘legal or clean money’ is referred to as money laundering. Most financial companies have anti-money laundering (AML) policies in place to detect and prevent these activity. Money laundering is a very important step in the success of drug trafficking and terrorist activities.

  • Most people who financially support terrorist organi­zations do not provide the funds directly to terrorist groups. They send the money in roundabout ways by maintaining anonymity.
  • Dealing in large amounts of illegal cash is generally inefficient so criminals need a way to deposit the money in financial institutions so that it can be shown legal.
  • The process of money laundering usually involves three steps 1) placement 2) layering, and 3) integration. In the first step “dirty money“ is put into the legitimate financial system.
  • Layering conceals the source of the money through a series of transactions. In the final step, integration, laundered money is withdrawn from the legitimate account.
  • The rise of online banking institutions, online payment services and transfers with mobile phones have made detecting the illegal money transfer even more difficult. 
  • Money can also be laundered through online auctions and sales, gambling websites, and virtual gaming sites, where money can be converted into gaming currency, then back into real, usable “clean” money.
  • The newest form of money laundering  involves cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. Cryptocurrencies are being used in drug trade, blackmailing and other criminal activities which impacts the society negatively.

Conclusion :

Money laundering damages financial institutions that are critical for economic growth, promoting crime and corruption that slow economic growth, reducing efficiency in the economy. Prevention of Money-Laundering Act forms the core of the legal framework to combat Money Laundering activities in India. Both international and domestic government need to come together to eliminate the problem of money laundering from our country.

Essay on Money Laundering in english

Introduction :

Money laundering is the process of concealing the source of money obtained by illegal means such as embezzlement, insider trading, bribery, drug trafficking or terrorist activity. The process of converting ‘illegal or unclean money’ into ‘legal or clean money’ is referred to as money laundering. Money laundering is a grave financial crime that is usually employed by white collar and street level criminals. Most financial companies have anti-money laundering (AML) policies in place to detect and prevent these activity.

  • Money laundering is a very important step in the success of drug trafficking and terrorist activities. Most people who financially support terrorist organi­zations do not provide the funds directly to terrorist groups.
  • They send the money in roundabout ways that allow them to fund terrorism by maintaining anonymity. Dealing in large amounts of illegal cash is generally inefficient and dangerous so criminals need a way to deposit the money in legitimate financial institutions so that it can be shown legal or clean.
  • The process of money laundering usually involves three steps 1) placement 2) layering, and 3) integration. In the first step “dirty money“ is put into the legitimate financial system.
  • Layering conceals the source of the money through a series of transactions. In the final step, integration, laundered money is withdrawn from the legitimate account.
  • The rise of online banking institutions, online payment services and transfers with mobile phones have made detecting the illegal money transfer even more difficult. 
  • Money can also be laundered through online auctions and sales, gambling websites, and virtual gaming sites, where money can be converted into gaming currency, then back into real, usable, and untraceable “clean” money.
  • The newest form of money laundering involves cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. Cryptocurrencies are being used in drug trade, blackmailing schemes and other criminal activities due to their relative anonymity as compared to other conventional form of money.
  • Governments all over the world have stepped up their efforts to combat money laundering, with regulations that require financial institutions to put systems that detect and report suspicious activities. 
  • According to the United Nations (UN) on Drugs and Crime, global money laundering transactions account for around 800 billion dollars to 2 trillion dollars annually.
  • Money laundering damages financial institutions that are important for economic growth, promoting crime and corruption that slow economic growth and thus reducing efficiency in the economy. 

Conclusion :

It creates unpredictable changes in demand of the money, as well as causing large fluctuations in international capital flows & exchange rates. Prevention of Money-Laundering Act (PMLA), 2002 forms the core of the legal framework to combat Money Laundering activities in India. Both international and domestic organizations need to come together by strengthening data sharing mechanisms to eliminate the problem of money laundering from our country.

Money Laundering Vs Virtual Currencies in India

Introduction :

Bitcoin is a digital currency that is widely known for its creator’s anonymity. It is a kind of virtual currency which was launched as an open source software in 2009. Its creator whose identity to this day remains unknown, goes by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Since its inception, virtual currency, has grown in both its popularity and its use. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator. Bitcoin is often referred to as a “virtual currency” or “cryptocurrency.”

  • All transfers of bitcoin are verified and recorded on a public ledger known as the block chain. It is an electronic or digital currency that works on a peer-to-peer basis.
  • Like currency notes, it can be sent from one person to another. The beauty of this cryptocurrency is that if you receive a bitcoin from another, you can be as sure of the payment as you would on receiving physical currency notes, with the same anonymity ascribed to it.
  • This anonymity is lacking in other forms of digital payment such as online banking or e-wallets. You can send bitcoins digitally to anyone who has a bitcoin address anywhere in the globe.
  • One person could have multiple addresses for different purposes. Receivers can get to spend them within minutes of receiving the coins.
  • It is to be noted that cryptocurrency transactions are settled immediately without any third-party approvals.

Conclusion :

With recognition at universal level, cryptocurrencies can be accessed by everyone. As India moves to digitize much of its financial services and parts of its consumer market, cryptocurrencies offer a new, dynamic addition to the Digital India project.

Money Laundering Vs Cashless Economy – Making Indian economy Digital

Introduction :

A cashless economy means the liquidity in the system is exchanged between two parties through either plastic currency or through digital currency i.e online payments. With the advent of blockchain technology, bitcoins have given a whole new meaning for a cashless economy. The concept of bitcoin talks about a decentralized system of finance, but that is not the point of discussing in this particular essay on cashless India.

  • Hence, let us come back to the crux of this essay on cashless India, which are the pros and cons of the digital payment system.
  • Cashless Economy promotes electronic payment methods which improves transparency and accountability.
  • Tax collection increases as all the transaction takes place through bank accounts. It can also mitigate corruption and black money as all transactions can be traced easily.
  • It also saves time and prevents theft and burglary of cash and endorses paperless environment friendly as it will save a huge amount of money spent on printing and maintenance of currency.
  • With so much technological revolutions happening around, it will be impossible to find someone without a smartphone in this 21st century.
  • Almost every Indian has a smartphone. Hence the ease of transaction through fintech platforms such as Paytm, google pay or phonepe are easier than ever before.
  • The hassles of carrying hard cash( with possible viruses on it) is eliminated. The government of India has produced platforms such as UPI (Unified Payments Interface) for hassle-free cashless transactions.
  • But it is seen that the small businesses still use cash as they cannot afford digital infrastructures. Hackers and Cyber Crimes are a huge threat to cashless economy.
  • There is lack of internet connectivity in rural areas in our nation which makes it difficult to commence the concept of the cashless economy in every region
  • India is lacking robust and widespread internet connection in all parts of the country which becomes a huge hurdle in practicing cashless economy.

Conclusion :

The cashless economy has its own sets of merits and demerits. The concept of cashless economy is very useful for eliminating black money from the nation. The lack of sufficient infrastructure and illiteracy is one of the major hindrances in the path of the cashless economy. It is important for the government to address the issues related to achieving a proper cashless economy by providing financial education to the people along with better internet services.

Money Laundering Vs Technological Development in India

Introduction :

India is emerging as a superpower in the world. Being a fast-developing nation, the country is making its way through the hurdles to gain a bright future in terms of science and technology. Indian society is quite eager to accept technology into their day-to-day life. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information.

  • New inventions in the field of science and technology are emerging from Indian students and experts, making the country to gain limelight in the world.
  • Modern gadgets are introduced in every walk of life, making life easier and solving many problems. The growth of technology today is sure to experience a boom for the country in future in almost all the sectors such as education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, medicine, information technology and other fields.
  • They are well equipped and staffed to secure the people of the nation. But there is no room for complacency in this field and we are yet a developing country.
  • In the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains. In the field of defense also our achievements have been quite laudable.
  • The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists.
  • Science and technology are inter dependent, these are two completely distinct fields of study. Science contributes to technology in several ways.
  • It is the knowledge of science that gives way to new and innovative ideas to build different technological tools.
  • The research and experiments conducted in science laboratories lead to the designing of various technological techniques and devices.
  • Knowledge about science also helps in understanding the impact of technology on the environment and the society. Technology on the other hand extends the agenda of science.

Conclusion :

When the ideas are put to use, the scientists are inspired and motivated to research and experiment further to come up with newer ideas. We have been successful in producing night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses.

Money Laundering Vs Cyber Crimes in India

Introduction :

In technically driven society, people use various devices to make life simple. Globalization results in connecting people all around the world. The increasing access to and continuous use of technology has radically impacted the way in which people communicate and conduct their daily lives. Cyber-crime is a crime in which computer is used as an object of crime to commit an offence.

  • It may range from hate speeches, child pornography, accessing personal information, bank frauds, credit and debit card information thefts to spreading different kinds of viruses and worms throughout the world.
  • In cyber-crime a computer is used as a weapon of crime by an individual, an organized group or even a country. The most common types of cyber-crimes are hacking, spanning and infecting computers with virus and worms.
  • Hackers access a person’s personal information over the internet such as his credit card and bank account numbers. A person may lose his whole bank balance in a second and may fall into heavy debt instantly. Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types.
  • These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism. The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders. Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes.
  • Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.
  • Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.
  • In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.
  • Another type of cyber-crimes is theft. Artistic works like books, music and movies are downloaded and circulated thereby infringing upon a person’s copyright materials.

Conclusion :

Cyber bullying has become a common practice causing serious repercussions, insanity and even deaths. Another typed of serious crime is defamation. It takes a whole life to earn respect but a dirty mind and an internet connection to wipe it away in a second. In this great world, virtues and vices march hand in hand. With every boon comes a bane. the numerous advantages of every inventions shouldn’t be marred by its abuses and misuses. Why not be a little vigilant both in the world and web?

Money Laundering Vs Digital India – Empowerment & Safety Issues

Introduction :

Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India to ensure that Government services are made available to citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure and by increasing Internet connectivity in the field of technology. The digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networks, computers, software, and other related information technologies.

  • The motto for the campaign is “Power to Empower” and it was launched on 1 July 2015 by PM Narendra Modi.

Information is easier to produce and harder to control in this dynamic era. Digital India consists of three core components they are-

  • Development of secure and stable digital infrastructure.
  • Delivering government services digitally.
  • Universal Digital Literacy.
  • The facilities which will be provided through this initiative are Digital Locker, e-education, e-health, e-sign and national scholarship portal. Digi Locker is an initiative under Digital India program.
  • Digital Locker facilities will be provided to citizens to store their important documents like PAN card, Passport, Mark sheet and Degree certificates.
  • The term digital economy also refers to the convergence of computing and communication technologies on the Internet and other networks.
  • This convergence enables all types of information (data, audio, video) to be stored, processed, and transmitted over networks to many destinations worldwide.
  • Digital India wants to enlighten all types of people in India digitally and to provide the citizens with the best public services.
  • The commercial broadband and IT Indian companies also supported it. It also helps bridge the gap in the employment of youth between developed and undeveloped areas.
  • The domestic e-government system is reliable as it prevails fiber optic road, public interest access, mobile connectivity everywhere, electronics revolution, e-government, job information, IT, post-harvest management program, and electronic devices.
  • Digital India initiative aims to enhance the process and delivery of different government services through e-Governance and payment gateways, UIDAI, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) and mobile platforms.

Conclusion :

The main objective was to improve the country’s people’s access to technology. The government has worked to enhance accessibility to the internet and to make it much easier for regional and underserved parts of the country to connect. A plan to communicate countryside to high-speed Internet was one of the initiatives. Government intends to make all information easily available to the citizen through online hosting of data. Digital India campaign is a great initiative to integrate digital technology for better future. 

Money Laundering Vs Internal Security Challenges in India

Introduction :

Internal security is the security that lies within the borders of a country. It ensures the maintenance of peace, law & order and protection of sovereignty within territory of a country. Internal security is different from external security. External security is considered as the security against aggression by a foreign country. Maintaining the external security is the responsibility of the armed forces of the country such as the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force in India.

  • While internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can also be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) as per the requirement.
  • In India, the internal security matters are governed by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). If we look at the past, India’s internal security problems have multiplied because of linguistic riots, inter-state disputes and ethnic tensions.
  • Our country was forced to redefine its inter state boundaries due to linguistic riots in 1956. After that, the rise of Naxalism was also seen as a threat to internal security in India.
  • At the time of independence, our country was under-developed. The country adopted the equitable and inclusive growth model for growth and development.
  • This situation was exploited by various people or groups to pose a very dangerous challenge to the country’s internal security in the form of Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism.
  • Cyber security is the latest challenge that our country is facing these days. We could be the target of a cyberwar which can harm our security at any time.
  • The growth in the use of internet has also shown that social media could play a vital role in spreading fake news and violence and thus can become a threat to our internal security. 
  • Border management is also important in reducing the threats to our internal security. A weak border management can result in infiltration of terrorists, illegal immigrants and smuggling of items like arms, drugs and counterfeit currency.

Conclusion :

In the Global Terrorism Index 2020, India has been ranked at 8th place in the list of countries most affected by terrorism. India continues to deal with terrorist activity on different fronts like terrorism related to territorial disputes in J&K and secessionist movement in Assam. India needs to implement all of its national powers in a coordinated manner to address its security issues and this will happen only when we give national level importance to internal security in India.

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Essays

आपदा प्रबंधन में स्थानीय समुदायों की भूमिका निबंध | Essay on Role of locals In Disaster Management in hindi

आपदा प्रबंधन में स्थानीय समुदायों की भूमिका निबंध | Essay on Role of locals In Disaster Management

Introduction :

“आपदाओं के होने का कारण पता लगाए, सावधानी बरतें और हानि होने से बचाए।” उपरोक्त कथन अचानक आने वाली आपदाओं से बचने और उनके कारण का पता लगाने की ओर जोर देता है। आपदाये अक्सर अचानक आती है और जान-माल का नुकसान करती है। विश्व जोखिम रिपोर्ट 2020 के अनुसार भारत प्राकृतिक आपदाओं के प्रति अधिक संवेदनशील है और भारत विश्व जोखिम सूचकांक में 181 देशों में से 89वें स्थान पर है। आपदा के समय स्थानीय समुदायों की भूमिका बहुत महत्वपूर्ण होती है क्योंकि वे आसपास के क्षेत्र और भौगोलिक स्थानों को अच्छी तरह से जानते हैं।

  • राष्ट्रीय आपदा प्रबंधन प्राधिकरण (एनडीएमए) भारत में शीर्ष आपदा प्रबंधन प्राधिकरण है और आपदा प्रबंधन के संबंध में नीतियों को तैयार करने के लिए आपदा प्रबंधन अधिनियम के पारित होने के बाद 2005 में इसका गठित किया गया। एनडीएमए का नेतृत्व प्रधान मंत्री द्वारा पदेन अध्यक्ष के रूप में किया जाता है।
  • एनडीएमए को तीन स्तरों पर बनाया गया है 1) राष्ट्रीय स्तर 2) राज्य स्तर और 3) जिला स्तर जिसमें पंचायत और नगर निगम शामिल हैं।
  • पंचायतों और नगर पालिकाओं के रूप में जमीनी स्तर पर स्थानीय समुदायों का प्रावधान किया गया है।
  • किसी भी संबंधित कार्यक्रम का उचित निष्पादन तब तक संभव नहीं है जब तक कि उसमें स्थानीय समुदाय शामिल न हों।
  • यह स्थानीय समुदाय है जो आपदा का सामना सबसे पहले करते है इसलिए यह बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है कि स्थानीय समुदाय पूरी आपदा प्रबंधन प्रक्रिया का हिस्सा बने। हम ओडिशा का उदाहरण ले
  • सकते हैं, ओडिशा बंगाल की खाड़ी के तट पर स्थित है, इस राज्य में चक्रवात, बाढ़ और सुनामी जैसी आपदाएं आम बात है। हाल ही में ओडिशा में स्थानीय समुदाय आधारित आपदा तैयारी शुरू की गई है।
  • ऐसा इसलिए है क्योंकि किसी भी आपदा के दौरान स्थानीय समुदाय सबसे बुरी तरह से प्रभावित होते हैं और सबसे पहले प्रतिक्रिया देते हैं।

Conclusion :

आपदा प्रबंधन 4R के सिद्धांत पर आधारित है – बचाव (Rescue), राहत (Relief), पुनर्वास (Rehabilitate) और पुनर्प्राप्ति (Recover)। स्थानीय समुदाय भी बचाव सम्बन्धी ऑपरेशन में सहायता करते हैं और ऑपरेशन को प्रभावी बनाते है। ‘आपदा मित्र’ स्थानीय लोगों की भूमिका को मजबूत करने के लिए सरकार द्वारा की गई एक पहल है। इसके अंतर्गत युवा स्वयंसेवकों को प्रशिक्षित किया जाता है और आपदा मित्र के रूप में बुलाया जाता है और वे आपदा के समय सहायता करते है। इस प्रकार, स्थानीय लोगो को जागरूक करना और आपदा के समय प्रतिक्रिया के लिए उन्हें तैयार करना इस सम्बन्ध में गेम चेंजर साबित होगा।

आपदा प्रबंधन पर निबंध – Disaster management essay in hindi

Introduction :

ऐसी कोई भी प्राकृतिक घटना जिससे मनुष्य के जीवन को हानि पहुंचे प्राकृतिक आपदा कहलाती है। आपदाये प्राकृतिक या मानव निर्मित कारणों का परिणाम है जो जान और माल दोनों को नुकसान करके सामान्य जीवन को अस्तव्यस्त कर देती है I आपदा प्रबंधन आपदा के प्रभाव को कम करने का एक निरंतर प्रयास है। आपदा आंतरिक और बाहरी कारकों के कारण प्रभाव से उत्पन्न होती है ,जो संयुक्त होकर घटना को भारी विनाशकारी घटना के रूप में परिवर्तित करती है I

  • वर्तमान में हम प्राकृतिक संसाधनो का अंधाधुंध इस्तेमाल कर रहे हैं जिससे प्रकृति का संतुलन बिगड़ रहा है।आज मनुष्य अपने निजी स्वार्थ के लिए वनों, जंगलो, मैदानों, पहाड़ो, खनिज पदार्थो का उपयोग कर रहा है। उसी के परिणाम स्वरुप प्राकृतिक आपदायें दिन ब दिन बढ़ने लगी है।
  • आपदाएं प्राकृतिक और मानव निर्मित होती हैं I प्राकृतिक आपदाओ में तूफान, चक्रवात, बाढ़, सुखा  भूकंप, सुनामी, ज्वालामुखी, भूस्खलन आदि शामिल है।
  • इस तरह की आपदायें कुछ समय के लिए आती है पर बड़ी मात्रा में नुकसान करती है। सभी मकानों, परिसरों, शहरो को नष्ट कर देती है और बड़ी मात्रा में जान-माल का नुकसान होता है।

Conclusion :

भारत सरकार ने आपदा प्रबंधन के लिए राष्ट्रीय आपदा प्रबंधन प्राधिकरण, राष्ट्रीय रिमोट सेंसिंग सेंटर, केंद्रीय जल आयोग आदि कई विभागों और संगठनों की स्थापना की है। प्राकृतिक आपदाओं के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए और इससे निपटने के लिए सभी लोगों को इसके प्रति सतर्क रहने की जरूरत है। हम सभी को अपने सुख, सुविधाओं के लिए प्राकृतिक संसाधनों के अत्याधिक उपयोग से बचना चाहिए, ज्यादा से ज्यादा वृक्ष लगाने चाहिए तभी हम सब मिलकर प्राकृतिक आपदा के प्रभाव को कम कर सकते है।

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Essay on Prevention and Mitigation Of Natural Disasters

Introduction :

A disaster is a result of natural or man-made causes that leads to sudden disruption of normal life, causing severe damage to life and property to an extent that available social and economic protection mechanisms are inadequate to cope. /आपदा प्राकृतिक या मानव निर्मित कारणों का परिणाम है जो सामान्य जीवन में अचानक व्यवधान पैदा करता है, जिससे जीवन और संपत्ति को इस हद तक गंभीर नुकसान होता है कि उपलब्ध सामाजिक और आर्थिक सुरक्षा तंत्र सामना करने के लिए अपर्याप्त हो जाते है । It is an undesirable occurrence resulting from forces that are largely outside human control. It strikes quickly with little or no warning and requires major efforts in providing statutory emergency service. / यह एक अवांछनीय घटना है जो उन ताकतों से उत्पन्न होती है जो काफी हद तक मानव नियंत्रण से बाहर हैं। यह बहुत कम या बिना किसी चेतावनी के हमला करता है और वैधानिक आपातकालीन सेवा प्रदान करने के लिए बड़े प्रयासों की आवश्यकता होती है।

Natural disasters can be broadly classified into categories including geophysical such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; hydrological such as floods; meteorological such as hurricanes; climatological such as heat and cold waves and droughts; and biological such as epidemics. / प्राकृतिक आपदाओं को व्यापक रूप से भू-भौतिकीय जैसे भूकंप और ज्वालामुखी विस्फोट सहित श्रेणियों में वर्गीकृत किया जा सकता है; हाइड्रोलॉजिकल जैसे बाढ़; मौसम संबंधी जैसे तूफान; जलवायु संबंधी जैसे गर्मी और ठंडी लहरें और सूखा; और जैविक जैसे महामारी ।

Causes for Occurrence of Disaster / आपदा के कारण –

  • Removal of trees and forest cover from a watershed area have caused, soil erosion, expansion of flood plain area in upper and middle course of rivers and groundwater depletion/ वाटरशेड क्षेत्र से पेड़ों और वनों को हटाने से मिट्टी का कटाव, नदियों के ऊपरी और मध्य मार्ग में बाढ़ के मैदान का विस्तार और भूजल की कमी हुई है।
  • Exploitation of land use, development of infrastructure, rapid urbanization and technological development have caused increasing pressure over the natural resources / भूमि उपयोग के दोहन, बुनियादी ढांचे के विकास, तेजी से शहरीकरण और तकनीकी विकास के कारण प्राकृतिक संसाधनों पर दबाव बढ़ रहा है।
  • War, nuclear power aspirations, fight between countries to become super power and conquering land, sea and skies. These have resulted into wide range of disaster events such as Hiroshima nuclear explosion, growing militarisation of oceans and outer space. युद्ध, परमाणु ऊर्जा आकांक्षाएं, महाशक्ति बनने के लिए देशों के बीच लड़ाई और भूमि, समुद्र और आसमान पर विजय प्राप्त करना। इनके परिणामस्वरूप हिरोशिमा परमाणु विस्फोट, महासागरों के बढ़ते सैन्यीकरण और बाहरी अंतरिक्ष जैसी आपदा घटनाओं की एक विस्तृत श्रृंखला हुई है।

Impacts of Disaster / आपदा के प्रभाव –

  • Disaster impacts individuals physically through loss of life, injury, health, disability as well as psychologically / आपदा व्यक्ति को जीवन की हानि, चोट, स्वास्थ्य, विकलांगता के साथ-साथ मनोवैज्ञानिक रूप से, शारीरिक रूप से प्रभावित करती है।
  • Disaster results in huge economic loss due to destruction of property, human settlements and infrastructure etc / आपदा के परिणामस्वरूप संपत्ति, मानव बस्तियों और बुनियादी ढांचे आदि के विनाश के कारण भारी आर्थिक नुकसान होता है।
  • Disaster can alter the natural environment, loss of habitat to many plants and animals and cause ecological stress that can result in biodiversity loss / आपदा प्राकृतिक पर्यावरण को बदल सकती है, कई पौधों और जानवरों के आवास का नुकसान हो सकता है और पारिस्थितिक तनाव पैदा कर सकता है जिसके परिणामस्वरूप जैव विविधता का नुकसान हो सकता है।
  • After natural disasters, food and other natural resources like water often becomes scarce resulting into food and water scarcity / प्राकृतिक आपदाओं के बाद, भोजन और पानी जैसे अन्य प्राकृतिक संसाधन अक्सर दुर्लभ हो जाते हैं जिसके परिणामस्वरूप भोजन और पानी की कमी हो जाती है।
  • The disaster results in displacement of people, and displaced population often face several challenges in new settlements, in this process poorer becomes more poor / आपदा के परिणामस्वरूप लोगों का विस्थापन होता है, और विस्थापित आबादी को अक्सर नई बस्तियों में कई चुनौतियों का सामना करना पड़ता है, इस प्रक्रिया में गरीब और अधिक गरीब हो जाता है।

Disaster Risk Management/ आपदा जोखिम प्रबंधन –

Disaster Risk Management implies the systematic process of using administrative decisions, organisation, operational skills, and capacities to implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impact of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. / आपदा जोखिम प्रबंधन का तात्पर्य प्राकृतिक खतरों और संबंधित पर्यावरणीय और तकनीकी आपदाओं के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए समाज और समुदायों की नीतियों, रणनीतियों और मुकाबला करने की क्षमताओं को लागू करने के लिए प्रशासनिक निर्णयों, संगठन, परिचालन कौशल और क्षमताओं का उपयोग करने की व्यवस्थित प्रक्रिया से है।

1) Pre-Disaster risk reduction –

  • Mitigation – To eliminate or reduce the impacts and risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an emergency or disaster occurs/ किसी आपात स्थिति या आपदा आने से पहले किए गए सक्रिय उपायों के माध्यम से खतरों के प्रभावों और जोखिमों को समाप्त करना या कम करना।
  • Preparedness –  To take steps to prepare and reduce the effects of disasters / आपदाओं के प्रभाव को तैयार करने और कम करने के लिए कदम उठाना।

2) Post-Disaster risk reduction –

  • Rescue: Providing warning, evacuation, search, rescue, providing immediate assistance / चेतावनी, निकासी, खोज, बचाव प्रदान करना, तत्काल सहायता प्रदान करना।
  • RelifeTo respond to communities who become victims of disaster, providing relief measures such as food packets, water, medicines, temporary accommodation, relief camps etc. / आपदा का शिकार होने वाले समुदायों को राहत के उपाय जैसे भोजन, पानी, दवाएं, अस्थायी आवास, राहत शिविर आदि उपलब्ध कराना।
  • Recovery: This stage emphasises upon recovery of victims of disaster, recovery of damaged infrastructure and repair of the damages caused / यह चरण आपदा के पीड़ितों, क्षतिग्रस्त बुनियादी ढांचे और नुकसान की मरम्मत पर जोर देता है।
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Essays

Essay on Role of Local Communities In Disaster Management

Essay on Role of Local Communities In Disaster Management

Introduction :

“Disaster is a serious disruption that causes threat to human lives and loss to environment and properties.” This definition indicates the impact of disasters on various sections on earth. Disaster often comes suddenly and causes loss of lives and property. As per the world risk report 2020 India is more vulnerable to natural disasters and it has been ranked 89th among 181 countries on the World Risk Index. The role of local communities at the time of disaster is very important because they know the surrounding area and geographical locations very well.

  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the apex disaster management authority in India and was formed in 2005 after the enactment of the Disaster Management Act for framing policies and best practices regarding disaster management. NDMA is headed by the Prime Minister as the ex officio chairman.
  • NDMA has been made at three levels 1) National Level 2) State Level and 3) District Level which includes Panchayats and Municipal corporation.
  • There has been a provision of local communities at grassroot level as in Panchayats and Municipalities.
  • Proper execution of any related programme is not possible unless the local communities are involved in it.
  • It is the local community which is going to face the disaster so it is very important that community should be a part of the complete disaster management process.
  • We can take the example of Odisha, Odisha is situated along the coast of the Bay of Bengal, frequently suffers from  cyclones, floods and occasional tsunamis. Recently in Odisha, community based disaster preparedness has been initiated.

Conclusion :

This is because during any disaster communities are always the worst affected and the first to respond. Disaster management is based on the principle of 4R – Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitate and Recover. The local communities also assist in rescuing and recovery operations and this makes the operation every effective.‘Aapda Mitra’ is an initiative taken by the government to strengthen the role of locals. Young volunteers are trained and called as Aapda Mitra and they will assist at the time of disaster. Thus, making the community aware and preparing them to respond at the time of disaster can become the game changer.

Essay on Prevention and Mitigation Of Natural Disasters

Introduction :

A disaster is a result of natural or man-made causes that leads to sudden disruption of normal life, causing severe damage to life and property to an extent that available social and economic protection mechanisms are inadequate to cope. /आपदा प्राकृतिक या मानव निर्मित कारणों का परिणाम है जो सामान्य जीवन में अचानक व्यवधान पैदा करता है, जिससे जीवन और संपत्ति को इस हद तक गंभीर नुकसान होता है कि उपलब्ध सामाजिक और आर्थिक सुरक्षा तंत्र सामना करने के लिए अपर्याप्त हो जाते है । It is an undesirable occurrence resulting from forces that are largely outside human control. It strikes quickly with little or no warning and requires major efforts in providing statutory emergency service. / यह एक अवांछनीय घटना है जो उन ताकतों से उत्पन्न होती है जो काफी हद तक मानव नियंत्रण से बाहर हैं। यह बहुत कम या बिना किसी चेतावनी के हमला करता है और वैधानिक आपातकालीन सेवा प्रदान करने के लिए बड़े प्रयासों की आवश्यकता होती है।

Natural disasters can be broadly classified into categories including geophysical such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; hydrological such as floods; meteorological such as hurricanes; climatological such as heat and cold waves and droughts; and biological such as epidemics. / प्राकृतिक आपदाओं को व्यापक रूप से भू-भौतिकीय जैसे भूकंप और ज्वालामुखी विस्फोट सहित श्रेणियों में वर्गीकृत किया जा सकता है; हाइड्रोलॉजिकल जैसे बाढ़; मौसम संबंधी जैसे तूफान; जलवायु संबंधी जैसे गर्मी और ठंडी लहरें और सूखा; और जैविक जैसे महामारी ।

Causes for Occurrence of Disaster / आपदा के कारण –

  • Removal of trees and forest cover from a watershed area have caused, soil erosion, expansion of flood plain area in upper and middle course of rivers and groundwater depletion/ वाटरशेड क्षेत्र से पेड़ों और वनों को हटाने से मिट्टी का कटाव, नदियों के ऊपरी और मध्य मार्ग में बाढ़ के मैदान का विस्तार और भूजल की कमी हुई है।
  • Exploitation of land use, development of infrastructure, rapid urbanization and technological development have caused increasing pressure over the natural resources / भूमि उपयोग के दोहन, बुनियादी ढांचे के विकास, तेजी से शहरीकरण और तकनीकी विकास के कारण प्राकृतिक संसाधनों पर दबाव बढ़ रहा है।
  • War, nuclear power aspirations, fight between countries to become super power and conquering land, sea and skies. These have resulted into wide range of disaster events such as Hiroshima nuclear explosion, growing militarisation of oceans and outer space. युद्ध, परमाणु ऊर्जा आकांक्षाएं, महाशक्ति बनने के लिए देशों के बीच लड़ाई और भूमि, समुद्र और आसमान पर विजय प्राप्त करना। इनके परिणामस्वरूप हिरोशिमा परमाणु विस्फोट, महासागरों के बढ़ते सैन्यीकरण और बाहरी अंतरिक्ष जैसी आपदा घटनाओं की एक विस्तृत श्रृंखला हुई है।

Impacts of Disaster / आपदा के प्रभाव –

  • Disaster impacts individuals physically through loss of life, injury, health, disability as well as psychologically / आपदा व्यक्ति को जीवन की हानि, चोट, स्वास्थ्य, विकलांगता के साथ-साथ मनोवैज्ञानिक रूप से, शारीरिक रूप से प्रभावित करती है।
  • Disaster results in huge economic loss due to destruction of property, human settlements and infrastructure etc / आपदा के परिणामस्वरूप संपत्ति, मानव बस्तियों और बुनियादी ढांचे आदि के विनाश के कारण भारी आर्थिक नुकसान होता है।
  • Disaster can alter the natural environment, loss of habitat to many plants and animals and cause ecological stress that can result in biodiversity loss / आपदा प्राकृतिक पर्यावरण को बदल सकती है, कई पौधों और जानवरों के आवास का नुकसान हो सकता है और पारिस्थितिक तनाव पैदा कर सकता है जिसके परिणामस्वरूप जैव विविधता का नुकसान हो सकता है।
  • After natural disasters, food and other natural resources like water often becomes scarce resulting into food and water scarcity / प्राकृतिक आपदाओं के बाद, भोजन और पानी जैसे अन्य प्राकृतिक संसाधन अक्सर दुर्लभ हो जाते हैं जिसके परिणामस्वरूप भोजन और पानी की कमी हो जाती है।
  • The disaster results in displacement of people, and displaced population often face several challenges in new settlements, in this process poorer becomes more poor / आपदा के परिणामस्वरूप लोगों का विस्थापन होता है, और विस्थापित आबादी को अक्सर नई बस्तियों में कई चुनौतियों का सामना करना पड़ता है, इस प्रक्रिया में गरीब और अधिक गरीब हो जाता है।

Disaster Risk Management/ आपदा जोखिम प्रबंधन –

Disaster Risk Management implies the systematic process of using administrative decisions, organisation, operational skills, and capacities to implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impact of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. / आपदा जोखिम प्रबंधन का तात्पर्य प्राकृतिक खतरों और संबंधित पर्यावरणीय और तकनीकी आपदाओं के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए समाज और समुदायों की नीतियों, रणनीतियों और मुकाबला करने की क्षमताओं को लागू करने के लिए प्रशासनिक निर्णयों, संगठन, परिचालन कौशल और क्षमताओं का उपयोग करने की व्यवस्थित प्रक्रिया से है।

1) Pre-Disaster risk reduction –

  • Mitigation – To eliminate or reduce the impacts and risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an emergency or disaster occurs/ किसी आपात स्थिति या आपदा आने से पहले किए गए सक्रिय उपायों के माध्यम से खतरों के प्रभावों और जोखिमों को समाप्त करना या कम करना।
  • Preparedness –  To take steps to prepare and reduce the effects of disasters / आपदाओं के प्रभाव को तैयार करने और कम करने के लिए कदम उठाना।

2) Post-Disaster risk reduction –

  • Rescue: Providing warning, evacuation, search, rescue, providing immediate assistance / चेतावनी, निकासी, खोज, बचाव प्रदान करना, तत्काल सहायता प्रदान करना।
  • RelifeTo respond to communities who become victims of disaster, providing relief measures such as food packets, water, medicines, temporary accommodation, relief camps etc. / आपदा का शिकार होने वाले समुदायों को राहत के उपाय जैसे भोजन, पानी, दवाएं, अस्थायी आवास, राहत शिविर आदि उपलब्ध कराना।
  • Recovery: This stage emphasises upon recovery of victims of disaster, recovery of damaged infrastructure and repair of the damages caused / यह चरण आपदा के पीड़ितों, क्षतिग्रस्त बुनियादी ढांचे और नुकसान की मरम्मत पर जोर देता है।

Essay on Disaster Management in English

Introduction :

Disaster refers to any occurrence that can cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life & deterioration of health. Disaster management is a constant phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disaster. Disaster management requires collected and coordinated efforts.  A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster to reduce its intensity at the certain extent. The process of disaster management include coordination, command and control, arrangement for drinking water and food material, sanitation and maintenance of law and order.

  • The most vulnerable section in these disasters are the poor. Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities or disasters.
  • It is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is essential in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives as soon as possible.
  • Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and many more.
  • When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat.
  • To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage.
  • Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster.
  • It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country.
  • This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.
  • Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations.
  • For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing.
  • If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation.

Conclusion :

India has set up many departments and organizations for disaster management. These Include National Disaster Management Authority, National Remote Sensing Centre, Central Water Commission, etc. Disaster management has great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avoid the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.

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Disaster Management : How Earthquake Safety Helps Essay

Introduction :

Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline. Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued. Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made.

  • Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake. Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake.
  • Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes. The severity of the Earthquake depends upon the magnitude and distance from the epicenter.
  • Also, the local geographical conditions play a role in determining the severity. Ground rupture refers to the visible breaking of the Earth’s surface.
  • Another significant effect of Earthquake is landslides. Landslides occur due to slope instability. This slope instability happens because of Earthquake.
  • Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction. This happens when water-saturated granular material loses its strength. Therefore, it transforms from solid to a liquid.
  • Consequently, rigid structures sink into the liquefied deposits. Earthquakes can result in fires. This happens because Earthquake damages the electric power and gas lines.
  • Above all, it becomes extremely difficult to stop a fire once it begins. There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake.

Conclusion : 

Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake. If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops. If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well

 

Disaster Management & Water Crisis in India – Growing disaster  

Introduction :

India has many social problems and frequent water crisis in many States is one of them. Food and drinking water are quite essential for comfortable living. India suffers from water shortage for cultivation and drinking despite the fact that many big rivers, flow through some parts of India. In the south there are the Krishna, Godavari, Cauvery, Perilya. In the north there are Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi and other rivers. Much of the water goes to the sea unused. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.

  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. Houses built of thatch are submerged in the water. The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish.
  • When there is inadequate yield of crops there is famine. Rice, wheat, and sugar cane are scarce. In fact there is scarcity of every type of grain. There are two extremes in India.
  • The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood. Nearly 40 per cent of water demand in urban India is met by ground water. So ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate of 2-3 metres per year.
  • India is one of the major food growers in the world. That produces tons of quantity of food to feed its population and export the surplus that is left. In addition, producing this much food requires a lot of water too.
  • The traditional method of irrigation wastes a lot of water due to evaporation, water conveyance, drainage, percolation, and the overuse of groundwater. Besides, most of the areas in India use traditional irrigation techniques that stress the availability of water.
  • Due to rapid construction that uses concrete and marbles do not let the rainwater to get absorbed in the soil. But, if we install some mechanism in our houses that can hold the rainwater then we can recharge the groundwater.
  • But, the solution to this problem lies in the extensive irrigation techniques such as micro-irrigation in which we provide water to plants and crops using a sprinkler or drip irrigation.

Conclusion :

Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages in its 83.0 km long pipeline network. Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. Instead of increasing the supply of water to meet demand, a more viable method of addressing the water crisis is to manage consumption. There are plenty of technologies there that allow to recycle rainwater that will help in saving water.

Disaster Management & Water Conservation – A solution to the Problem

Introduction :

We are living in this dynamic world where everything is changing at a very fast rate. The human needs are not exception to it. As the population of this world is increasing the needs and necessities of the basic things are also increasing. Water is one of the basic necessities of life. We require plenty of water every day for drinking, cooking and washing.

  • The chief sources of potable water are the surface and ground water. Clean water is affecting the lives of people in India and other countries of the world in many ways, and the lack of clean water is becoming a major problem.
  • Water conservation is the only way to save water in the future to solve the problem of water scarcity.
  • Three-fourths of the Earth  is surrounded by water, whereas very few percent of water is available for human use Since 97% of the entire water in the ocean is salt water, which is not suitable for human use.
  • Only 3% of the entire water on the earth is worth use which is 70% in the form of ice layer and glacier and 1% drinking water Is available in the form of water.

Conclusion :

If gradually all of us will start saving water saving excess water will be possible. To save ourselves from the water wastage, we must be aware of the news of the people who are struggling daily for each drop of water for their living. To spread awareness, we should promote programs related to water conservation. We should encourage family members, children, friends, neighbors and co-workers to adopt this process to get positive results.

Disaster Management & Earthquake safety essay in english 250 words :

Introduction :

Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline. Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued.

  • Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake.
  • Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
  • There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake. Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake.

Conclusion :

If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops. If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well.

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Disaster Management & Long Essay on Earthquake safety essay in english

Introduction :

Earthquakes happen without warning and we actually don’t know when the next major earthquake will happen, but we can take action now to prepare to survive it and minimize impact. Preparedness starts with a plan. Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline.

  • Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued. Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made.
  • Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake. Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake.
  • Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes. The severity of the Earthquake depends upon the magnitude and distance from the epicenter.
  • Also, the local geographical conditions play a role in determining the severity. Ground rupture refers to the visible breaking of the Earth’s surface.
  • Another significant effect of Earthquake is landslides. Landslides occur due to slope instability. This slope instability happens because of Earthquake. Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction.
  • This happens when water-saturated granular material loses its strength. Therefore, it transforms from solid to a liquid. Consequently, rigid structures sink into the liquefied deposits.
  • Earthquakes can result in fires. This happens because Earthquake damages the electric power and gas lines. Above all, it becomes extremely difficult to stop a fire once it begins.
  • There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake. Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake.

Conclusion :

 If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops.  If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well.

Disaster Management & Essay on climate change Issues & Challenges for Ib Acio Tier 2

Introduction :

Climate change is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last for a few decades. Change in the pattern of climate has become a global cause of concern. Researchers continually observe the pattern to understand the past, present as well as the future climatic conditions. A record of the climate has been generated and updated regularly based on the geological evidences. There are a large number of factors that have been contributing towards this change.

  • These factors include the variations in solar energy  on the Earth, volcano eruptions,  orbital changes and change in plate tectonics. Besides this, human activities have also led to the changes in the climatic conditions over the past few decades.
  • The new technology is also adding to the emission of carbon which is having a negative impact on the climate. Change in climatic conditions are having a negative impact on the water system too.
  • It also resulted in the melting of glacier and erratic rainfall patterns that are leading to environmental imbalance.
  • Men due to his need have done many activities that not only harm the environment but themselves too. Many plant and animal species have become extinct due to human activities.
  • Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel, industrial waste, different type of pollution and many more.
  • All these things damaging the climate and the ecosystem in a very bad way. Many species of animals and birds are on a verge of extinction due to hunting.
  • The ocean level is continuously rising, glaciers are melting, carban dioxide in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes.
  • It is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct in near future and there will be a huge loss to the environment too.
  • If we don’t do anything then a day in future will come when humans will also become extinct from the earth. But instead of neglecting towards these issues we should start acting on them then we can save the earth and our future.

Conclusion :

Though humans activities has caused great damage to our climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to restore what we have done until now which damage the environment drastically. As we discussed besides the natural forces, human activities have also contributed majorly to this change. Therefore, it is extremely important to take the climate change issue seriously and control activities that are contributing towards this problem.

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Disaster Management & Cultural Diversity in India

Introduction :

Indian culture is diverse and consist of various customs, ideas and social beliefs. India has different cultures and communities that differ in their food habits, cloths, languages, and traditions. It is the oldest and famous among the other cultures of the world. Indian literature is also a combination of various communities, traditions, customs, and religions. The diversity of Indian culture is well known worldwide. Cultural diversity is also seen in Indian Philosophy, art, music, and even Literature.

  • India is a global hub of multi-cultural and multi-traditional festivals like Dussehra, Holi, Diwali, Christmas, Ramazan, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ganesh Chaturthi etc.
  • Each Indian festival tells its own cultural and national tale and is celebrated with different customs & traditions.
  • In India three National festivals are also celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm, these are the Republic Day, Independence Day, and Gandhi Jayanti.
  • In India, God lives in the heart of every person. Indians hold different prayers, beliefs, and values. In the Hindu tradition, everyone worships and respects Cows, Neem tree, Banyan tree, and Peepal tree.
  • In India rivers are also worshiped and have great religious significance and sentiments. Rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna Godavari, Bramhaputra, Narmada, and Tapti occasionally worshiped in India.
  • The Joint family system is the prevailing system in India. In most cases, the family members consist of parents, children, children’s spouses, and offspring.
  • All of these family members live together under a single roof and the eldest male member is the head of the family.
  • Arranged marriages are also a part of Indian culture. Most Indians have their marriages planned by their parents. In almost all marriages in India, the bride’s family gives dowry to bridegroom.
  • Weddings are certainly festive occasions in Indian culture. There is involvement of decorations, clothing, music, dance, rituals in Indian weddings.
  • India is a home of many sacred and religious places like the Amarnath temple, Badrinath, Haridwar, Vaishno Devi and Varanasi, which are located in the northern part of the country. However, in the southern region, Rameshwaram temple and Sabrimala temple have great significance.

Conclusion :

India celebrates a huge number of festivals. These festivals are very diverse because of multi-religious and multi-cultural societies in India. Indians greatly value festive occasions and the whole country joins in the celebrations irrespective of the differences. Thus, we can say that India is filled with traditions and modern culture. People have the freedom to practice any religion they want. This is why Indian culture is widespread across the world.

Disaster Management & Save Energy – Making the world Bright

Introduction :

Energy conservation refers to the efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy. The energy on Earth is not in unlimited supply. Energy can take plenty of time to regenerate. This certainly makes it essential to conserve energy. Energy conservation is achievable either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service usage. Energy conservation plays an important role in saving non-renewable energy resources. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources take many centuries to regenerate. Moreover, humans consume energy at a faster rate than it can be produced.

  • Therefore, energy conservation would lead to the preservation of these precious non-renewable sources of energy. Energy conservation will reduce the expenses related to fossil fuels.
  • Fossil fuels are very expensive. Therefore, consumers are required to pay higher prices for goods and services.
  • Energy conservation would certainly reduce the amount of fossil fuel being mined. This would reduce the costs of consumers.
  • Energy conservation would also strengthen the economy as consumers will have more disposable income to spend on goods and services.
  • Energy conservation is good for scientific research. This is because energy conservation gives researchers plenty of time to conduct researches.
  • These researchers will have more time to come up with various energy solutions and alternatives. Humans must ensure to have fossil fuels as long as possible.
  • This would give enough time to finding practical solutions. Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection.
  • Another important reason for energy conservation is environmental protection. This is because various energy sources are significantly harmful to the environment. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels considerably pollutes the atmosphere.
  • Moreover, nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste. Hence, energy conservation will lead to environmental protection.
  • Energy conservation would also result in the good health of humans. The pollution released due to energy sources is harmful to the human body.
  • The air pollution due to fossil fuels can cause various respiratory problems. Another important way of energy conservation is by using energy-efficient products.
  • Energy-efficient products are those that use lesser energy than their normal counterparts. One prominent example can be using an energy-efficient LED bulb rather than a normal light bulb.
  • The sun and the winds are always part of our life. And they are abundantly available in many countries. Also, such energy is clean energy which does not emit carbon dioxide, the main culprit in global warming.

Conclusion :

Today there are many energy- efficient alternatives for all kinds of appliances. So we have the power to make better choices for reducing our consumption of energy. Mahatma Gandhi absolutely right said, “the earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed”. Energy conservation is considered as a quick and economical way to solve the problem of power shortage.

Disaster Management & Vs Water Crisis in India 

Introduction :

India has many social problems and frequent water crisis in many States is one of them. Food and drinking water are quite essential for comfortable living. India suffers from water shortage for cultivation and drinking despite the fact that many big rivers, flow through some parts of India. In the south there are the Krishna, Godavari, Cauvery, Perilya. In the north there are Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi and other rivers. Much of the water goes to the sea unused. When summer is quite severe a large reservoir of water shrinks to a pool.

  • Both human beings and animals suffer for want of water. If it rains it rains and rains and there is a flood. Houses built of thatch are submerged in the water.
  • The cultivated crops under deep water rot and perish. When there is inadequate yield of crops there is famine. Rice, wheat, and sugar cane are scarce.
  • In fact there is scarcity of every type of grain. There are two extremes in India. The nation goes without water or there is heavy rain resulting in flood.
  • Nearly 40 per cent of water demand in urban India is met by ground water. So ground water tables in most cities are falling at alarming rate of 2-3 metres per year.
  • India is one of the major food growers in the world. That produces tons of quantity of food to feed its population and export the surplus that is left.
  • In addition, producing this much food requires a lot of water too. The traditional method of irrigation wastes a lot of water due to evaporation, water conveyance, drainage, percolation, and the overuse of groundwater.
  • Besides, most of the areas in India use traditional irrigation techniques that stress the availability of water. Due to rapid construction that uses concrete and marbles do not let the rainwater to get absorbed in the soil.
  • But, if we install some mechanism in our houses that can hold the rainwater then we can recharge the groundwater.
  • But, the solution to this problem lies in the extensive irrigation techniques such as micro-irrigation in which we provide water to plants and crops using a sprinkler or drip irrigation.

Conclusion :

Delhi loses at least 30 per cent of its water due to leakages in its 83.0 km long pipeline network. Mumbai loses about 20 per cent of its water due to leakage. Instead of increasing the supply of water to meet demand, a more viable method of addressing the water crisis is to manage consumption. There are plenty of technologies there that allow to recycle rainwater that will help in saving water.

Disaster Management & Water Conservation 

Introduction : 

We are living in this dynamic world where everything is changing at a very fast rate. The human needs are not exception to it. As the population of this world is increasing the needs and necessities of the basic things are also increasing. Water is one of the basic necessities of life. We require plenty of water every day for drinking, cooking and washing. The chief sources of potable water are the surface and ground water.

  • Clean water is affecting the lives of people in India and other countries of the world in many ways, and the lack of clean water is becoming a major problem.
  • Water conservation is the only way to save water in the future to solve the problem of water scarcity.
  • Three-fourths of the Earth  is surrounded by water, whereas very few percent of water is available for human use Since 97% of the entire water in the ocean is salt water, which is not suitable for human use.
  • Only 3% of the entire water on the earth is worth use which is 70% in the form of ice layer and glacier and 1% drinking water Is available in the form of water.

Conclusion :

If gradually all of us will start saving water saving excess water will be possible. To save ourselves from the water wastage, we must be aware of the news of the people who are struggling daily for each drop of water for their living. To spread awareness, we should promote programs related to water conservation. We should encourage family members, children, friends, neighbors and co-workers to adopt this process to get positive results.

Disaster Management & PLASTIC POLLUTION 

Introduction :

Plastic pollution has become a major threat to our environment in today’s times and it is likely to make things worse in future.  Plastic pollution is damaging our environment rapidly. Waste plastic material is hard to dispose and contributes to major pollution on earth. This has become a cause of global concern. The increasing use of plastic bags, utensils and furniture, the amount of plastic waste has also gone up and so has the plastic pollution.

  • Plastic waste is entering the water bodies such as rivers, seas and even oceans and is polluting our water drastically. This water is then supplied at our places.
  • No matter how much we filter this water it can never get back to its pure form. The government of India has also banned the use of plastic bags in many states however the same has never been implemented properly.
  • Plastic bags cause health problems in human beings as well as animals. Waste food and vegetable and fruit peels are usually thrown away in plastic bags.
  • Animals often gulp pieces of plastic while having food. This causes various diseases in them. The government has put a ban on the use of plastic bags in many states of India but people continue to use these as these are still available in the market.
  • Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avoid it as soon as possible.
  • Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.
  • We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of using plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it.

Conclusion :

We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution these days. The government must also take strict measures to ensure these are not used. It is of utmost importance to spread awareness about the harmful effects of plastic waste on our environment.  This can be done by way of television and radio and social media. This should help people understand the seriousness of the issue.

Disaster Management & Global Warming 

Introduction :

Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green-house effect created by green-house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately it would cause end of life on the earth. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, lack of food etc.

  • It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is the cause of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc.
  • Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth. Gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface.
  • The concentrations of greenhouse gases are not larger than oxygen and nitrogen, because neither has more than two atoms per molecule, and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms possess.
  • Flooding of fresh water marshlands, low-lying cities, and islands with marine water is one of the major effects of global warming.
  • The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
  • Due to melting of the ice peaks, there is loss of habitat near the poles. Now the polar bears are considered to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season because of declining ice packs. 
  • Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it. We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas.

Conclusion :

Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide. Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.

Disaster Management & Delhi Pollution 

Introduction :

Pollution is one of the major issues causing concern not only in India but across the world. Delhi, the national capital of the country, is being tagged as one of the most heavily polluted capital cities in the world. It is the world’s worst city in terms of air pollution, with an unhealthy air quality index for the majority of the year. Thus, today, one of the biggest threats to the welfare of the people of Delhi.

  • There has been a huge rise in the vehicular population, in spite of the metro railways, aggravating traffic congestion and increasing air and noise pollution. 
  • There has also been a number of diesel vehicles plying on the roads, which are largely responsible for the air pollution.
  • Citizens need to start the public transport more and more to reduce the pollution level in the city. Govt. has ensured to increase the no. of buses and auto-rickshaws in the capital as well.
  • Stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana in northwest India has been cited as a major cause of air pollution in Delhi.
  • Particulate matter (PM) is basically a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets like acids, chemicals, gas, water, metals, soil dust particles, etc. the measurement of which gives an idea of the pollution of a city.
  • There are mobile enforcement teams deployed at various locations for monitoring polluting vehicles.
  • Citizens need to avoid all kinds of contact near construction sites. These sites release gases which makes the air very harmful for eyes and for the respiratory system.
  • The above measures are known by many of us yet the level of national capital remains at 11th in the ranking of WHO for the most polluted cities.
  • The practicing of the above measures is the need for hour and to live happier days with our loved one is we all demand.

Conclusion :

I whole heartedly appeal to every citizen to take steps to make pollution free capital, a pollution free India. With a view to reducing vehicular pollution, there has been a ban imposed on the plying of more than 15 years old commercial or transport vehicles. Steps are taken to transform garbage into compost by developing new sanitary land-fill sites. It’s not that the Government is not taking steps to control pollution in Delhi, But we need proper and efficient implementation of plans and programmes and policies launched by the Government to make it successful.

Disaster Management & Earthquake Safety 

Introduction :

Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. The rapid release of energy creates seismic waves that travel through the earth. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. Earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline. Earthquakes can’t be avoided though, they can be forecasted and a warning could be issued.

  • Earthquakes are caused mostly by natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake.
  • Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
  • The severity of the Earthquake depends upon the magnitude and distance from the epicenter. Also, the local geographical conditions play a role in determining the severity.
  • Ground rupture refers to the visible breaking of the Earth’s surface. Another significant effect of Earthquake is landslides. Landslides occur due to slope instability.
  • This slope instability happens because of Earthquake. Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction. This happens when water-saturated granular material loses its strength.
  • Therefore, it transforms from solid to a liquid. Consequently, rigid structures sink into the liquefied deposits. Earthquakes can result in fires.
  • This happens because Earthquake damages the electric power and gas lines. Above all, it becomes extremely difficult to stop a fire once it begins.
  • There are a number of ways by which we can protect us from earthquake. Common measures include getting under a sturdy desk or table, staying away from glass or anything that could fall at the time of earthquake.

Conclusion :

 If we are outdoors then should move to an open area away from building and streetlights and stay there until the shaking stops.  If we are trapped inside a building then we should not move around. We should cover our mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. We should shout only as a last resort as it can cause to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. We should heed warnings and instructions from official organizations and let our family and friends know that all is well.

Disaster Management & Noise Pollution 

Introduction :

Noise pollution is a form of pollution which has become a threat for the society nowadays. Noise pollution is when the level of noise increases more than the normal level. The world health organization says that any sound less than 70 decibel is not hazardous to the living organisms. The excessive amount of noise out in the environment makes it unsafe to live in. The unpleasant sounds and noise can cause an imbalance in nature.

  • As the world is turning to technology for their comfort, at the same time, harming us. The industries no matter how big or small contribution to noise pollution. 
  • Similarly, the increasing use of automobiles is a major cause of noise pollution. Not only automobiles but other transport vehicles like airplanes, buses, bikes, trucks and more also are a part of it.
  • Social events like marriages, parties, and religious functions in places like clubs, pubs, temples, halls etc. create a lot of nuisance in the residential areas.
  • In addition, the construction activities like mining, the building of flyovers, bridges and more also produce great noise. Noise pollution causes a number of hearing problems.
  • High levels of noise damage the Eardrums and sometimes even cause loss of hearing. Noise pollution primarily affects a person’s hearing, leading to hearing impairment to even permanent loss of hearing.
  • It causes an increase in blood pressure, hypertension, fatigue, and cardiovascular diseases. Noise pollution also disturbs a person’s state of mind causing disturbed sleep patterns, stress, aggressive behavior, decreased concentration, and poor quality of life.
  • Noise disturbance is extremely dangerous to elderly people and pregnant women. Not only humans but noise pollution also impacts wildlife too.
  • Pets become aggressive or afraid when they hear a loud noise. Noise pollution can impact their listening skills and cause changes in their behavior, starting with a pet at home.

Conclusion :

It leads to changes in their hearing due to which their communication also becomes affected. They are unable to hear properly during migration as they require sound to find their way. Noise pollution also affects crop production. We must make people aware of the impact of noise pollution and also encourage them to adopt ways that do not contribute to noise pollution. If everyone starts doing the same on an individual level, we will surely be able to reduce noise pollution.

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Essays

Essay on Domestic Tourism Opportunities in India | Essay on Domestic Tourism in India

Essay on Domestic Tourism Opportunities in India | Essay on Domestic Tourism in India

Introduction :

“Live life with no excuses, travel with no regrets.” This statement shows that travelling is an integral part of our life. Tourism is a vital socio-economic activity and is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism in India has good potential for developing as a high profit making industry. India is a well known tourist destination and has been successful in attracting domestic and international tourists. In India, temple towns, monuments and sea beaches are traditionally sought as tourist attractions.

  • The hill stations, historical sites, architecture and monuments and places of religious interests make India a preferred destination for the tourists from all over the world.
  • The root of tourism in India can be traced to pilgrimage. In the early stages, pilgrimage-based tourism
  • was only of domestic nature but during recent years, a large number of foreign tourists have also started visiting places of pilgrimage.
  • Domestic tourism is estimated to be much higher than international tourism and has also been rising rapidly. Better connectivity of transport and
  • communication, improved standard of living has led to the increase in the domestic as well as international tourists in India.
  • The Government of India is taking keen interest in promoting different forms of tourism such as rural tourism, eco tourism, spiritual tourism and ‘adventure tourism’ etc.
  • Medical tourism has formed an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. Most of the foreigners from the Western countries such as US, UK, Canada, and neighbouring countries are turning towards India for the affordable world class health care services.

Conclusion :

The tourism industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. It has the potential to generate mass employment and raise the income levels thereby contribute significantly to the economic development of the country. The government has made the facility of e-Tourist Visa and ‘Incredible India’ campaign is a good initiative in this regard. More and more efficient facilities for tourist in terms of accommodation, recreation, transport, shopping and development of new tourist spots is the need of the hour to develop India as a global tourist hub.

Essay on importance of travelling in education 250 words :

Introduction :

“The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page.” is a famous quotation. Travelling can teach us more than any university or college. When we travel we learn about the culture of the country we visit. Travelling is a time when people relax. Most people, after a pleasant travel, re­turn home with a fresh outlook, new zeal and a better deter­mination. Travelling has also a great informative value.

  • It widens our knowledge of geography, different cultures and people. We come to know about mode of living of a particular community, social life, agriculture, worship, beliefs, art forms, etc.
  • Travelling has a special importance to students too . Many of the things we learn in textbooks can be practically understood when we visit various places.
  • Another great benefit of traveling is a life experience. Traveling gets a person out of their comfort zone, away from all their ordinary pleasures and comforts.

This forces us to be adventurous, to live life to the fullest and use the time they have to discover new things, and meet new people. It has the potential to improve our health. A visit to places like Nainital, Darjeeling, Panchmari, Ooty, etc. can have tremendous effect on our physical and mental health.  It widens our mental horizon and improves our health Travelling also boosts our national economy and the development of tourism industry. traveling is the perfect entertainment for a person of any age.

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Essay on domestic tourism opportunities and challenges

Introduction :

Tourism is one of the most important socio-economic activities and is the world’s largest and fastest growing industry. Tourism in India has immense potential of developing into a high profit making industry. India is a popular tourist destination and has been successful in attracting domestic and international tourists. पर्यटन एक महत्वपूर्ण सामाजिक-आर्थिक गतिविधि है और यह दुनिया का सबसे बड़ा और सबसे तेजी से बढ़ता उद्योग है। भारत में पर्यटन में उच्च लाभ कमाने वाले उद्योग के रूप में विकसित होने की अपार संभावनाएं हैं। भारत एक लोकप्रिय पर्यटन स्थल है और घरेलू और अंतरराष्ट्रीय पर्यटकों को आकर्षित करने में सफल रहा है।

In India, temple towns, historical monuments and sea beaches were traditionally sought out as tourist attractions. The hill stations, historical sites, architecture and monuments, beaches and places of religious interests make India a preferred destination for the tourists from all over the world. भारत में मंदिरों, ऐतिहासिक स्मारकों और समुद्री तटों को पारंपरिक रूप से पर्यटकों के आकर्षण के रूप में देखा जाता था। हिल स्टेशन, ऐतिहासिक स्थल, वास्तुकला और स्मारक, समुद्र तट और धार्मिक स्थल भारत को दुनिया भर के पर्यटकों के लिए एक पसंदीदा स्थान बनाते हैं।

  • The root of tourism in India can be traced to pilgrimage. In the early stages, pilgrimage-based tourism was only of domestic nature but during recent years, a large number of foreign tourists have also started visiting places of pilgrimage. The World Travel and Tourism Council have identified India as one of the foremost growth centres in the world in the coming decade. भारत में पर्यटन की जड़ तीर्थयात्रा में पाई जा सकती है। प्रारंभिक दौर में तीर्थ-आधारित पर्यटन केवल घरेलू प्रकृति का था लेकिन हाल के वर्षों में बड़ी संख्या में विदेशी पर्यटकों ने भी तीर्थ स्थलों का दौरा करना शुरू कर दिया है। विश्व यात्रा और पर्यटन परिषद ने आने वाले दशक में भारत को दुनिया के अग्रणी विकास केंद्रों में से एक के रूप में पहचाना है।
  • Domestic tourism is estimated to be much higher than international tourism and has also been rising rapidly. Better connectivity of transport and communication, improved standard of living and value for money to the foreign tourists has led to the increase in the domestic as well as international tourists. घरेलू पर्यटन अंतरराष्ट्रीय पर्यटन की तुलना में काफी अधिक होने का अनुमान है और यह तेजी से बढ़ भी रहा है। परिवहन और संचार की बेहतर कनेक्टिविटी, बेहतर जीवन स्तर और विदेशी पर्यटकों के कारण घरेलू और अंतरराष्ट्रीय पर्यटकों में वृद्धि हुई है।
  • The Government of India is taking keen interest in promoting different forms of tourism such as, ‘rural tourism’, ‘eco tourism’, ‘spiritual tourism’, ‘spa tourism’, and ‘adventure tourism’ etc. Medical tourism has formed an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. भारत सरकार पर्यटन के विभिन्न रूपों जैसे ‘ग्रामीण पर्यटन’, ‘पारिस्थितिकी पर्यटन’, ‘आध्यात्मिक पर्यटन’, ‘स्पा पर्यटन’ और ‘साहसिक पर्यटन’ आदि को बढ़ावा देने में गहरी दिलचस्पी ले रही है। चिकित्सा पर्यटन ने स्वास्थ्य सेवा क्षेत्र के लिए एक महत्वपूर्ण पर्यटन का गठन किया है।
  • Most of the foreigners from the Western countries such as US, UK, Canada, and neighbouring countries are turning towards India for the affordable world class health care services and treatment. पश्चिमी देशों जैसे यूएस, यूके, कनाडा और पड़ोसी देशों के अधिकांश विदेशी सस्ती विश्व स्तरीय स्वास्थ्य सेवाओं और उपचार के लिए भारत की ओर रुख कर रहे हैं।
  • The ‘Incredible India’ campaign by the Government of India is instrumental in promoting India as a holistic tourist destination in the domestic and international markets. There are specialised international media campaigns under’ ‘Incredible India’. Celebrities have been roped in to make ‘Incredible India’ a success even in foreign lands. भारत सरकार का ‘इनक्रेडिबल भारत’ अभियान घरेलू और अंतरराष्ट्रीय बाजारों में भारत को एक समग्र पर्यटन स्थल के रूप में बढ़ावा देने में सहायक है। ‘अतुल्य भारत’ के तहत विशेष अंतरराष्ट्रीय मीडिया अभियान हैं। ‘इनक्रेडिबल भारत’ को विदेशों में भी सफल बनाने के लिए मशहूर हस्तियों को शामिल किया गया है।
  • Besides, the ministry has launched ‘Clean India’ campaign under which cleanliness has become an indispensible norm at all the tourist destinations. Regular studies are being undertaken to analyse the market, identify the key factors, income figures, holiday habits and psyche of people in order to identify the key drivers in the tourism industry. इसके अलावा, मंत्रालय ने ‘स्वच्छ भारत’ अभियान शुरू किया है जिसके तहत सभी पर्यटन स्थलों पर स्वच्छता एक अनिवार्य मानदंड बन गया है। पर्यटन उद्योग में प्रमुख चालकों की पहचान करने के लिए बाजार का विश्लेषण करने, प्रमुख कारकों, आय के आंकड़ों, छुट्टियों की आदतों और लोगों के मानस की पहचान करने के लिए नियमित अध्ययन किए जा रहे हैं।
  • The government has made the facility of e-Tourist Visa available to the citizens of 150 countries arriving at 16 designated International airports in India. The visa has a validity of 60 days and the procedures are much easier. सरकार ने भारत में 16 नामित अंतरराष्ट्रीय हवाई अड्डों पर पहुंचने वाले 150 देशों के नागरिकों के लिए ई-पर्यटक वीजा की सुविधा उपलब्ध कराई है। वीजा की वैधता 60 दिनों की होती है और प्रक्रियाएं बहुत आसान होती हैं।
  • The concept of heritage hotels has gained popularity in India as the tourists get the experience of the exotic life style. Many historical havelis, castles, and forts built during the ancient times have been converted into heritage hotels. As expected, they have turned out to be major tourist attractions. हेरिटेज होटलों की अवधारणा ने भारत में लोकप्रियता हासिल की है क्योंकि पर्यटकों को विदेशी जीवन शैली का अनुभव मिलता है। प्राचीन काल में बनी कई ऐतिहासिक हवेलियों, महलों और किलों को हेरिटेज होटलों में तब्दील कर दिया गया है। जैसा कि अपेक्षित था, वे प्रमुख पर्यटक आकर्षण बन गए हैं।
  • The tourism industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. It has the potential to generate mass employment and raise the income levels thereby contribute significantly to the economic development of the country. पर्यटन उद्योग देश के सकल घरेलू उत्पाद में प्रमुख योगदानकर्ताओं में से एक बन गया है। इसमें बड़े पैमाने पर रोजगार पैदा करने और आय के स्तर को बढ़ाने की क्षमता है जिससे देश के आर्थिक विकास में महत्वपूर्ण योगदान होता है।
  • Tourism has played an important role in the revival of India’s art and culture. The foreigners are fascinated by the rich culture and heritage of India. Seeing the keen interest of tourists in the rich culture and heritage of India, the government is taking steps to preserve it.  पर्यटन ने भारत की कला और संस्कृति के पुनरुद्धार में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई है। विदेशी भारत की समृद्ध संस्कृति और विरासत से मोहित हैं। भारत की समृद्ध संस्कृति और विरासत में पर्यटकों की गहरी दिलचस्पी को देखते हुए सरकार इसे संरक्षित करने के लिए कदम उठा रही है।

Conclusion :

Tourism is the largest service industry in our country and has the potential to stimulate economic growth of the country. To achieve its target, it is necessary to develop the tourism infrastructure, viz. the proper maintenance of the tourist destinations, railway stations, airports and rest houses are very necessary. पर्यटन हमारे देश का सबसे बड़ा सेवा उद्योग है और इसमें देश के आर्थिक विकास को प्रोत्साहित करने की क्षमता है। अपने लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए, पर्यटन के बुनियादी ढांचे को विकसित करना आवश्यक है, अर्थात पर्यटन स्थलों, रेलवे स्टेशनों, हवाई अड्डों और विश्राम गृहों का उचित रखरखाव बहुत आवश्यक है।

Apart from that More and more efficient facilities for tourist in terms of accommodation, recreation, transport, shopping and development of new tourist spots is the need of the hour. इसके अलावा पर्यटकों के लिए आवास, मनोरंजन, परिवहन, खरीदारी और नए पर्यटन स्थलों के विकास के मामले में अधिक से अधिक कुशल सुविधाएं समय की मांग है।

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